Conflict prevention agreement between Farmers from Vakaga in the Central African Republic and herders from South Darfur

Country/entity
Central African Republic
Sudan
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Conflict prevention agreement between Farmers from Vakaga in the Central African Republic and herders from South Darfur
Date
11/06/2019
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/local conflict (Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - )
The Central African Republic conflict is one of a set of regionally connected conflicts addressed by the African Great Lakes process. After the country gained independence from France in 1960 it has been ruled by a sequence of autocratic leaders that principally gained power through coups. Since the mid-1990s several waves of internal conflict took place in the Central African Republic, primarily along tribal, and later-on increasingly sectarian, lines. In 1996 and 1997, French troops and soldiers from neighbouring countries intervened to end a mutiny in the capital, Bangui, by factions of the army. The fighting was predominantly along tribal lines, with southern tribes in revolt against the ‘northern’ government. A UN mission was installed in 1998 to secure the truce.
After General Bozizé took control of the country after several coup attempts in 2003, a ‘bush war’ began led by armed opposition forces. From late 2006 onward, government troops with French military support severely weakened the rebels. Following this, a number of agreements were signed during 2007-2008, but not all factions have accepted them. In 2011, Bozizé was re-elected in supposedly fraudulent elections, which resulted in a new wave of uprisings. Séléka, an alliance of northern rebel groups, took over parts of the country and forced Bozizé to agree to a power-sharing deal. However, after this agreement broke down, Séléka took control of Bangui and Bozizé had to flee the country in 2013. Leader of Séléka, Michel Djotodia, took office and officially disbanded Séléka. However, continual violence between ex-Séléka groups and opposing militias, collectively known as ‘anti-balaka’, persisted and Djotodia was forced to resign less than a year later. Catherine Samba-Panza was installed as interim president until Faustin Archange Touadéra was elected in January 2016. In February 2019 an agreement was signed between the government and fourteen armed groups, including ex-Seleka groups, committed to disarmament. However, violence between ex-Seleka groups and anti-balaka continues.
Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Inter-group
Peace process
160: CAR - Sudan: local cross-border agreements
Parties
Page 5:
For the Central African party:
Bakhit Karama
[second person may have been present and signed, but no name noted in original]

For the Sudanese party:
Almahadi Tidjani Younis Din
Hamit Babikir
Third parties
Page 1, Preamble :
[...]
Gathered in Birao as part of the dialogue initiated by the Henry Dunant Center for Humanitarian Dialogue (HD) to support the stabilization efforts undertaken by the Central African Government, with the support of the international community, throughout the national territory including Vakaga

Page 6:
Witnesses (RCA):
1. Leonard Mbele, Prefect of Vakaga
2. Hamat Moustapha, Sultan Mayor of Birao

Witnesses (Sudan):
1. Mahmour Abudahaba, Consul General of Sudan in Birao
2. Abdoulkarim Younis Din, Mayor of Amdafock in Sudan

Description
The farmers and herders from the Vakaga (CAR) and South Darfur (Sudan), with mediation by HD - Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, agree to form a joint committee which is to assist in peaceful and cooperative resolution of conflicts arising from the use of land for farming and herding/breeding cattle.

Agreement document
CF_SD_190611_Conflict prevention agreement between Farmers from Vakaga in the Central African Republic and herders from South Darfur in Sudan_tr.pdf []

Agreement document (original language)
CF_190611_Conflict prevention agreement between Farmers from Vakaga in the Central African Republic and herders from South Darfur in Sudan.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 3:
Article 5:
In addition, the breeder community commits to:
• Respecting the routes established for the passage of animals;
• Not allowing animals to graze in the fields;
• Paying the costs of any damage caused by animals to the fields according to the local
economy;
• Renouncing armed threats or the use of weapons in the event of an altercation;
• Introducing any new arrivals to the village chiefs.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
Page 2:
Chapter II: Commitments of the Parties
Article 4
The parties jointly commit to:
• Condemning any act of violence committed by one of the members of their community;
• Investing fully alongside all the authorities in the negotiated management of conflicts related to access to natural resources;
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
Land reform and management
Page 3:
Article 5:
In addition, the breeder community commits to:
• Respecting the routes established for the passage of animals;
• Not allowing animals to graze in the fields;
• Paying the costs of any damage caused by animals to the fields according to the local
economy;
• Renouncing armed threats or the use of weapons in the event of an altercation;
• Introducing any new arrivals to the village chiefs.

Article 6:
In addition, the farming community commits to:
• Not putting fields on the transhumance routes;
• Not imposing exorbitant charges in the event of damage to fields.
Property return and restitution
Page 3:
Article 5:
In addition, the breeder community commits to:
• Respecting the routes established for the passage of animals;
• Not allowing animals to graze in the fields;
• Paying the costs of any damage caused by animals to the fields according to the local
economy;
• Renouncing armed threats or the use of weapons in the event of an altercation;
• Introducing any new arrivals to the village chiefs.

Article 6:
In addition, the farming community commits to:
• Not putting fields on the transhumance routes;
• Not imposing exorbitant charges in the event of damage to fields.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
Page 3:
Article 5:
In addition, the breeder community commits to:
• Respecting the routes established for the passage of animals;
• Not allowing animals to graze in the fields;
• Paying the costs of any damage caused by animals to the fields according to the local
economy;
• Renouncing armed threats or the use of weapons in the event of an altercation;
• Introducing any new arrivals to the village chiefs.

Article 6:
In addition, the farming community commits to:
• Not putting fields on the transhumance routes;
• Not imposing exorbitant charges in the event of damage to fields.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
Page 2-3:
Chapter II: Commitments of the Parties
Article 4
The parties jointly commit to:
• Condemning any act of violence committed by one of the members of their community;
• Investing fully alongside all the authorities in the negotiated management of conflicts related to access to natural resources;
• Referring to the competent authorities of the Central African Republic and Sudan in the event of threats or attacks;
• Seeking peaceful solutions to our differences through an amicable settlement without resorting to armed groups or armed militias close to our community;
• Raising awareness amongst communities;
• Encouraging communities to commit themselves to peace and social cohesion;
• Opposing the theft of livestock regardless of the owner's community and facilitate the search for stolen property and animals so that they can be returned to their owners;
• Regularly monitoring the implementation of this agreement and report on it regularly to the communities.
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
Page 3:
Chapter II: Commitments of the Parties
Article 4
The parties jointly commit to:
[...]
• Opposing the theft of livestock regardless of the owner's community and facilitate the search for stolen property and animals so that they can be returned to their owners;
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
No specific mention.
Enforcement mechanism
Page 4-5:
Chapter VI: Dispute management
Article 10:
The parties will do everything in their power to settle amicably and by negotiation any dispute arising between them, in the spirit of cooperation and friendship which underlies this peace agreement.
Article 11:
In the event of a breach of the application of this Agreement or in the event of a dispute relating to its interpretation, the Parties will refer the matter to the Monitoring Committee so that a consensual solution is identified and applied.
In the event of breaches, the parties commit to consulting the authorities of the two border regions.

Page 5:
Chapter VII: Terms and conditions
Article 12:
In the event of a serious breach of the application of this Agreement, and of a failure of all attempts at negotiation to remedy it, the Parties may terminate this Agreement. Such termination will take effect on a specified termination date. In this case, the parties will take all necessary measures to minimize the impact of such a decision on the pacification efforts already undertaken under the same agreement.

The University of Edinburgh