Feuille de route pour la paix et la reconciliation en Republique Centrafricaine

Country/entity
Central African Republic
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Feuille de route pour la paix et la reconciliation en Republique Centrafricaine
Date
17/07/2017
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/intrastate conflict(s) (Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - )
The Central African Republic conflict is one of a set of regionally connected conflicts addressed by the African Great Lakes process. After the country gained independence from France in 1960 it has been ruled by a sequence of autocratic leaders that principally gained power through coups. Since the mid-1990s several waves of internal conflict took place in the Central African Republic, primarily along tribal, and later-on increasingly sectarian, lines. In 1996 and 1997, French troops and soldiers from neighbouring countries intervened to end a mutiny in the capital, Bangui, by factions of the army. The fighting was predominantly along tribal lines, with southern tribes in revolt against the ‘northern’ government. A UN mission was installed in 1998 to secure the truce.
After General Bozizé took control of the country after several coup attempts in 2003, a ‘bush war’ began led by armed opposition forces. From late 2006 onward, government troops with French military support severely weakened the rebels. Following this, a number of agreements were signed during 2007-2008, but not all factions have accepted them. In 2011, Bozizé was re-elected in supposedly fraudulent elections, which resulted in a new wave of uprisings. Séléka, an alliance of northern rebel groups, took over parts of the country and forced Bozizé to agree to a power-sharing deal. However, after this agreement broke down, Séléka took control of Bangui and Bozizé had to flee the country in 2013. Leader of Séléka, Michel Djotodia, took office and officially disbanded Séléka. However, continual violence between ex-Séléka groups and opposing militias, collectively known as ‘anti-balaka’, persisted and Djotodia was forced to resign less than a year later. Catherine Samba-Panza was installed as interim president until Faustin Archange Touadéra was elected in January 2016. In February 2019 an agreement was signed between the government and fourteen armed groups, including ex-Seleka groups, committed to disarmament. However, violence between ex-Seleka groups and anti-balaka continues.
Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - ) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Mixed)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
154: CAR: African Initiative (and related) Process
A process supported by the AU as the African Initiative, but later supplemented by Sudan-Russia mediated agreements.
Parties
Signatory parties

Heads of Delegation of the African Initiative

(In alphabetical order of countries)

Mr. George Rebelo PINTO CHICO Minister of Foreign Relations Republic of Angola

His Excellency Ahmat MAHAMAT.BACHIR  Minister of Public Security Republic of Chad

His Excellency Mr. Charles Armel DOUBANE Minister of Foreign Affairs, African Integration of the Central African Republic

His Excellency Jean-Claude IKOSSO Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Republic of Congo

His Excellency Mr Pacome MOUBELET BOUBEYA Minister of State, Minister of Foreign Affairs, of Francophony and regional integration

His Excellency Smail CHERGUI Commissioner for Peace and Security of the African Union
His Excellency Mr. Zachary MUBURI-MUITA Executive Secretary ClRGL Secretary General 

Not signed but listed in the agreement:
Pages 8-9, Section 4.2:
4.2 Stakeholders in this dialogue process are:

• The Government of the Central African Republic;

• Armed Groups in the DORR process. 
Third parties
Description
In this agreement, the countries of the African initiative and the CAR government set out main principles for peace efforts and the tasks that the CAR government should implement. They also set up an international Facilitation panel to mediate and support in negotiations among the CAR stakeholders

Agreement document
CF_170717_Roadmap_for_peace_and_reconciliation_in_the_Central_African_Republic_tr.pdf []

Agreement document (original language)
CF_170717_Feuille_de_route_pour_la_paix_et_la_reconciliation_en_Republique_Centrafricaine.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
Nature of state (general)
Page 7, Section 3.1b:

3. Guiding principles

3.1.  In order to foster a necessary climate for the successful implementation of the dialogue process, the Central African crisis stakeholders commit themselves to
complying with the following guiding principles:

a) The respect of the Constitution of the Central African Republic of March 30, 2016, as well as the constitutional order and the legitimacy of the country's current democratic institutions;

(b) Commitment to promoting constructive dialogue, in good faith and in the spirit of compromise, putting national interest above all other aspects, and respecting the national unity and territorial integrity of the CAR; 

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
General references
Page 7, Section 3.1:
3. Guiding principles

3.1.  In order to foster a necessary climate for the successful implementation of the dialogue process, the Central African crisis stakeholders commit themselves to
complying with the following guiding principles:

a) The respect of the Constitution of the Central African Republic of March 30, 2016, as well as the constitutional order and the legitimacy of the country's current democratic institutions;
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
Page 6, Section 2.2c:
2.2. The specific results expected as part of the peace efforts contained in the Roadmap for Peace and National Reconciliation in the Central African Republic, include the following elements:
[...]
(c) the development of political and security conditions conducive to the strengthening of State authority and the deployment of administrative structures throughout the national territory;

Page 13, Section 7.1 A
7. Agenda

7.1.  The topics of discussion will revolve around, but not be limited to, the following themes:


A) Political and socio-economic issues

1- Draw relevant conclusions from the Bangui Forum and concrete measures for their implementation, including those on the issues of inclusion, political participation, and
fair representation of the different regions and communities in the executive body. However, it should be noted that there are prefectures which, today, continue to enjoy a period of respite which is favorable to development. It is essential that the government invest in these regions to reward those who have preserved peace and social harmony.  This use of Government resources will further encourage these people to strive for peace. Thus, in addition to making the city of Bambari a model example for reinstating the State's authority, the Government of the Central African Republic proposes to its partners strong support for development efforts in prefectures.

2 - Reforms in administrative decentralization to allow for fair and balanced development of regions;

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 7, Section 3.1e:

3. Guiding principles
3.1.  In order to foster a necessary climate for the successful implementation of the dialogue process, the Central African crisis stakeholders commit themselves to
complying with the following guiding principles:
[...]
(e) Ensuring the presumption of innocence of any individual who is suspected of committing serious crimes until he has been found guilty by a court of competent jurisdiction in the matter.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
Other
Page 8, Section 3.1f:

3. Guiding principles
3.1.  In order to foster a necessary climate for the successful implementation of the dialogue process, the Central African crisis stakeholders commit themselves to
complying with the following guiding principles:
[...]
f) Commitment of the State to ensuring the protection of any individual duly mandated by one of the parties to participate in the peace process in the various structures set up.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
Media logistics
Page 12, Section 6.1
6. Coordination and information sharing

6.1 The Facilitation Panel will inform the National Assembly, Political Parties, DDRR / RSS / RN Coordination, Religious Platforms, the Civil Society, and representatives of the international community, so as to ensure all parties have sufficient information.  Arrangements will be made to establish communication channels between a group of international NGOs and the Central African media.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Socio-economic development
Page 6, Section 2.2a:
2.2. The specific results expected as part of the peace efforts contained in the Roadmap for Peace and National Reconciliation in the Central African Republic, include the following elements:
[...]
(a) Agreement on practical arrangements for the implementation of the relevant conclusions of the 2015 Bangui Forum, both in terms of the recognition and equal treatment of all the components of the Central African Nation, and with regard to the fair socio-economic development of the country in order to reduce disparities between the different regions; 

Page 13, Section 7.1 A
7. Agenda

7.1.  The topics of discussion will revolve around, but not be limited to, the following themes:


A) Political and socio-economic issues

1- Draw relevant conclusions from the Bangui Forum and concrete measures for their implementation, including those on the issues of inclusion, political participation, and
fair representation of the different regions and communities in the executive body. However, it should be noted that there are prefectures which, today, continue to enjoy a period of respite which is favorable to development. It is essential that the government invest in these regions to reward those who have preserved peace and social harmony.  This use of Government resources will further encourage these people to strive for peace. Thus, in addition to making the city of Bambari a model example for reinstating the State's authority, the Government of the Central African Republic proposes to its partners strong support for development efforts in prefectures.

2 - Reforms in administrative decentralization to allow for fair and balanced development of regions;
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
Page 16, Section 9:
9. Logistics and financial resources


9.1 The dialogue process will require significant logistical, human and financial resources.  The GIS-RCA, the partner countries and all other partners will be asked to provide a good part of these resources.  The Government of the CAR’s contribution will be important to the African collective effort.


9.2 International partners are called upon to give their multifaceted support to the African Initiative.  The logistical support of MINUSCA will be requested to facilitate the deployment and security of the facilitators as well as representatives of the Parties throughout the national territory.

9.3 A special fund will be created to receive the various contributions.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
DDR programmes
Page 6, Section 2.2b:
2.2. The specific results expected as part of the peace efforts contained in the Roadmap for Peace and National Reconciliation in the Central African Republic, include the following elements:
[...]
(b) The implementation of the DORR process within the framework of the work of the DDRR / RN / RSS, the Technical Committees, and the  Advisory and Monitoring Committee in which the representatives of the 14 armed groups sit. These actions, which will be based on the principles of fraternity, justice, inclusion, and national cohesion, will revolve around the voluntary demobilization and integration of eligible members of the armed groups in the socio-economical and security elements of the State and the Central African society;
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
Page 6, Section 2.2e:
2.2. The specific results expected as part of the peace efforts contained in the Roadmap for Peace and National Reconciliation in the Central African Republic, include the following elements:
[...]
e) the implementation of transitional justice mechanisms to strengthen the process of national reconciliation, taking into account the victims and valuing the reinvigoration of living together in the local community.

Page 8, Section 3.1g:

3. Guiding principles
3.1.  In order to foster a necessary climate for the successful implementation of the dialogue process, the Central African crisis stakeholders commit themselves to
complying with the following guiding principles:
[...]
(g) Recognition that impunity has never been a lasting solution to the recurrent crises in the CAR, and the commitment to acknowledging the serious violations of human rights and international humanitarian law that have taken place. In this regard, the commitment to considering relevant options, including those derived from the conceptual complex of transitional justice;
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
Mr. George Rebelo PINTO CHICO Minister of Foreign Relations Republic of Angola
His Excellency Ahmat MAHAMAT.BACHIR  Minister of Public Security Republic of Chad
His Excellency Jean-Claude IKOSSO Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Republic of Congo
His Excellency Smail CHERGUI Commissioner for Peace and Security of the African Union
His Excellency Mr. Zachary MUBURI-MUITA Executive Secretary ClRGL Secretary General 
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 6, Section 2.2d:
2.2. The specific results expected as part of the peace efforts contained in the Roadmap for Peace and National Reconciliation in the Central African Republic, include the following elements:
[...]
(d) the establishment of a mechanism for the implementation of the agreement and the monitoring of field activities, in cooperation with the established state structures and the necessary technical and logistical support of the African and international community;

Pages 9-11, sections 4.4 to 5.4:
4.4 Moreover, the Government is aware that the success of the peace efforts will be all the more guaranteed if parties other than the armed groups are consulted. Thus, the African Initiative will take into account the relevant proposals of the parliamentary initiative for peace, will solicit the contributions of political actors, consult the civil society of the Central African Republic, and will listen to the victims.


4.5 In terms of direct exchanges, the African initiative will establish, in agreement with the Government, a quota for its representatives as well as those of the armed groups, in consultation with the facilitators and on the basis of transparent criteria.


5. Facilitation and Coordination


5.1.  In line with the structure of the Roadmap for Peace and National Reconciliation in the Central African Republic, and with regard to the leadership of the Government in the implementation of this dialogue process, it will be facilitated and coordinated as follows:

A. Facilitation Panel


5.2 The Facilitation Panel will be provided by the International Support Group for

Central African Republic (GIS-CAR), composed of AU, ECCAS, ICGLR, Angola, Congo, Gabon, and Chad.  This Panel will act collectively under the direction of the dedicated AU representative.  The mission of the Panel is to:


•    Convene meetings with stakeholders, moderate discussions, and chair plenary meetings between the Parties;

•    Aid the quest for consensus and compromise between the Central African Parties and be permanently at their disposal to help overcome obstacles where appropriate: 
• To observe and ensure respect for the guiding principles contained in the Roadmap for Peace and National Reconciliation in the Central African Republic, as well as to ensure the commitment and behavior of the Parties;

• To communicate the progress of the dialogue process, through the appropriate channels, to the institutions and civil society of the Central African Republic, the partners of the International Community, and the media.

5.3 The members of the Facilitation Panel will coordinate their actions with the National Coordination Focal Point.


B. Technical Committee

5.4 The Technical Committee provides the Facilitation Secretariat, composed of the members of the Facilitation Panel, with the support of MINUSCA and any other partners of the CAR.  Under the authority of the Facilitators Panel, the Technical Committee's mission is to:


•    Monitor the work of the panel and any ad hoc committees that may be set up;
•    Ensure the preparation and availability of documentation for the panel and the Parties;
•    To report on the panel’s plenary meetings with the Parties;
•    Contribute as much as necessary to the drafting of the overall dialogue Agreement;
•    Perform other support tasks assigned by the Facilitation Panel.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh