Sudan peace agreement (Juba Agreement)

Country/entity
Sudan
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Sudan peace agreement (Juba Agreement)
Date
03/10/2020
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
Yes
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan - internal
In December 2013, after president Salva Kiir accused opposition leader Riek Machar of attempting a coup, violent conflict broke out between government forces of the SPLM/A and anti-governmental groups. In addition, several other political militias as well as communal militias have joined the conflict. In 2015 the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan (ARCSS) was signed. Due to unsuccessful implementation the agreement was revitalized in 2018. In September 2019, Kiir and Machar agreed to establish a power-sharing government after struggles on forming a unity transitional government.
Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - comprehensive (Agreement)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
156: Sudan Transition Process
A process sparked by citizen uprising to replace the Head of State and have an agreed transition between the military and political and opposition groups.
Parties
The Transitional Government of Sudan

General Mohammed Hamdan Dagalo
First Vice President of the Transitional Sovereign Council

The Sudanese Alliance
Khamis Abdallah Abkar

Gathering of Sudan Liberation Forces
Altahir Abubaker Hajer

Sudan Liberation Movement/Army
Minni Arko Minawi

Sudan Liberation Movement/Army – Transitional Council
Dr. Elhadi Idris Yahya

Sudanese Justice and Equality Movement
Dr. Gibril Ibrahim Mohammed

Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North / Revolutionary
Malik Agar Ayr

United Popular Front for Liberation and Justice
Khalid Idris Jaweish

Opposition Beja Conference
Osama Said

Sudanese Kush Liberation Movement
Mohammed Daoud Bandaq

Kayan Al-Shamal (The Northern Entity)
Mohammed Said Ahmed Sir-alkhatim

Opposition Democratic Union Party / Revolutionary Front
Eltom Elsheikh Mousa Hajo
Third parties
Other Parties:
1. The Third Front /Tamazuj
Mohammed Ali Quraishi

2. Sudan Liberation Movement/Army – Ahmed Ibrahim Kazisky
Mr. Ali Ahmed Hamid
Advisor

Witnesses:
General Abdulfatah Burhan Abdulrahman
President of the Transitional Sovereign Council

The Arab Republic of Egypt

The State of Qatar

The African Union

The United Nations

The European Union

Representative of the Arab League
Ambassador Khalid Abdulrahim Abdalghafar


[not signed, but referred to in the text]
Page 2, PREAMBLE:
APPRECIATING the efforts of the people and government of the Republic of South Sudan and their esteemed role in mediating and facilitating the Sudanese peace discussions as well as the central role of His Excellency President Salva Kiir Mayardit and the Mediation team in achieving this Agreement;
GRATEFUL FOR the valued contributions of the regional and international community including UNAMID, the United Nations, the African Union, the Troika countries, the European Union, the League of Arab States, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), and neighboring countries.
TAKING NOTE of all the Security Council, African Union, and African Peace and Security Council relevant resolutions;
Description
This agreement comprises a series of in-essence 6 different agreements which provide for agreement between the Transitional Government of Sudan (TGOS)and different areas, on different but interconnected peace process 'tracks'. These comprise a Darfur Agreement between the TGOS and 'Darfur Parties to Peace' (Title 2); a 'Two Areas' agreements between TGOS and the The Sudan People's Liberation Movement - North / The Revolutionary Front (Title 3); the Eastern Sudan Track Agreement between the TGOS and the Sudan Revolutionary Front (Title 4); Track 5, Agreement between the TGOS and the Sudan Revolutionary Front - Northern Track (Title 5); Agreement of the Central Track between the TSGO and the Sudan Revolutionary Front (Title 6); and Security arrangements between the TSGO and the Third-Front - Tamazuj (Title 7). While the agreements are all varied, they provide on the most part for some representation of these areas in the transitional government and/or wider institutional structures of the transition, and for new governance and security and economic / development provision within each area. The Agreement therefore in its totality in a sense connects the wider armed conflict with different groups, or different factions or branches of the same broad group, with the transition process focused on the move from military rule at the level of the central state, and with the Transitional government (itself a mixed military-civilian government).

Please note that the coding below reflects the key provisions for each category. For several categories (such as Refugees/displaced persons, DDR, material reparations, development, territorial powersharing, ceasefire, women/gender and others) the relevant provisions did not fit into the database format. These additional provisions can be found at https://www.peaceagreements.org/files/Juba%20Agreement%202020%20overspill.pdf

Agreement document
SD_201003_Juba Agreement for Peace in Sudan - Official ENGLISH.PDF []

Agreement document (original language)
SD_201003_Juba peace agreement (Arabic) (signed).pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
Rhetorical
Page 4, PREAMBLE:
CONFIRMING social, political, and economic justice in a democratic and developmental state in which the rights of all peoples are considered, and equality for women, children, the marginalized, and those with special needs is realized;

Page 109, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE'S LIBERATION MOVEMENT - NORTH/ THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Preamble
Acknowledging the changes that happened in Sudan as a result of the glorious revolution of December 2018 and the key role women and youth played in the revolution which fulfilled one of the key demands of the Sudanese people.
Anti-discrimination
Page 38, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 12. Compensation and Reparations Fund
12.11.[The Fund shall] develop a table for awarding the timely compensation payments on the basis of financial principles that require awarding financial compensation proportionate to the damage and loss suffered by the victim. Women, men, children and persons with special needs shall be treated equally when implementing the payments.
Substantive
Page 20, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. 30. Powers of the Regional Government of Darfur
30.1.The Parties agree that Darfur Region shall have exclusive executive and legislative powers to enable it to implement the Peace Agreement as follows:
...
30.1.12.To rehabilitate and support disabled veterans, orphans, and widows and provide care for the families of war-disabled heroes.
...
30.1.15.To reform youth institutions affiliated with the regional government of Darfur;

Page 21, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 31. Concurrent Powers
31.1.The national federal government and the regional government of Darfur shall have the following executive and legislative powers:
...
31.1.22.Maternal and child care and protection;

Page 36-37, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, General Principles
10. For purposes of the Peace Agreement, the term “victims of the conflict in Darfur” shall mean:...
10.2.Parentless children.
10.3.Unaccompanied children.
10.4.Separated children.

Page 39, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 2. General Principles
2.3. The Parties shall pay special attention to protecting internally displaced and refugee women, children, and all other vulnerable groups from all forms of harassment, exploitation, and sexual- or gender-based violence;

Page 41, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 4. Suitable Conditions for Return
4.1. With the assistance of the concerned international and domestic institutions, the Parties agree to create the political, economic, social, and security conditions conducive to the voluntary return and acceptable reintegration of IDPs and refugees, without giving preference to any particular group. These conditions shall include, but not be limited to:
...
4.1.11.The Parties shall refrain from attacking, intimidating, or harassing IDPs, refugees or returnees in any way at all times. The human rights of IDPs, refugees and returnees shall be fully respected, with special considerations, protections, and processes for vulnerable groups such as women, children, the elderly, and persons with disabilities;

Page 41, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 5. Humanitarian Aid
5.2. Certain IDPs and refugees, such as children, expectant mothers, mothers with young children, female heads of household, persons with disabilities, and elderly persons, shall be entitled to protection and assistance required by their condition and to treatment which pays heed to their special needs;

Page 43, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 8. Internally Displaced Persons and Refugees Commission
8.6. The IDPRC shall exercise the following competencies and functions:
...
8.6.9.Implement programs to address the special needs of vulnerable groups, especially unsupported, separated, and unaccompanied children among the uprooted populations of IDPs and refugees;
...
8.6.12.Facilitate the reunion of unaccompanied and separated minors with their parents and families;

Page 55, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 18. Prohibited Acts
18.8.Recruiting child soldiers;

Page 64, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration Requirements
26.16.Criteria for the integration of individuals: criteria for general eligibility for integration in military institutions and security services shall be as follows:
...
26.16.2.No less than 18 years of age;

Page 66, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 27. The Police
27.13.8.Protect families and children;

Page 68, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 29. Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.Functions of the Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.8.Deploying police forces to secure villages for voluntary return, IDP camps, confirming their civil status, working to disengage parties to tribal conflicts, securing IDP camps in coordination with the management thereof, and preventing recruitment, especially among children;

Page 70, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 30. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR)
30.2.General Principles:
30.2.8.The Parties recognize the necessity, during DDR processes, to meet the special needs of children,
women, and disabled persons, as a priority. The Government of Sudan shall mobilize specific resources and
budgets to meet such special needs of the aforementioned groups at all phases of the DDR.

Page 71, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 30. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR)
30.7.DDR shall be undertaken with care and the process therefor shall proceed as follows:
30.7.3.The Parties shall decide to immediately and unconditionally dismiss and release all combatant children, if any, as well as groups with special needs and former female combatants, provided that they are handed over to the Joint DDR Committee to be reintegrated;

Page 73, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 30. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR)
30.10.6.To prioritize addressing socioeconomic reintegration of groups with special needs, such as women, or other women, boys, girls who are linked to the forces of the armed struggle movements, as well as other vulnerable groups such as conflict affected children, combatants with disabilities, and the elderly, if any;

Page 96, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:
9.21.To rehabilitate and assist veterans, persons with special-needs, orphans, widows, and care for martyrs’ families.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:
9.55.To promote the role of women and youth and child protection.

Page 119, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Permanent Ceasefire Arrangements
48. The Parties shall abide by DDR principles related to the handling of child soldiers, persons with special needs, and women recruited in connection with the war.

Page 122, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Permanent Ceasefire Arrangements, 60. Code of Conduct
60.8.The interests of the population in the Two Areas and other people residing therein, including women and children, shall be prioritized over personal considerations.

Page 125, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Integration,
91. Duties of the Joint Police Technical Committee:
91.18.Protect families and children.

Pages 126, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Integration
82. Children, the elderly, and the disabled shall be listed and classified and their statuses shall be adjusted in rehabilitation camps within the agreed timeframe.

Page 131, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, General Principles
Second: In order to eliminate political marginalization in Eastern Sudan, the Parties agree to the following principles:
...
4. Ensuring the participation of the youth in authority by a specified percentage

Page 132, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, Education and Human Development Issues
17. The Federal Government shall prioritize the promotion of education at all levels in Eastern Sudan and pay utmost attention to the education of girls;

Page 149-150, TITLE 6. 3. Development, Services, and Revenues
The Government of Sudan shall commit to the following:
3.1.To provide comprehensive development services by establishing socioeconomic development priorities for the rural areas in order to address the displacement crisis that has affected the central areas and address he large percentage of marginalized workers, particularly the youth of both sexes in the cities of the central states.
3.2. Establish specialized centers to combat epidemics and endemic diseases in hot areas, as well as maternity and children’s centers.

Page 154, TILE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 20. Prohibited Acts.
20.8. Recruiting child soldiers.

Page 156, TTLE 7. CHAPTER TWO: ASSEMBLY, TRAINING AND INTEGRATION, 24. Integration
24.9. Criteria for integrating individuals: the criteria for integrating individuals in the military establishment and security institutions shall be as follows:
24.9.2. No less than 18 years of age;

Page 185, TITLE 9, 5. Darfur Track: Displaced Persons and Refugees Implementation Matrix
Activity: Reunite unaccompanied and separated minors with their parents and families
Timing: After establishing the IDPRC
Implementing Party: IDPRC
Source of Funding: IDPRC
Composition:
Procedures: Institute and implement a plan for the reunion
Reference/Article: 8.6.12
Disabled persons
Anti-discrimination
Page 38, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 12. Compensation and Reparations Fund
12.11.[The Fund shall] develop a table for awarding the timely compensation payments on the basis of financial principles that require awarding financial compensation proportionate to the damage and loss suffered by the victim. Women, men, children and persons with special needs shall be treated equally when implementing the payments.

Page 142, TITLE 5. GENERAL PRINCIPLES
1. Sudan is an independent, sovereign, democratic, parliamentary, pluralistic and decentralized state where rights and duties are based on citizenship without discrimination on grounds of race, faith, culture, sex, color, gender, social or economic status, political opinion, disability, regional affiliation or any other reason.
Substantive
Page 20, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. 30. Powers of the Regional Government of Darfur
30.1.The Parties agree that Darfur Region shall have exclusive executive and legislative powers to enable it to implement the Peace Agreement as follows:
...
30.1.12.To rehabilitate and support disabled veterans, orphans, and widows and provide care for the families of war-disabled heroes.

Page 38, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 12. Compensation and Reparations Fund
12.6.The Fund’s procedures shall be simple, accessible, transparent, enforceable, free of charge, and takes into consideration age, gender and persons with disability.

Page 40-41, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL
4. Suitable Conditions for Return
4.1. With the assistance of the concerned international and domestic institutions, the Parties agree to create the political, economic, social, and security conditions conducive to the voluntary return and acceptable reintegration of IDPs and refugees, without giving preference to any particular group. These conditions shall include, but not be limited to:
...
4.1.11.The Parties shall refrain from attacking, intimidating, or harassing IDPs, refugees or returnees in any way at all times. The human rights of IDPs, refugees and returnees shall be fully respected, with special considerations, protections, and processes for vulnerable groups such as women, children, the elderly, and persons with disabilities;

Page 41, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 5. Humanitarian Aid
5.2. Certain IDPs and refugees, such as children, expectant mothers, mothers with young children, female heads of household, persons with disabilities, and elderly persons, shall be entitled to protection and assistance required by their condition and to treatment which pays heed to their special needs;

Page 70, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 30. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR)
30.2.General Principles:
30.2.8.The Parties recognize the necessity, during DDR processes, to meet the special needs of children, women, and disabled persons, as a priority. The Government of Sudan shall mobilize specific resources and budgets to meet such special needs of the aforementioned groups at all phases of the DDR.

Page 71, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 30. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR)
30.7.DDR shall be undertaken with care and the process therefor shall proceed as follows:
30.7.3.The Parties shall decide to immediately and unconditionally dismiss and release all combatant children, if any, as well as groups with special needs and former female combatants, provided that they are handed over to the Joint DDR Committee to be reintegrated;

Page 73, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 30. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR)
30.10.Reintegration Requirements and Processes.
30.10.6.To prioritize addressing socioeconomic reintegration of groups with special needs, such as women, or other women, boys, girls who are linked to the forces of the armed struggle movements, as well as other vulnerable groups such as conflict affected children, combatants with disabilities, and the elderly, if any;

Page 96, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.21.To rehabilitate and assist veterans, persons with special-needs, orphans, widows, and care for martyrs’ families.

Pages 126, TITLE 3, CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, INTEGRATION
82. Children, the elderly, and the disabled shall be listed and classified and their statuses shall be adjusted in rehabilitation camps within the agreed timeframe.
Elderly/age
Substantive
Page 9-10,  TITLE 1, 9. The Constitutional Conference:
9.7. The Parties agree to the fair and equal representation, on the bases of gender, diversity, geography, and age, in the national constitutional conference, and that constitutional conferences in the regions shall be held as part of the constitution-drafting process.

Page 38, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 12. Compensation and Reparations Fund
12.6.The Fund’s procedures shall be simple, accessible, transparent, enforceable, free of charge, and takes into consideration age, gender and persons with disability.
...
12.16.Regular revision shall be undertaken to ensure the optimal use and distribution of funds allocated to compensate victims, in accordance with the financial procedures applicable in such cases, including the principles of equality of gender and age.

Page 41, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 4. Suitable Conditions for Return
4.1. With the assistance of the concerned international and domestic institutions, the Parties agree to create the political, economic, social, and security conditions conducive to the voluntary return and acceptable reintegration of IDPs and refugees, without giving preference to any particular group. These conditions shall include, but not be limited to:
...
4.1.11.The Parties shall refrain from attacking, intimidating, or harassing IDPs, refugees or returnees in any way at all times. The human rights of IDPs, refugees and returnees shall be fully respected, with special considerations, protections, and processes for vulnerable groups such as women, children, the elderly, and persons with disabilities;

Page 41, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 5. Humanitarian Aid
5.2. Certain IDPs and refugees, such as children, expectant mothers, mothers with young children, female heads of household, persons with disabilities, and elderly persons, shall be entitled to protection and assistance required by their condition and to treatment which pays heed to their special needs;

Page 73, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 30. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR)
30.10.6.To prioritize addressing socioeconomic reintegration of groups with special needs, such as women, or other women, boys, girls who are linked to the forces of the armed struggle movements, as well as other vulnerable groups such as conflict affected children, combatants with disabilities, and the elderly, if any;

Pages 123, TITLE 3, CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, INTEGRATION
82. Children, the elderly, and the disabled shall be listed and classified and their statuses shall be adjusted in rehabilitation camps within the agreed timeframe.
Migrant workers
Substantive
Page 149-150, TITLE 6. 3. Development, Services, and Revenues
The Government of Sudan shall commit to the following:
3.1.To provide comprehensive development services by establishing socioeconomic
development priorities for the rural areas in order to address the displacement crisis that has affected the central areas and address the large percentage of marginalized workers, particularly the youth of both sexes in the cities of the central states.
Racial/ethnic/national group
Rhetorical
Page 6,  TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.9. Acknowledgment of and respect for the Sudanese identity and the ethnic, religious and cultural diversity of Sudanese peoples without discrimination on any grounds shall be reflected in the governance system and policies in order to build a state based on equal citizenship for all Sudanese people.

Page 6,  TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.11.The racial, ethnic, religious, linguistic, and cultural diversity of the Sudanese people is a source of richness for the Sudanese people and, therefore, shall be strengthened, developed, and managed in accordance with the standards that reflect national unity.

Page 15, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
8. The ethnic, religious, linguistic, and cultural diversity of the Sudanese people is the basis of national cohesion and will therefore be promoted, developed and managed in accordance with the standards that reflect national unity.
Anti-discrimination
Page 12,  TITLE 1, 18. Combating Racism
18.1.The Parties agree to issue strict legislation criminalizing all kinds of racism and to adopt clear state policies to combat different forms of racial attitudes, discrimination, and manifestations of ethnic and religious supremacy through education curricula, media, and building an integrated societal culture that respects human dignity and upholds the values of equality between human being without discrimination.

Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
15. Citizenship shall be the basis of rights and duties with no discrimination on the basis of race, tribe, religion, gender, sex or origin. This does not prevent the existence of laws, programs or activities aimed at improving the conditions of those individuals or groups who have been deprived of their rights based on race, color, religion, or regional or national origin.

Page 36, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, General Principles
7. Without prejudice to the principle of positive discrimination as set forth in the Peace Agreement, distribution of humanitarian aid, the restitution of resources and property, and the award of compensation and reparations in accordance with this Agreement, shall take place without discrimination on the basis of gender, language, tribe, ethnicity, religion, party affiliation, geographic location, status as a displaced or formerly displaced person/refugee, or any other basis.

Page 39, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 2. General Principles
2.6. Aid for conflicts-affected persons shall be distributed without discrimination based on gender, language, race, ethnicity, religion, party affiliation, geographic location, color, or any other discriminatory grounds.

Page 94, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT, General Principles
1. Equal citizenship without discrimination shall be the basis for all rights and duties. The state shall stand at equal distance from all religions and cultures, without any ethnic, religious, or cultural bias that may lead to derogation of this right. It shall be enshrined in the Constitutional Charter governing the transitional period.

Page 133-134, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: The Political Issue, General Principles
First: Sudan is a sovereign, democratic, parliamentary, pluralistic and decentralized state where rights and duties are based on citizenship without discrimination on grounds of race, faith, culture, sex, color, gender, social or economic status, political opinion, disability, regional affiliation or any other reason.

Page 142, TITLE 5. GENERAL PRINCIPLES
1. Sudan is an independent, sovereign, democratic, parliamentary, pluralistic and decentralized state where rights and duties are based on citizenship without discrimination on grounds of race, faith, culture, sex, color, gender, social or economic status, political opinion, disability, regional affiliation or any other reason.

Page 151, TITLE 7. Preamble
Determined to seize this opportunity to achieve just peace, citizenship without discrimination, and put an end to all current wars throughout Sudan, in conjunction with genuine democratization based on the pillars of just peace and citizenship without discrimination;

Page 167, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Criminalize and combat racism
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue legislations and adopt policies to combat racism
Reference article: 18.1
Substantive
Page 102, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 35. Geographic representation and ethnic and religious diversity shall be observed in the composition of the legislative council.

Page 55, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 18. Prohibited Acts
18.13.Bias alignment of any member of the signatory Parties towards their respective tribes, in the event of tribal conflict;

Page 68, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 29. Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.Functions of the Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.8.Deploying police forces to secure villages for voluntary return, IDP camps, confirming their civil status, working to disengage parties to tribal conflicts, securing IDP camps in coordination with the management thereof, and preventing recruitment, especially among children;
...
29.5.Functions of the Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.12.Preparing the environment for promoting the values of dialogue and peaceful coexistence among tribes and open tracks in areas in which farmers and herders clash;
Religious groups
Rhetorical
Page 6,  TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.9. Acknowledgment of and respect for the Sudanese identity and the ethnic, religious and cultural diversity of Sudanese peoples without discrimination on any grounds shall be reflected in the governance system and policies in order to build a state based on equal citizenship for all Sudanese people.
...
1.11.The racial, ethnic, religious, linguistic, and cultural diversity of the Sudanese people is a source of richness for the Sudanese people and, therefore, shall be strengthened, developed, and managed in accordance with the standards that reflect national unity.

Page 15, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
8. The ethnic, religious, linguistic, and cultural diversity of the Sudanese people is the basis of national cohesion and will therefore be promoted, developed and managed in accordance with the standards that reflect national unity.
Anti-discrimination
Page 9,  TITLE 1. AGREEMENT ON NATIONAL ISSUES BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SIGNATORY PARTIES TO THIS AGREEMENT, 18. Combating Racism
18.1.The Parties agree to issue strict legislation criminalizing all kinds of racism and to adopt
clear state policies to combat different forms of racial attitudes, discrimination, and manifestations of ethnic and religious supremacy through education curricula, media, and building an integrated societal culture that respects human dignity and upholds the values of equality between human being without discrimination.

Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
15. Citizenship shall be the basis of rights and duties with no discrimination on the basis of race, tribe, religion, gender, sex or origin. This does not prevent the existence of laws, programs or activities aimed at improving the conditions of those individuals or groups who have been deprived of their rights based on race, color, religion, or regional or national origin.

Page 36, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, General Principles
7. Without prejudice to the principle of positive discrimination as set forth in the Peace Agreement, distribution of humanitarian aid, the restitution of resources and property, and the award of compensation and reparations in accordance with this Agreement, shall take place without discrimination on the basis of gender, language, tribe, ethnicity, religion, party affiliation, geographic location, status as a displaced or formerly displaced person/refugee, or any other basis.

Page 39, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 2. General Principles
2.6. Aid for conflicts-affected persons shall be distributed without discrimination based on gender, language, race, ethnicity, religion, party affiliation, geographic location, color, or any other discriminatory grounds.

Page 94, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT, General Principles
1. Equal citizenship without discrimination shall be the basis for all rights and duties. The state shall stand at equal distance from all religions and cultures, without any ethnic, religious, or cultural bias that may lead to derogation of this right. It shall be enshrined in the Constitutional Charter governing the transitional period.

Page 133-134, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, General Principles
First: Sudan is a sovereign, democratic, parliamentary, pluralistic and decentralized state where rights and duties are based on citizenship without discrimination on grounds of race, faith, culture, sex, color, gender, social or economic status, political opinion, disability, regional affiliation or any other reason.

Page 142, TITLE 5, GENERAL PRINCIPLES
1. Sudan is an independent, sovereign, democratic, parliamentary, pluralistic and decentralized state where rights and duties are based on citizenship without discrimination on grounds of race, faith, culture, sex, color, gender, social or economic status, political opinion, disability, regional affiliation or any other reason.
Substantive
Page 11,  TITLE 1, 14. National Issues of Particularity: The Parties agree on the importance of addressing the following national issues of particularity:
14.3.Christians and communities of African religions and other beliefs:
14.3.1.The Parties agree on establishing a National Commission for Religious Freedoms to address the issues of religious diversity in Sudan.

Page 102, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 35. Geographic representation and ethnic and religious diversity shall be observed in the composition of the legislative council.

Page 108, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, DEVELOPMENT AND RECONSTRUCTION COMMISSION AND MECHANISM, 86. The National Commission for Religious Freedoms:
86.1.The Parties agree to establish a National Commission for Religious Freedoms in Sudan, with branches thereof in the Two Areas.
86.2.The Parties stressed the freedom of religions and faiths and the importance of tolerance and religious coexistence. The Parties also highlighted the necessity to establish a national ministry for peace and human rights to promote and protect human rights in Sudan.
86.3.Realize religious coexistence among all followers of religions and faiths to link and promote the peace process with the acquired rights.

Page 166, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish a National Commission for Religious Freedoms
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision establishing the commission
Reference article: 14.3.1

Page 200, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish the commission for religious freedoms in the state / region
Timing: After establishing of the national commission
Implementing Party: the state / regional government
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan and donors
Composition: the state / regional government
Location: state / region
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 86
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
Rhetorical
Page 4, PREAMBLE:
CONFIRMING social, political, and economic justice in a democratic and developmental state in which the rights of all peoples are considered, and equality for women, children, the marginalized, and those with special needs is realized;
Anti-discrimination
Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
15. Citizenship shall be the basis of rights and duties with no discrimination on the basis of race, tribe, religion, gender, sex or origin. This does not prevent the existence of laws, programs or activities aimed at improving the conditions of those individuals or groups who have been deprived of their rights based on race, color, religion, or regional or national origin.

Page 36, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, General Principles
7. Without prejudice to the principle of positive discrimination as set forth in the Peace Agreement, distribution of humanitarian aid, the restitution of resources and property, and the award of compensation and reparations in accordance with this Agreement, shall take place without discrimination on the basis of gender, language, tribe, ethnicity, religion, party affiliation, geographic location, status as a displaced or formerly displaced person/refugee, or any other basis.

Page 39, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 2. General Principles
2.6. Aid for conflicts-affected persons shall be distributed without discrimination based on gender, language, race, ethnicity, religion, party affiliation, geographic location, color, or any other discriminatory grounds.

Page 142, TITLE 5, GENERAL PRINCIPLES
1. Sudan is an independent, sovereign, democratic, parliamentary, pluralistic and decentralized state where rights and duties are based on citizenship without discrimination on grounds of race, faith, culture, sex, color, gender, social or economic status, political opinion, disability, regional affiliation or any other reason.
Substantive
Page 9-10,  TITLE 1, 9. The Constitutional Conference:
9.7. The Parties agree to the fair and equal representation, on the bases of gender, diversity, geography, and age, in the national constitutional conference, and that constitutional conferences in the regions shall be held as part of the constitution-drafting process.

Page 13,  TITLE 1, 24. Sudanese Diaspora:
24.1.The Parties agree that the Transitional Government of Sudan shall endeavor to create the appropriate conditions to connect Sudanese diaspora abroad with their homeland through addressing, among other things, the issue of education for the children of Sudanese diaspora in Sudanese institutions, ensuring rewarding conditions for their remittances and creating incentives to improve their opportunities for investment and settlement in Sudan.

Page 95, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES
9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.7. To establish and rehabilitate institutes for teaching indigenous languages, culture, heritage, folklore, and antiquities which reflect diversity and work to develop and promote local cultures and provide them with opportunities at the national, regional, and international levels as an integral part of Sudanese cultures that must be celebrated for all their differences and diversity.

Page 168, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Address the issues of the Sudanese in the diaspora and create the appropriate conditions to connect them to their homeland
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Develop the necessary remedies
Reference article: 24.1
Refugees/displaced persons
Rhetorical
Page 49, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, Preamble
MOTIVATED by our deep awareness of the urgent need for final security arrangements that address the root causes of war and build a rapid plan of action to address the humanitarian crisis in Sudan in general and in Darfur in particular and to provide for the necessary relief and aid, rehabilitate, save, protect, and voluntarily resettle IDPs and refugees.

Page 53, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 14. General Provisions and Principles of the Permanent Ceasefire
14.7.The Parties must commit to providing and facilitating humanitarian assistance by creating conditions that encourage provision of urgent humanitarian assistance to the homeless, IDPs, refugees, and affected persons and their right to voluntary return to their areas of origin;

Page 109, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE'S LIBERATION MOVEMENT - NORTH/ THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Preamble
Based on our deep recognition of the dire need for final security arrangements that address the root causes of the war and build a rapid working plan to address the humanitarian crisis in Sudan in general and in the Two Areas in specific and provide necessary and urgent relief, rescue, rehabilitation, protection and voluntary resettlement of IDPs and refugees.

Page 112, TITLE 3, CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, General and Fundamental Provisions
21. The Parties shall commit to providing and facilitating humanitarian assistance, by creating conditions that encourage the provision of urgent humanitarian assistance to the homeless, IDPs, refugees and affected persons and that ensure their right to voluntary return to their areas of origin.

Page 149, TITLE 6. 5. The First Party shall commit to addressing the issue of displaced persons and returnees within the framework of the overall treatment of the issue throughout Sudan.

Page 152, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, Objectives of the Agreement
8. To create an appropriate environment for the voluntary and safe return of IDPs and refugees to their areas of origin.
Substantive
Page 10-12,  TITLE 1, 13. Elections:
13.1.The Parties agree to hold free and fair general elections with international monitoring at the end of the transitional period, provided that it is preceded by the implementation of the agreed plan for the return of IDPs and refugees, as stipulated in the different track agreements, holding of the national Constitutional Conference, conducting the census, issuing the law on elections and political parties, and establishing the Elections Commission.

Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
16. The displacement of citizens inside or outside Sudan does not prevent the full exercise of their civil rights.

Page 19, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles, 29. Educational Institutions
29.1.5.2.The committee shall identify standards and criteria for the exemption of IDPs, refugees, and nomads from tuition fees when they are admitted to public universities outside Darfur Region.

Page 36, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, General Principles
7. Without prejudice to the principle of positive discrimination as set forth in the Peace Agreement, distribution of humanitarian aid, the restitution of resources and property, and the award of compensation and reparations in accordance with this Agreement, shall take place without discrimination on the basis of gender, language, tribe, ethnicity, religion, party affiliation, geographic location, status as a displaced or formerly displaced person/refugee, or any other basis.

Page 37, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 11. Rights Related to Compensation, Restitution and Reparations
11.7.Individuals and communities have the right to pursue compensation for environmental damages, land degradation, or the damage of property resulting from the conflict, including environmental damages or deterioration resulting from displacement and neglect.

Page 39, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL
1. Definitions: Unless the context suggests otherwise, the following words and terms shall have the definitions provided herein:
1.1. Internally displaced persons (IDPs): shall mean all persons who have been forced or compelled to flee their homes or places of habitual residence as a result of the conflicts in Darfur, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized State border;
1.2. Refugees: shall mean persons or groups of persons who have been forced or compelled to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence as a result of the conflicts in Darfur and who have crossed an internationally recognized State border;
1.3. Displaced persons: shall mean all internally displaced Sudanese men and women who are living outside of IDP camps because of the war;
1.4. Residents on lands of others: people illegally living on others’ lands after the outbreak of war in Darfur in 2002.

Page 39, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 2. General Principles
2.1. The Parties shall be bound to all international agreements and treaties related to displaced persons and refugees ratified by the Government of Sudan;
2.2. The human rights of displaced persons shall be fully respected and guaranteed under international and national laws, whether during the voluntary return, resettlement, or thereafter;
2.3. The Parties shall pay special attention to protecting internally displaced and refugee women, children, and all other vulnerable groups from all forms of harassment, exploitation, and sexual- or gender-based violence;
2.4. IDPs and refugees shall enjoy the rights to voluntary return, citizenship, identity, participation, ownership, and housing, as set forth in this Agreement;
2.5. IDPs and refugees shall enjoy the same human rights and fundamental freedoms of any citizen in Sudan, including the right to move freely and reside anywhere on Sudanese territory;
2.6. Aid for conflicts-affected persons shall be distributed without discrimination based on gender, language, race, ethnicity, religion, party affiliation, geographic location, color, or any other discriminatory grounds.

Page 39, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 2. General Principles
2.7. The Parties shall adhere to the following principles and rights of return:
2.7.1.All IDPs and refugees shall have the right to make an informed decision for the voluntary return to their place of origin, homes, or to places or areas of their habitual residence; they shall also have the right to resettle to other places of their choosing, in accordance with the terms of the Agreement, especially those related to the necessary conditions of return;
2.7.2.The Government of Sudan shall commit to accepting the return of refugees who have left Sudanese territory, including those who have been accorded temporary protection by third countries;
2.7.3.The Parties shall adhere to the principle of non-refoulement, and IDPs and refugees shall thus not be subject to forced return or resettlement in any place where their life, safety, liberty, and/or health would be at risk;
2.7.4.The Parties and the international community shall endeavor to ensure the right of safe return for IDPs and refugees and to be free from violence, harassment, intimidation, coercion, confiscation of property, or forced resettlement;
2.7.5.The Parties agree that nomadic routes shall be open and secure, in particular during the return of IDPs and refugees to their homes of origin. The Parties shall review the changes of such routes and find alternatives if necessary;
2.7.6.Rights and privileges of IDPs and refugees to citizenship and participation shall not be affected due to their status as IDPs or refugees, and their rights and privileges shall be fully restored and guaranteed in Sudan;
2.7.7.It shall be prohibited to discriminate against IDPs and refugees or prevent them from participating in government or electing officials. IDPs and refugees shall enjoy the right to participate fully and equally in public affairs at all levels and have equal access to public services;
2.7.8.The Government of Sudan shall provide IDPs and refugees with all documents necessary for the exercise of their legal rights, including passports, birth certificates, and title deeds;
2.7.9.The Parties are committed to achieving the successful return of all IDPs and refugees under peaceful and secure conditions;
2.7.10.“IDPs and refugees,” as defined by this Agreement shall be the only persons eligible to receive aid, support, and other benefits of the voluntary return and resettlement programs under this Agreement.

Page 40, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 3. Property, Housing, and Compensation Rights
3.1. All IDPs and refugees shall enjoy the right to voluntary return to their homes, lands, and property, provided that they be fairly compensated for their losses of homes, lands, or property;
3.2. IDPs and refugees shall enjoy all rights to property, ownership of housing, the freedom of movement and residence, and compensation and reparations, as stipulated in this Agreement;
3.3. If the return of IDPs, refugees, and displaced persons to their homes or lands, or the restoration of their property is impossible, they shall have the right to receive fair compensation for their loss and the psychological damages resulting from forced displacement. The compensation shall be paid by the Compensations and Reparations Fund in accordance with international principles and the right of voluntary return for all IDPs and refugees.

Page 40, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 4. Suitable Conditions for Return
4.1. With the assistance of the concerned international and domestic institutions, the Parties agree to create the political, economic, social, and security conditions conducive to the voluntary return and acceptable reintegration of IDPs and refugees, without giving preference to any particular group. These conditions shall include, but not be limited to:
4.1.1.Security and safety of IDPs and refugees and being free from the risk of harassment, intimidation, persecution or discrimination, both during and after voluntary return, local integration, or resettlement;
4.1.2.The right to free movement and choice of residence;
4.1.3.Demining of areas of return and access routes to markets, schools, health services, sanitation, and any other place;
4.1.4.Restituting property lost due the war to IDPs and refugees, in accordance with the agreed provisions;
4.1.5.Constructing adequate shelters in the return villages and areas of voluntary return, as well as the necessary health and education infrastructure;
4.1.6.Rehabilitating damaged property, public facilities, farms, pastures, and agrarian lands, etc;
4.1.7.Evacuating illegal occupants of others’ homes, lands, and property in areas of return;
4.1.8.Guaranteed subsistence for all returnees, especially food, potable water, and health supplies;
4.1.9.Providing IDPs and refugees with accurate information on existing conditions inside areas to which they would return to ensure that they can make informed voluntary decisions about return;
4.1.10.The Parties shall work with the international community to provide all possible assistance to IDPs, refugees and war-affected persons to enable the returning families and individuals to reestablish their lives and livelihoods in local communities. This assistance shall include, but not be limited to, short-term repatriation funding, ensuring the continuity of humanitarian aid throughout the return and resettlement period, rebuilding damaged or destroyed infrastructure, building new roads and infrastructure in rural areas, rehabilitating local agrarian lands, and providing education and job training programs;
4.1.11.The Parties shall refrain from attacking, intimidating, or harassing IDPs, refugees or returnees in any way at all times. The human rights of IDPs, refugees and returnees shall be fully respected, with special considerations, protections, and processes for vulnerable groups such as women, children, the elderly, and persons with disabilities;
4.1.12.The Government of Sudan and international partners shall ensure the reconstruction and restoration of permanent housing and other property of IDPs and refugees planning to return or be resettled.

Page 41-42, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 6. Resettlement and Repatriation Arrangements
6.1. The Parties shall introduce a comprehensive resettlement and repatriation strategy with the following objectives:
6.1.1.Ensuring that IDPs and refugees fully enjoy all the same rights and fundamental freedoms established for all citizens;
6.1.2.Reintegrating IDPs and refugees and creating the conditions that will allow them to participate fully in the economic, social, political, and cultural development of the country;
6.1.3.Fulfilling genuine reconciliation through promoting a culture of peace and peaceful coexistence in the resettlement areas, and at the national and regional/state levels, based on participation, mutual tolerance and respect.

Page 42, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 7. International Support
7.1. The Parties shall request the international community to provide financial, technical, and material support and resources to ensure that the voluntary return and resettlement processes takes place fully, efficiently, and with respect to the dignity and safety of returnees;
7.2. The Parties shall commit to granting national and international aid organizations full land, air, and sea access to all territories and IDPs to implement the voluntary return and resettlement programs, within the framework of ratified international agreements, and in accordance with national laws;
7.3. The Parties shall refrain from levying taxes on workers, goods, or services provided by foreign governments or domestic or international aid organizations, within the framework of national laws and regulations and international agreements;
7.4. The Parties shall commit to protecting the safety and security of all foreign government staffs and employees, as well as national and international aid workers and equipment thereof.

Page 42, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 8. Internally Displaced Persons and Refugees Commission
8.1. The Parties agree to establish an IDP and Refugees Commission (IDPRC) within 60 (sixty days) of the date of signing this agreement to oversee, administer, and facilitate the voluntary return and resettlement, with the assistance of the international community, UNHCR and other relevant UN agencies and international organizations;
8.2. Procedures of the IDPRC shall be made available to the public within 6 (six months) of the date of signing the Peace Agreement, and it shall remain so for 10 (ten years);
8.3. The Parties shall agree on the organizational and functional structure of the IDPRC in accordance with the parameters provided for in this agreement;
8.4. The IDPRC shall develop its own regulations, rules of procedures and decision-making methods;
8.5. Without prejudice to the right to appeal, decisions of IDPRC in Darfur shall be binding.
8.6. The IDPRC shall exercise the following competencies and functions:
8.6.1.The IDPRC shall have the competence to deal with Sudanese IDPs and refugees displaced due to the conflicts in Darfur as they are defined in this Agreement.
8.6.2.The IDPRC, in coordination and cooperation with relevant national institutions and international organizations, shall introduce, implement, monitor, oversee, and evaluate strategies, plans and programs to ensure the sustainable voluntary return of displaced persons and refugees;
8.6.3.The IDPRC in Darfur shall establish local committees for claims that shall be comprised of local, traditional, and community leaders, including representatives of IDPs, refugees, and women. The local committees shall investigate compensation-related claims and other means of reparations, and submit their reports to the IDPRC in Darfur;

Page 43, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 8. Internally Displaced Persons and Refugees Commission
8.6.5.Collect data concerning the numbers of IDPs and refugees willing to return, areas of origin, distance from the border, availability of housing, economic and social infrastructure in the areas of return and resettlement, and projected needs for rehabilitation/reconstruction to ascertain the most effective means for the return of displaced persons;
8.6.6.Institute a public awareness campaign among IDPs and refugees to help them understand their rights, settlement options, and prevailing conditions in their original home areas, which will help them make an informed decision on whether to return;
8.6.7.Create and monitor entry points, and transit and reception centers.
8.6.8.Design mechanisms to monitor human rights conditions in areas of return.
8.6.9.Implement programs to address the special needs of vulnerable groups, especially unsupported, separated, and unaccompanied children among the uprooted populations of IDPs and refugees;
8.6.10.Implement programs to reconstruct and repair homes destroyed, damaged in coordination with the relevant commission;
8.6.11.Implement programs to rebuild public utilities and other infrastructure necessary for the durable rehabilitation of local communities, in coordination with relevant commissions;
8.6.12.Facilitate the reunion of unaccompanied and separated minors with their parents and families;
8.6.13.Work with local authorities and traditional community leaders to establish proof of identity when necessary;
8.6.14.Refer returnees with property restitution claims to the relevant commissions;
8.6.15.Conduct regular surveys and evaluations of the situation of IDPs and refugees;
8.6.16.Work with UNAMID/ a third party, UN agencies, relevant national and international agencies, and other international and national aid organizations to ensure proper protection and dignified treatment of IDPs and refugees during the process of return and reintegration or resettlement;
8.6.17.The IDPRC may submit recommendations to relevant parties to provide urgent assistance to victims and those in need among IDPs and refugees, provided that such assistance does not adversely impact their rights to due compensations from IDPRC.

Page 139, TITLE 4. CHAPTE TWO: THE SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUE, Issues of Lands, Dams and Displaced Persons
62. The Government shall commit to creating a fair investigation committee in relation to displaced persons, to redress and preserve their humanity, revise land surveys and decisions of compensation committees and provide the necessary services including water, electricity, education, health, and security. Its recommendations shall be submitted to the competent authority to undertake the necessary measures;
...
65. Addressing the conditions of internally displaced persons in the region by reconciling their status and providing them with basic services, including housing, health, education and security among other services;

Page 145, TITLE 5. ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK (POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC) ISSUES, 10. The Government shall endeavor to create the appropriate conditions and build the necessary infrastructure for the return of forcibly displaced persons to their historic places in Wadi Halfa and around Nubia Lake, in addition to awarding each citizen wishing to return a piece of residential and agrarian land. The Parties shall create a joint mechanism for developing the rules and regulations to identify those concerned with voluntary return and compensation and supervising enforcement of their resettlement with their families

Page 147, TITLE 5, ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK (POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC) ISSUES, 28. The Government shall commit to reviewing the issue of the lands freely possessed by the displaced persons of Amri. The Land Commission shall adjudicate regarding their due rights.
29. Reviewing, addressing and settling the legal status of projects constructed inside the project of Amri displaced persons to become an auxiliary part of the project.
...
32. Addressing the problems of health and education and conducting social studies to remedy the negative phenomena in the community of the displaced persons after displacement.

Page 148, TITLE 5, ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK (POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC) ISSUES, 39. Reviewing the issue of resettling the displaced people of al-Manasir (in al-Mukabrab and alFida) and undertaking the necessary measures for housing, services and agricultural projects
40. The Government shall commit to reviewing the issue of free possession lands of al-Manasir displaced people and the lands commission shall decide on their right through completing the procedures of issuing research licenses

Page 165, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Hold general elections
Timing: Before the end of the transitional period
Implementing Party: The Elections Commission
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Implement the plan for the return of the IDPs and refugees, hold the Constitutional Conference, conduct the census, issue the elections and political parties law, and establish the elections commission
Reference article: 13.1
Other
Page 21, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 31. Concurrent Powers
31.1.The national federal government and the regional government of Darfur shall have the following executive and legislative powers:
...
31.1.15.Relief, resettlement, rehabilitation and reconstruction;

Page 38, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 12. Compensation and Reparations Fund
12.15.The Fund shall cooperate and coordinate with other commissions established pursuant to this Agreement, especially the Commission for the Return of IDPs and Refugees, the Development and Reconstruction Commission, the Lands and Hawakeer Commission, the Truth and Reconciliation Committee, the Darfur Special Court for War Crimes, and the mechanisms of traditional justice.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:…
10.4.Voluntary return of IDPs and refugees.
Social class
Anti-discrimination
Page 133, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL, General Principles
First: Sudan is a sovereign, democratic, parliamentary, pluralistic and decentralized state where rights and duties are based on citizenship without discrimination on grounds of race, faith, culture, sex, color, gender, social or economic status, political opinion, disability, regional affiliation or any other reason.

Page 142, TITLE 5. GENERAL PRINCIPLES
1. Sudan is an independent, sovereign, democratic, parliamentary, pluralistic and decentralized state where rights and duties are based on citizenship without discrimination on grounds of race, faith, culture, sex, color, gender, social or economic status, political opinion, disability, regional affiliation or any other reason.
Substantive
Page 11,  TITLE 1, 14. National Issues of Particularity: The Parties agree on the importance of addressing the following national issues of particularity:
14.1.Kanabi: Guiding principles for the package of socioeconomic remedies:
14.1.1.Stressing the importance of finding urgent and necessary solutions for the issues of permanent housing and services for the Kanabi communities; stressing the importance of finding solutions, within the national framework, to promote rights and support the opportunities of coexistence and social integration.
14.1.2.The importance of engaging with local communities, the Kanabi community, and academic and religious institutions in solutions and mechanisms therefor.
14.1.3.Stressing the importance of finding remedies that promote the economic and productive role that these communities have always played in the private productive projects.
14.1.4.The Parties agree to create a national committee to be called the National Committee to Address the Issues of Housing and Services for the Kanabi Communities.
14.1.5.The national government shall appoint the Committee within a period of no more than (45) days of the date of signing the peace agreement.
14.1.6.The composition of the national Committee shall take into consideration the representation of relevant local communities, academic institutions and representatives of religious schools, provided that the chairperson of the committee is a person known for their independence.
14.1.7.The national government shall commit to enforcing the outcomes of the committee and shall incur the financial and legal consequences thereof.
14.1.8.The committee shall submit its recommendations to the national government within a period of no more than one year from the date of its establishment.

Page 13-14,  TITLE 1, 26. Education
26.1. As a comprehensive development renaissance in the country requires modern education, the Parties agree that the Government of Sudan shall commit to mandatory and free public education, introducing policies, holding education conferences, providing the necessary resources to assure quality education for all and to eliminating gaps and regional, gender, and social imbalances in education particularly in the war-affected and least developed areas.

Page 165, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Form the National Committee to address housing and service issues of the Kanabi communities
Timing: Within 45 days of the date of signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision forming the committee
Reference article: 14.1.4. 14.1.5, 14.1.6, 14.1.7, 14.1.8

Gender

Women, girls and gender
Page 4, PREAMBLE
CONFIRMING social, political, and economic justice in a democratic and developmental state in which the rights of all peoples are considered, and equality for women, children, the marginalized, and those with special needs is realized;

Page 7,  TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.18.Without prejudice to the conditions of qualification and competency and the implementation of the peace agreements concluded with the signatory parties, all Sudanese citizens shall be fairly represented in the civil service, public committees, institutions, commissions, armed forces, and other regular forces at all levels.
1.19.The participation of all Sudanese people shall be guaranteed at all levels of governance, state institutions, and civil service. Fair standards for power sharing shall be developed, without prejudice to the conditions of qualification and competency.
1.20.The importance of fair and effective representation of women at all levels of power and decision-making positions, at a rate of not less than 40% forty percent.

Page 10,  TITLE 1, 9. The Constitutional Conference:
9.7. The Parties agree to the fair and equal representation, on the bases of gender, diversity, geography, and age, in the national constitutional conference, and that constitutional conferences in the regions shall be held as part of the constitution-drafting process.

Page 13-14,  TITLE 1, 26. Education
26.1. As a comprehensive development renaissance in the country requires modern education, the Parties agree that the Government of Sudan shall commit to mandatory and free public education, introducing policies, holding education conferences, providing the necessary resources to assure quality education for all and to eliminating gaps and regional, gender, and social imbalances in education particularly in the war-affected and least developed areas.

Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
15. Citizenship shall be the basis of rights and duties with no discrimination on the basis of race, tribe, religion, gender, sex or origin. This does not prevent the existence of laws, programs or activities aimed at improving the conditions of those individuals or groups who have been deprived of their rights based on race, color, religion, or regional or national origin.

Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
22. Stressing the importance of the representation of women at all levels of power and decision-making positions.

Page 20, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. 30. Powers of the Regional Government of Darfur
30.1.The Parties agree that Darfur Region shall have exclusive executive and legislative powers to enable it to implement the Peace Agreement as follows:
...
30.1.12.To rehabilitate and support disabled veterans, orphans, and widows and provide care for the families of war-disabled heroes.

Page 21, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 31. Concurrent Powers
31.1.The national federal government and the regional government of Darfur shall have the following executive and legislative powers:
...
31.1.18.Promoting the role of women and women empowerment.
31.1.19.Gender policies;
...
31.1.22.Maternal and child care and protection;

Page 30, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, General Principles
10. Recognition of the special status of women, children, and youth and their issues, as well as the important role of women and youth in the prevention and resolution of conflicts, in transitional justice processes and in peace-building, and the imperative of their equal participation, and full engagement in all efforts for the maintenance of international peace and security, including justice and reconciliation.

Page 32, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, General Principles
22. The Truth and Reconciliation Committee (TRC)
...
22.4.3 Each Party shall select at least one woman on the committee;

Page 36, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, General Principles
7. Without prejudice to the principle of positive discrimination as set forth in the Peace Agreement, distribution of humanitarian aid, the restitution of resources and property, and the award of compensation and reparations in accordance with this Agreement, shall take place without discrimination on the basis of gender, language, tribe, ethnicity, religion, party affiliation, geographic location, status as a displaced or formerly displaced person/refugee, or any other basis.

Page 36-37, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, General Principles
10. For purposes of the Peace Agreement, the term “victims of the conflict in Darfur” shall mean:
10.1.Individuals and groups affected by the conflict in Darfur, including male and female survivors of rape, victims of physical, mental, and psychological injuries or those who lost their property or whose basic rights were violated.

Page 38, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 12. Compensation and Reparations Fund
12.4.Women shall comprise at least 40 percent of the functional structure of the Fund.
...
12.6.The Fund’s procedures shall be simple, accessible, transparent, enforceable, free of charge, and takes into consideration age, gender and persons with disability.
...
12.11.[The Fund shall] develop a table for awarding the timely compensation payments on the basis of financial principles that require awarding financial compensation proportionate to the damage and loss suffered by the victim. Women, men, children and persons with special needs shall be treated equally when implementing the payments.
...
12.16.Regular revision shall be undertaken to ensure the optimal use and distribution of funds allocated to compensate victims, in accordance with the financial procedures applicable in such cases, including the principles of equality of gender and age.

Page 39, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 2. General Principles
2.3. The Parties shall pay special attention to protecting internally displaced and refugee women, children, and all other vulnerable groups from all forms of harassment, exploitation, and sexual- or gender-based violence;
...
2.6. Aid for conflicts-affected persons shall be distributed without discrimination based on gender, language, race, ethnicity, religion, party affiliation, geographic location, color, or any other discriminatory grounds.

Page 41, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL
4. Suitable Conditions for Return
4.1. With the assistance of the concerned international and domestic institutions, the Parties agree to create the political, economic, social, and security conditions conducive to the voluntary return and acceptable reintegration of IDPs and refugees, without giving preference to any particular group. These conditions shall include, but not be limited to:
...
4.1.11.The Parties shall refrain from attacking, intimidating, or harassing IDPs, refugees or returnees in any way at all times. The human rights of IDPs, refugees and returnees shall be fully respected, with special considerations, protections, and processes for vulnerable groups such as women, children, the elderly, and persons with disabilities;

Page 42-43, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 8. Internally Displaced Persons and Refugees Commission
8.6.3.The IDPRC in Darfur shall establish local committees for claims that shall be comprised of local, traditional, and community leaders, including representatives of IDPs, refugees, and women. The local committees shall investigate compensation-related claims and other means of reparations, and submit their reports to the IDPRC in Darfur;

Page 46, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 8. The Right to Restitution:
8.6. Male and female IDPs and refugees, affected by the conflict, shall have the right to restore any houses, lands, or farms that they have been arbitrarily or illegally deprived of, irrespective of their choice to return to their original homes.

Page 47, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 9. Darfur Lands and Hawakeer Commission
9.6. The DLHC shall form local committees for claims, which include local, traditional, and community leaders, including representatives of IDPs, refugees and women, to investigate claims related to compensations and other means of reparations. The committees submit their reports to the DLHC.

Page 47, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 10. DLHC Powers and Competencies
10.1.The DLHC shall have the following powers and competencies:
10.1.3.To undertake all appropriate arrangements to ensure the full and effective participation of IDPs, refugees, local and traditional leaders, women, and all affected individuals of local communities in its procedures, including the investigation of disputed land claims.

Page 51, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 9. Guiding principles for the final security arrangements, reform, development and modernization of security sector.
9.10.The Parties shall ensure representation of women in structures of the military institution and other security services/security sector and in related decision-making entities, as well as in the reform, development, and modernization of the military establishment and other security services/the security sector.

Page 55, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 18. Prohibited Acts
18.4.Using force and violence against civilians and subjecting them to maltreatment, including sexual violence against women, which constitutes a violation of international law and relevant domestic law

Page 64, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL 26. Integration
26.18.Integration Requirements
26.18.5.Combatants who have been integrated shall receive training in accordance with the requirements of each unit, while observing the special needs of those individuals. Extensive training shall be an option given to assist former combatants, especially women, to meet such requirements;
...
26.18.7.The Government of Sudan shall pay heed to the special needs of former female combatants of the armed struggle movements, through training and other forms of support;
26.18.8.The Government of Sudan shall provide support, training, and rehabilitation on equal footing to all integrated combatants, males and females.

Page 94, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT, General Principles
5. Representation of women at the national level by a percentage of 40%.

Page 96, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.21.To rehabilitate and assist veterans, persons with special-needs, orphans, widows, and care for martyrs’ families.
...
9.55.To promote the role of women and youth and child protection.

Page 102, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS
34. Women shall be represented by no less than 40% [of the seats] on the legislative council.

Page 103, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS
50. Appointing local men/women of the Two Areas in the judicial institutions:
50.1.Local men and women of the Two Areas shall be appointed in judicial institutions at a percentage to be agreed, while observing positive discrimination for the men and women of the state/region, taking into consideration the competence criteria for appointment in judicial institutions, including the judiciary and public prosecution.
50.2.Women and men from the Two Areas shall be appointed as judges on the national Constitutional Court in accordance with the criteria of competency and proficiency.
50.3.Women and men from the Two Areas shall be represented in the National Commission for Judicial Service and/or the Supreme Judicial Council in accordance with the criteria of competence and professionalism.
50.4.Women and men from the Two Areas shall be represented in the High Public Prosecution Council in accordance with the criteria of competence and professionalism.

Page 104, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS
58. There shall be no less than 40% representation of women in the Council of Ministers.

Page 109, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE'S LIBERATION MOVEMENT - NORTH/ THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Preamble
Acknowledging the changes that happened in Sudan as a result of the glorious revolution of December 2018 and the key role women and youth played in the revolution which fulfilled one of the key demands of the Sudanese people.

Page 114, TITLE 3. PERMANENT CHEASEFIRE ARRANGEMENTS,General Principles:
13. Sudanese women shall have a leading role in building and defending the homeland. The unified regular forces shall be reformed and restructured in accordance with the Constitutional Declaration and the final and comprehensive peace agreement. Therefore, women will have an important and effective role in reforming these forces, especially the technical units.

Page 133, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, General Principles
First: Sudan is a sovereign, democratic, parliamentary, pluralistic and decentralized state where rights and duties are based on citizenship without discrimination on grounds of race, faith, culture, sex, color, gender, social or economic status, political opinion, disability, regional affiliation or any other reason.

Page 134, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, General Principles
Second: In order to eliminate political marginalization in Eastern Sudan, the Parties agree to the following principles:
2. Ensuring active and fair participation for the men and women of Eastern Sudan in power at national, regional/state and local levels as well as in all organs of the state in accordance with proportions of the population and positive discrimination while observing qualification and competence criteria.

Page 134, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, General Principles
Second: In order to eliminate political marginalization in Eastern Sudan, the Parties agree to the following principles:
Human Rights and Transitional Justice
7. The Parties shall consider signing and ratifying treaties, agreements and protocols, particularly those related to the rights of women, children and families and complying with the international law and rules of human rights;
8. Codifying UNSC resolution 1325 related to Women, Peace and Security;

Page 135, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, General Principles
Second: In order to eliminate political marginalization in Eastern Sudan, the Parties agree to the following principles:
Education and Human Development Issues
17. The Federal Government shall prioritize the promotion of education at all levels in Eastern Sudan and pay utmost attention to the education of girls;
...
21. The principle of positive discrimination shall be applied to the men and women of the East in higher education scholarships and external university scholarships in accordance with the policies, regulations and standards of higher education;

Page 142, TITLE 5. GENERAL PRINCIPLES
1. Sudan is an independent, sovereign, democratic, parliamentary, pluralistic and decentralized state where rights and duties are based on citizenship without discrimination on grounds of race, faith, culture, sex, color, gender, social or economic status, political opinion, disability, regional affiliation or any other reason.

Page 149-150, TITLE 6. 3. Development, Services, and Revenues
The Government of Sudan shall commit to the following:
3.1.To provide comprehensive development services by establishing socioeconomic development priorities for the rural areas in order to address the displacement crisis that has affected the central areas and address the large percentage of marginalized workers, particularly the youth of both sexes in the cities of the central states.
3.2. Establish specialized centers to combat epidemics and endemic diseases in hot areas, as well as maternity and children’s centers.
...
7. Respecting the fair representation of the Central Track in all committees, commissions, or departments formed to address issues in accordance with the principles of competency, taking into consideration the fair representation of women.

Page 154, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 20. Prohibited Acts.
20.4. Using force and violence against civilians and subjecting them to maltreatment, including sexual violence against women, which constitute a violation of international law and relevant domestic law.

Page 198, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Appoint men and women of the Two Areas in the justice system
Timing: Upon commencing implementation of the Final Agreement and continues thereafter
Implementing Party: The Judiciary and the Attorney General
Source of Funding: the Judiciary and the Attorney General
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Articles 50 to 51.5

Page 199, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish a joint committee to reform the civil service and accommodate the men and women of the Two Areas
Timing: Within 180 days of the date of signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the peace agreement
Reference article: Articles 68 to 70

Page 199, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Represent the men and women of the Two Areas in the national commission of reforming the civil service
Timing: after signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Articles 71 and 72

Page 203, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Allocate full university and post-graduate scholarships for men and women of the positively discriminated state / region to reverse the impact of wars
Timing: After signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan and the state / regional government
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 108
Men and boys
Gender neutral wording
Page 36-37, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, General Principles
10. For purposes of the Peace Agreement, the term “victims of the conflict in Darfur” shall mean:
10.1.Individuals and groups affected by the conflict in Darfur, including male and female survivors of rape, victims of physical, mental, and psychological injuries or those who lost their property or whose basic rights were violated.

Page 38, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 12. Compensation and Reparations Fund
12.11.[The Fund shall] develop a table for awarding the timely compensation payments on the basis of financial principles that require awarding financial compensation proportionate to the damage and loss suffered by the victim. Women, men, children and persons with special needs shall be treated equally when implementing the payments.

Page 46, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 8. The Right to Restitution:
8.6. Male and female IDPs and refugees, affected by the conflict, shall have the right to restore any houses, lands, or farms that they have been arbitrarily or illegally deprived of, irrespective of their choice to return to their original homes.

Page 65, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration
26.18.Integration Requirements
26.18.8.The Government of Sudan shall provide support, training, and rehabilitation on equal footing to all integrated combatants, males and females.

Page 73, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 30. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR)
30.10.6.To prioritize addressing socioeconomic reintegration of groups with special needs, such as women, or other women, boys, girls who are linked to the forces of the armed struggle movements, as well as other vulnerable groups such as conflict affected children, combatants with disabilities, and the elderly, if any;

Page 103, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 50. Appointing local men/women of the Two Areas in the judicial institutions:
50.1.Local men and women of the Two Areas shall be appointed in judicial institutions at a percentage to be agreed, while observing positive discrimination for the men and women of the state/region, taking into consideration the competence criteria for appointment in judicial institutions, including the judiciary and public prosecution.
50.2.Women and men from the Two Areas shall be appointed as judges on the national Constitutional Court in accordance with the criteria of competency and proficiency.
50.3.Women and men from the Two Areas shall be represented in the National Commission for Judicial Service and/or the Supreme Judicial Council in accordance with the criteria of competence and professionalism.
50.4.Women and men from the Two Areas shall be represented in the High Public Prosecution Council in accordance with the criteria of competence and professionalism.

Page 131, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, General Principles
Second: In order to eliminate political marginalization in Eastern Sudan, the Parties agree to the following principles:
2. Ensuring active and fair participation for the men and women of Eastern Sudan in power at national, regional/state and local levels as well as in all organs of the state in accordance with proportions of the population and positive discrimination while observing qualification and competence criteria.

Page 149-150, TITLE 6. 3. Development, Services, and Revenues
The Government of Sudan shall commit to the following:
3.1.To provide comprehensive development services by establishing socioeconomic
development priorities for the rural areas in order to address the displacement crisis that has affected the central areas and address the large percentage of marginalized workers, particularly the youth of both sexes in the cities of the central states.

Page 172, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Accommodate the men and women of Darfur in upper- and mid-level positions by 20%
Timing: Within 45 days of the date of signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue appointment decisions
Reference article: 26.1
26.2

Page 173, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Form an independent expert committee by the Supreme Judicial Council concerned with accommodating men and women from Darfur in the judiciary
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: The Supreme Judiciary Council
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision forming the committee
Reference article: 27.2

Page 173, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Appoint/accommodate men and women from Darfur in the judiciary at a rate of 20%
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: The Judiciary
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue appointment decisions
Reference article: 27.1

Page 173, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Form an independent expert committee by the High Council of the Public Prosecution concerned with accommodating men and women from Darfur in the Public Prosecution Office
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: The Supreme Council of the Public Prosecution
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision forming the committee
Reference article: 28.2

Page 173, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Appoint/accommodate men and women from Darfur in the public prosecution office at a rate of 20%
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: The Attorney General
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue appointment decisions
Reference article: 28.1

Page 174, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Exempt all the men and women of Darfur studying in public universities in Darfur from tuition fees
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement and for a period of 10 years, provided that those admitted at the end of the stipulated period benefit from the tuition fee exemption until they complete their studies
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Take the necessary measures to exempt students
Reference article: 29.1.2

Page 174, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Exempt the men and women of Darfur studying in public universities outside Darfur Region in the enumerated disciplines from tuition fees
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement and lasts for 10 years, provided that those admitted at the end of the stipulated period benefit from the tuition fees until they complete their studies
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Take the necessary measures to exempt students
Reference article: 29.1.3

Page 175, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Allocate 20% of the grants, scholarships, qualification, and training opportunities inside Sudan or abroad to the men and women of Darfur.
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Federal Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision
Reference article: 29.3

Page 195, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Appoint men and women of the Two Areas in the justice system
Timing: Upon commencing implementation of the Final Agreement and continues thereafter
Implementing Party: The Judiciary and the Attorney General
Source of Funding: the Judiciary and the Attorney General
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Articles 50 to 51.5

Page 196, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish a joint committee to reform the civil service and accommodate the men and women of the Two Areas
Timing: Within 180 days of the date of signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the peace agreement
Reference article: Articles 68 to 70

Page 196, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Represent the men and women of the Two Areas in the national commission of reforming the civil service
Timing: after signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Articles 71 and 72

Page 200, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Allocate full university and post-graduate scholarships for men and women of the positively discriminated state / region to reverse the impact of wars
Timing: After signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan and the state / regional government
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 108
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
Page 20, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. 30. Powers of the Regional Government of Darfur
30.1.The Parties agree that Darfur Region shall have exclusive executive and legislative powers to enable it to implement the Peace Agreement as follows:
...
30.1.12.To rehabilitate and support disabled veterans, orphans, and widows and provide care for the families of war-disabled heroes.

Page 36-37, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, General Principles
10. For purposes of the Peace Agreement, the term “victims of the conflict in Darfur” shall mean:
...
10.5.Immediate family or dependents of persons who suffered harm as defined in Paragraph (10.1).

Page 37, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 11. Rights Related to Compensation, Restitution and Reparations
11.1.All victims of the conflict in Darfur shall have an equal right to seek compensation for the losses and damages suffered by them or their families as a result of the Darfur conflict or of other arbitrary or illegal actions that occurred during the conflict in Darfur.
11.2.Reparations shall include, but not be limited to, the right to seek compensation for lost property, lost livelihood, death in the family, personal injury, and other trauma or damages, whether psychological or physical, resulting from the conflict in Darfur.

Page 43, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 8.6. The IDPRC shall exercise the following competencies and functions:
8.6.12.Facilitate the reunion of unaccompanied and separated minors with their parents and families;

Page 66, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 27. The Police
27.13.8.Protect families and children;

Page 96, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.21.To rehabilitate and assist veterans, persons with special-needs, orphans, widows, and care for martyrs’ families.

Page 153, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 19. Permissible Acts
19.1.4. Freedom of movement for unarmed soldiers in civilian attire who are on leave, on sick leave, or are visiting their families pursuant to an authorization issued by the competent authority.

Page 185, TITLE 9, 5. Darfur Track: Displaced Persons and Refugees Implementation Matrix
Activity: Reunite unaccompanied and separated minors with their parents and families
Timing: After establishing the IDPRC
Implementing Party: IDPRC
Source of Funding: IDPRC
Composition:
Procedures: Institute and implement a plan for the reunion
Reference/Article: 8.6.12

State definition

State definition
Nature of state (general)
Page 4, PREAMBLE:
SEEKING to fulfill the longings and aspirations of our peoples to end the wars and conflicts and achieve a just, comprehensive, and sustainable peace, that establishes a state based on equal citizenship without discrimination, and brings justice to millions of Sudanese from displaced persons, refugees and the dispossessed who were forcibly displaced by the former regime, who against them committed war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide;

Page 6,  TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.3. Sudan is an independent, sovereign, democratic, and federal state in which sovereignty is vested in the people and exercised by the state in accordance with the provisions of the Constitutional Charter, the Peace Agreement and any subsequent constitution to be agreed upon by the Sudanese people.
1.4. The peoples of Sudan are the source of all powers and the government at all levels shall be accountable to the people.
1.5. Ending the war and achieving peace in Sudan represents a sound entry point for achieving security, stability, and democratization in the country.
1.6. Maintaining the unity of Sudan’s people and territory through transformation to a new system of just and good governance shall be a key objective for the peaceful transfer of power in Sudan.
1.7. Complete separation of religious institutions and state institutions to ensure that religion is not exploited in politics and that the state stands at equal distance from all religions and beliefs, provided that this is enshrined in the constitution and laws of the country.
...
1.9. Acknowledgment of and respect for the Sudanese identity and the ethnic, religious and cultural diversity of Sudanese peoples without discrimination on any grounds shall be reflected in the governance system and policies in order to build a state based on equal citizenship for all Sudanese people.
1.10.The principle of unity shall be adopted which is based on mutual recognition and respect among the human, social, political, religious and cultural components of the Sudanese state.

Page 54, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 14. General Provisions and Principles of the Permanent Ceasefire
14.10.This agreement shall not include stipulations that could undermine Sudan’s sovereignty, territorial integrity, national security, and the unity of its armed forces and security services;

Page 92-93, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 2: FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT FOR THE TWO AREAS OF BLUE NILE AND SOUTH KORDOFAN / NUBA MOUNTAINS, ISSUES OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE FOR THE TWO AREAS, BLUE NILE, Requirements for Concluding a Process for Achieving Durable Peace and Political Transformation
58. The Parties agreed on achieving sustainable, inclusive and comprehensive peace in accordance with the framework provided in this Agreement, and particularly the following sequencing requirements:
58.4.The Constitutional Conference shall address, among other issues, the relationship between religion and state, and shall resolve this issue in a manner that is in accordance with the right of citizenship without discrimination.

Page 94, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT, General Principles
1. Equal citizenship without discrimination shall be the basis for all rights and duties. The state shall stand at equal distance from all religions and cultures, without any ethnic, religious, or cultural bias that may lead to derogation of this right. It shall be enshrined in the Constitutional Charter governing the transitional period.

Page 109, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE'S LIBERATION MOVEMENT - NORTH/ THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Preamble
Recalling the efforts exerted towards building and structuring a national democratic inclusive state, and the commitment to transitional governance as stipulated in the Constitutional Decree and to what will be provided for in the final peace agreement.

Page 113, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE'S LIBERATION MOVEMENT - NORTH/ THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, PERMANENT CEASEFIRE ARRANGEMENTS, General and Fundamental Provisions
24. This agreement in no way stipulates anything that may undermine the sovereignty or national security of Sudan.
25. Principles of permanent ceasefire: The Parties agree to a permanent ceasefire between all their forces to achieve a broader goal which is safeguarding the final peace agreement, promoting the culture of peace, reconciliation, confidence building and a new democratic system.

Page 149, TITLE 6. Preamble
EARNESTLY SEEKING from the Government of Sudan the realization of a comprehensive, just, and durable peace for all of Sudan and to maintain Sudan’s unity and sovereignty;
State configuration
Page 6,  TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.3. Sudan is an independent, sovereign, democratic, and federal state in which sovereignty is vested in the people and exercised by the state in accordance with the provisions of the Constitutional Charter, the Peace Agreement and any subsequent constitution to be agreed upon by the Sudanese people.

Page 15, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
2. Sudan is a federal, independent, and sovereign state in which sovereignty is vested in the people and is exercised by the state in accordance with the provisions of the Constitutional Charter.
...
10. Power-sharing is significantly important to the unity, security and stability of the country and represents the peaceful transfer of power through free and fair elections, and the transfer of legislative and executive powers as a guarantee of stability and the foundation of democratic governance in Sudan.

Page 94, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT, General Principles
2. Equal citizenship without discrimination shall be the basis for all civil, political, social, economic, and cultural rights and duties to build a decentralized state based on a system of equitable power and wealth sharing and necessary positive discrimination.

Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
21. Equitable power-sharing is vital for Sudan’s unity, security and stability.
State symbols
Page 230, TITLE 10. (B). GENERAL PRINCIPLES
15. The administration of the National Capital shall reflect the people of Sudan and their diversity;

Page 8-9,  TITLE 1. 7. The National Capital:
7.1. The national capital with its three cities shall constitute a symbol of national unity with the rich cultural and social diversity and numerous faiths and traditions they encompass. This requires taking into account the participation of all people of Sudan to manage this great diversity. Therefore, an administration for the national capital shall be established, taking into consideration the fair representation of Sudanese people, provided that the agreed upon Governance Conference shall decide upon it.
7.2. The national capital is a reflection of the Sudanese nation, and as such shall reflect the national character of Sudan with its diversity and values of citizenship without discrimination. It shall also effectively uphold the interests of all Sudanese, especially citizens who have been residing in it before it became a national capital of Sudan.
7.3. To strike a balance between Khartoum’s status as the capital and as a region/state large parts of which suffer from marginalization, the impact of war, displacement, and environmental and service defaults; an economic, social and cultural plan must be developed to promote coexistence, solve the crises of services, infrastructure, the environment, lands, and the organic linkage between the urban and rural areas of the national capital under a development framework that can restore the productive character of the countryside, that does not turn the capital city into an incubator for displacement without resolution of the issues of the countryside, with development and ending the causes of wars and displacement.
7.4. The Parties agree on the importance of effective participation of the residents of Khartoum State in the state-level government agencies, in ministerial and other executive and legislative positions, and in commissions and high administrative positions in institutions of the state of Khartoum.
7.5. To ensure that the administration of the national capital reflects the diversity of Sudan, the Parties agree that the peace process parties shall participate in the institutions of the national capital administration after deciding on its status in the Governance Conference.

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 11. National Powers: the national government shall assume the following exclusive executive and legislative powers:
11.21.The national flag and anthem.

Page 163, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Participation of the residents of Khartoum State in authorities and high administrative positions within institutions of the state of Khartoum
Timing: Within 30 days of the date of final signing
Implementing Party: Council of Ministers and the Khartoum State Government
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue decisions by the Khartoum State Government
Reference article: 7.4

Page 163, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Parties to the Peace Process participate in the administration institutions of the capital city
Timing: Within one month of adopting its status in the governance system conference
Implementing Party:
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures:
Reference article: 7.5
Border delimitation
Page 51, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 9.Guiding principles for the final security arrangements, reform, development and modernization of security sector.
9.7. The Parties agree to reform, develop, and modernize the military establishment and other security services/the security sector, provided that there are short and long-term reforms in furtherance of the objectives and provisions of this agreement, supporting the establishment of a permanent, professional, and independent system to improve their capacity, effectiveness, impartiality, inclusiveness, and professionalism, as well as to strengthen the rule of law in Sudan in accordance with international law and best practices and to establish armed forces that represent the diversity of Sudan and are capable of defending Sudan against foreign enemies and maintaining the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Sudan;

Page 55, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 17. Permissible Acts
17.1.9.Routine movements of the Armed Forces, to secure international borders and confront national security threats, that pass through assembly areas and bases of the armed struggle movements’ forces; after informing the Military Ceasefire Committee.

Page 75, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 33. Reform, Development, and Modernization of the Military Establishment and Other Security Services
33.5.The Parties agree on the following:
33.5.8.To review the strategic deployment of the Armed Forces to ensure defense of the borders and maintaining the sovereignty of the state;

Page 134, TITLE 4, CHAPTER TWO: THE SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUE, Issues of Lands, Dams and Displaced Persons
59. Reaffirming sovereignty of the country and maintaining its lands in al-Fashqa and demarcating the borders with Ethiopia and resolving the issue of Halayeb.

Page 222, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Issues of lands, dams and displaced personsTiming: After ratifying the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party:
Funding:
Composition: the Parties
Procedures: -Address border issues with Ethiopia and conclude the issue of Halayeb
- Issue a decision creating a regional land commission
- Issue a decision to review land settlement and registration laws
- Issue a decision creating an investigation committee regarding displaced persons
- Issue a decision to revise investment contracts
- Issue a decision to form a committee to revise the contracts of Upper Atbara and Setit
- Issue a decision to address the situation of displaced persons
Reference / article: 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62 and 63
Cross-border provision
Page 53, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 14. General Provisions and Principles of the Permanent Ceasefire
14.4.The permanent ceasefire agreement must ensure freedom of mobility for people, particularly civilians, commodities, and services across Sudan as well as opening border crossings with neighboring countries in accordance with the agreements signed with them and the necessary security measures;

Page 138, TITLE 4. CHAPTER TWO: THE SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUE, General Principles
48. The government shall take the necessary measures to resume shipping and unloading operations and the measures of customs and customs clearance to the states/region of Eastern Sudan;

Page 138, TITLE 4. CHAPTER TWO: THE SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUE, Developing and Managing Natural Resources and Infrastructure
56. Studying the establishment of free zones at the borders with neighboring countries

Page 146-147, TITLE 5. ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK (POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC) ISSUES, 22. Improving and encouraging cross-border trade and crossings and rehabilitating customs stations, establishing free zones, dry ports and regulating cross-border trade and establishing a stock market for dates, grains and agricultural, animal and fish products.

Page 212, TITLE 9, 12. Northern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Improve and encourage cross- border trade and crossings
Timing: After ratifying the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan and local and international environmental organisations
Sources of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures:
Reference / article: Article 22 (Northern Track Issues)

Page 221, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Take the necessary measures to resume shipping and unloading operations and customs and customs clearance procedures in states/region of Eastern Sudan
Timing: After ratifying the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan and the state/regional government
Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Take measures and decisions on implementation
Reference / article: 47

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
General references
Page 6-7,  TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.13.The separation of executive, legislative, and judicial powers should lead to reinforcing of the foundations of good governance, accountability, transparency, and commitment to the security and well-being of the people.
...
1.18.Without prejudice to the conditions of qualification and competency and the implementation of the peace agreements concluded with the signatory parties, all Sudanese citizens shall be fairly represented in the civil service, public committees, institutions, commissions, armed forces, and other regular forces at all levels.
1.19.The participation of all Sudanese people shall be guaranteed at all levels of governance, state institutions, and civil service. Fair standards for power sharing shall be developed, without prejudice to the conditions of qualification and competency.
1.20.The importance of fair and effective representation of women at all levels of power and decision-making positions, at a rate of not less than 40% forty percent.

Page 74, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 33. Reform, Development, and Modernization of the Military Establishment and Other Security Services
33.3.Security and Defense Committee in the Transitional Parliament.
33.3.1.The Security and Defense Committee in the Transitional Parliament shall, among other duties, pay special attention to overseeing the implementation of the security arrangements agreement and the reform, modernization, and development plan for the military establishment and security institutions.

Page 154, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 20. Prohibited Acts
20.16. Forces may not exercise any powers of the civilian authority.

Page 170, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Exempt armed political movements from the provisions of the Political Parties Law of 2007
Timing: Upon registration
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Take the necessary measures
Reference article: 6

Page 206, TITLE 9, 12. Northern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Reform governance and state institutions
Timing: After holding the governance system conference
Implementing Party: The Parties and all stakeholders
Sources of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition: -
Procedures: Issue decisions and form committees
Reference / article: Article 6 General Principles

Page 215, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: System of governance
Timing: After the governance and administration conference
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Issue decrees and laws
Reference / article: 1
Temporary new institutions
Page 8,  TITLE 1, 2. Transitional Period:
2.1. The Parties agree to a thirty-nine (39) month transitional period that enters into force upon the date of signing the peace agreement.

PAGE 8, TITLE 1. 3. Article (20) of the Constitutional Charter:
3.1. The Parties agree to exempt representatives of parties to the peace process signatory to this agreement from Article 20 of the Constitutional Charter in the Sovereign Council and the Council of Ministers. This provision shall not apply to state/region governors. The aforementioned provision shall apply to exempt representatives, provided that they shall submit their resignation six months prior to the end of the agreed upon transitional period. Their respective organizations may choose their successors in those positions.
4. Sovereign Council:
4.1. The Parties agree that parties of the peace process signatory to this agreement shall be represented on the current transitional Sovereignty Council by three (3) members.
5. Council of Ministers:
5.1. The Parties agree that the peace process parties signatory to this agreement shall be represented on the Council of Ministers by five ministries, which equals twenty five percent (25%) of the national Council of Ministers, in accordance with the procedures established in the Constitutional Charter.
6. The Transitional Legislative Council:
6.1. The Parties agree that the peace process parties signatory to this agreement shall be represented on the Transitional Legislative Council by twenty five percent (25%), which is equal to seventy-five (75) seats out of the total number of the three hundred (300) seats.

Page 6, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
8. National Commissions, Committees, Agencies, and Institutions:
8.1. Representation in the commissions and committees provided for in the peace agreements shall be in accordance with the provisions stipulated in the peace agreements concluded in the different negotiation tracks.
8.2. National committees whose nature requires appointing partisan personalities, shall include representation of the peace process parties in the same proportion as their representation at the national level, including the chairmanship of those bodies, without prejudice to what has been agreed in the different negotiation tracks.
8.3. The Parties agree that signatory parties to this agreement shall hold the positions that they have obtained under this agreement until the end of the transitional period. They shall respectively assume responsibility for providing a replacement if a position becomes vacant, in accordance with the loss of membership conditions for the specific position.
8.4. The Parties agree that the Civil Service Reform Commission shall undertake the task of reviewing appointments in leading positions in the civil service that were made since the formation of the Transitional Government, provided that the Parties agree on how the commission should be formed.
8.5. The Parties agree on the participation of signatory parties to this agreement in the Anti- Corruption Committee and other committees to be established pursuant to the conditions thereof.
8.6. The Parties agree to establish and structure commissions relevant to the implementation of the peace agreement in partnership with signatory parties to this agreement.

Page 101-104, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 26. Powers in the states/regions of Blue Nile and South Kordofan/ Nuba Mountains and West Kordofan (in their current status) shall be as follows:
26.1.Executive Authority.
26.2.Legislative Authority.
26.3.Judicial Authority.
27. The Executive Authority: organs of executive authority in the state/region shall comprise of:
27.1.State/regional governor.
27.2.State/regional council of ministers.
27.3.State/regional commissions.
28. The Legislative Authority: the state/region shall have a legislative authority/legislative council.
...
32. Composition: the state/regional legislative council shall be comprised on the basis of the population census, while observing diversity, balance, and equitable representation of localities in the state/region of Blue Nile and the states of South Kordofan/ Nuba Mountains and West Kordofan. Members thereof shall be appointed in accordance with this Agreement.
33. Appointment shall be based on the following conditions:
33.1.Be the holder of Sudanese nationality by birth and a citizen of the state/region.
33.2.Be no less than twenty-one years of age.
33.3.Be of sound mind.
33.4.Be literate.
33.5.Have not been convicted with a dishonorable or disgraceful crime.
34. Women shall be represented by no less than 40% [of the seats] on the legislative council.
35. Geographic representation and ethnic and religious diversity shall be observed in the composition of the legislative council.
36. Functions of Legislative Councils in the Two Areas: legislative councils in the Two Areas shall exercise the powers and competencies of the right to legislate for the Two Areas as set forth in this Agreement.
37. The legislative council shall exercise legislative powers stipulated under the exclusive powers and competencies of the state/region, legislation related to the powers and competencies jointly shared between the national government and the state/regional government, and residual powers and competencies.
38. The legislative council shall monitor the executive authority and pass and enact legislation that is endorsed by the state/region governor.
39. Approve the state/region constitution. The state/region governor shall ratify it.
40. The state/region governor shall ratify any law passed by the legislative council. In the event the law is not ratified within 30 days after the date of the deposit thereof, it shall be considered valid, unless the state/region governor submits a constitutional challenge.
41. The legislative council shall issue regulations and procedures governing its work and its committees, and it shall elect the speaker of the council and chairmen of the committees.
42. Members of the legislative council shall enjoy procedural immunity as specified by the law.
43. Without prejudice to its monitoring role over the executive authority, the council shall work in harmony and good faith with the executive authority for the implementation of this Agreement.
...
52. Appointment in constitutional positions: Constitutional positions enumerated in this Agreement shall be occupied by persons appointed by consensus of the Parties.
...
55. The Council of Ministers: the state/region council of ministers shall be established by a decision of the state/region governor, in consultation with his/her deputy.
56. The Council of Ministers shall be composed of the state/region governor, their deputy, and ministers.
57. The state/region governor shall preside over the Council of Ministers and in the case of his/her absence or delegation thereof, the deputy state/region governor shall preside.
58. There shall be no less than 40% representation of women in the Council of Ministers.
59. Competency and diversity shall be observed in the appointment of Ministers.
60. The state/region Council of Ministers shall be accountable for the conduct of its functions before the state/region governor. Performance of the Council of Ministers shall be monitored by the state/region legislative council.
61. Powers and competencies of the Council of Ministers: without prejudice to the powers of the state/region governor, the Council of Ministers shall be the highest executive authority and shall assume the following powers:
61.1.Exercise of exclusive, joint, and residual powers and competencies.
61.2.Establishment of commissions in the state/region.
...
63. Members of the Council of Ministers shall enjoy procedural immunity as defined by law.

Page 162, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Extend the transitional period
Timing: [for a period of] 39 months from the date of the final signing
Implementing Party: The Parties to the Agreement
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures:
Reference article: 2

Page 162, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Appoint Parties to the Peace Process in the Sovereign Council
Timing: Within 7 days of integrating the peace agreements in the Constitutional Charter
Implementing Party: The Sovereign Council
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Select 3 members by Parties to the Peace Process
Reference article: 4

Page 162-163, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Appoint Parties to the Peace Process in the Council of Ministers
Timing: Within 7 days of integrating the peace agreements to the Constitutional Charter
Implementing Party:
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Select ministers by the Parties to the Peace Process
Reference article: 5

Page 163, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Appoint Parties to the Peace Process in the Legislative Council
Timing: Within 60 days of the date of the final signing
Implementing Party: The Sovereign Council
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Select members on the Transitional Legislative Council by Parties to the Peace Process
Reference article: 6

Page 163, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Represent Parties to the Peace Process on the national committees whose nature require partisan representation
Timing: Within 30 days of integrating the peace agreements in the Constitutional Charter
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision appointing representative of the Parties to the Peace Process on these committees
Reference article: 8.2

Page 164, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Participation of signatory parties to this agreement on the Anti-Corruption Committee and other committees established or to be established
Timing: Immediately after integrating the peace agreements in the Constitutional Charter
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue appointment decisions
Reference article: 8.5

Page 197, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish a committee to draft a transitional constitution of the state / region
Timing: After the system of governance conference
Implementing Party: State / region governor
Source of Funding: state / regional government
Composition: Partners in the transitional governance
Location: state / region
Procedures, Method & Criteria:
Reference article: Article 31
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
Page 20, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. 30. Powers of the Regional Government of Darfur
30.1.The Parties agree that Darfur Region shall have exclusive executive and legislative powers to enable it to implement the Peace Agreement as follows:...30.1.1.To adopt and amend the constitution of the regional government of Darfur in a manner that does not contradict the national constitution;

Page 62, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration
26.2.The ultimate purpose of the integration process is for the Sudanese Armed Forces, with its new unified military doctrine that protects citizens, the homeland, and the constitution; to be the only professional national army and to integrate all other forces present on Sudanese territory in a unified professional national army;

Page 67, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 28. The General Intelligence Service
28.7.The General Intelligence Service shall have the following competencies:
28.7.1.Preserve the national security of Sudan, protect its constitution, social fabric, and the safety of its citizens from any threat, in coordination with other regular forces;
...
28.7.9.Undertake any other functions for which it is tasked, provided that such functions are not inconsistent with the Constitution.

Page 68, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 29. Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.Functions of the Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.1.Undertaking the constitutional, moral, and political responsibility of the Government of Sudan in protecting civilians;

Page 74, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 33. Reform, Development, and Modernization of the Military Establishment and Other Security Services
33.5.The Parties agree on the following:
33.5.3.The military doctrine shall be based on the Constitution;

Page 151, TITLE 7. Preamble
Recalling the efforts exerted towards building a national democratic inclusive state, and the commitment to transitional governance as stipulated in the Constitutional Decree;

Page 157, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 26. The General Intelligence Service
26.3. The General Intelligence Services shall have the following competencies:
26.3.1. Preserve the national security of Sudan, protect its constitution, social fabric, and the safety of its citizens from any threat, in coordination with other regular institutions.
...
26.3.8. Protect important persons and public facilities and secure cities in coordination with other regular forces. It shall undertake any other functions for which it is tasked, provided that such functions are not inconsistent with the constitution.
Constitutional reform/making
Page 7, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.28.The future “permanent” constitution of Sudan shall be the result of a constitution-making process that begins with the Constitutional Conference and is transparent, participatory, inclusive, and covers all topics.

Page 9-10, TITLE 1, 9. The Constitutional Conference:
9.1. The Parties agree on holding the national constitutional conference well in advance of the end of the transitional period, as agreed by the Parties. The national Constitutional Conference shall address essential issues and determine how Sudan shall be governed, address the issues of nation-building, and reach a social contract to build a new system based on democracy, citizenship and social justice.
9.2. The Commission for the Constitutional Conference and Constitution Drafting shall prepare for the national Constitutional Conference with the participation of all Sudanese parties, provided that it starts its work in a participatory, transparent, and inclusive manner within no more than (6) six months from the date of signing the peace agreement.
9.3. The Parties agree that the Commission for the Constitutional Conference and Constitution Drafting shall define objective criteria against which the participants in the national constitutional conference shall be selected.
9.4. The Parties agree on the effective participation of the parties to the peace agreement in drafting the law and establishing the Commission for the Constitutional Conference and Constitution Drafting.
9.5. The national Constitutional Conference agenda shall include, but not be limited to, the following topics:
9.5.1.Identity and diversity management;
9.5.2.Citizenship;
9.5.3.Relationship of religion to the state;
9.5.4. Reform and development of the security sector;
9.5.5.Issues of governance and authority;
9.5.6.Issues of wealth, development, the environment, and the economy;
9.5.7.Foreign policy;
9.5.8.How to approve the permanent national constitution;
9.5.9.Any other issues defined by the Commission for the Constitutional Conference and Constitution Drafting;
9.6. The Parties agree that the Government of Sudan shall commit to providing the necessary funding for the national constitutional conference;
9.7. The Parties agree to the fair and equal representation, on the bases of gender, diversity, geography, and age, in the national constitutional conference, and that constitutional conferences in the regions shall be held as part of the constitution-drafting process.
10. System of Governance Conference:
10.1.The Parties agree to hold a System of Governance Conference to define the powers and Vertical and horizontal relationships of the regional system of governance, without prejudice to the obligations stipulated in the different track-specific agreements.
10.2.The Parties agree to establish a system of regional governance as set forth in the peace agreements, provided that the Transitional Government of Sudan shall take the necessary legal measures to issue an official decision to restore the system of regions in a period of no more than (60) sixty days from the date of signing the peace agreement with the signatory parties of this agreement.
10.3.The System of Governance Conference in Sudan shall be held no more than (6) six months after the date of signing the peace agreement. The conference shall aim to review the borders and administrative division of the regions; the different levels of governance; and structures, powers and competencies of the regions in a fashion that does not contravene the peace agreements signed by the parties in Juba.

Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 24. The Supremacy of this agreement over the Constitutional Charter
24.1.The Parties agree on including the signed peace agreements in the Constitutional Charter and in the event of a conflict, the Constitutional Charter shall be amended to remedy such conflict.

Page 91, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 2: FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT FOR THE TWO AREAS OF BLUE NILE AND SOUTH KORDOFAN / NUBA MOUNTAINS, ISSUES OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE FOR THE TWO AREAS, BLUE NILE, The future status of the Two Areas in light of this Framework Agreement
56. The provisions and texts of this agreement shall be an integral part of the Final Peace Agreement and of the Constitutional Declaration. It is binding and its implementation is mandatory.

Page 92-93, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 2: FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT FOR THE TWO AREAS OF BLUE NILE AND SOUTH KORDOFAN / NUBA MOUNTAINS, ISSUES OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE FOR THE TWO AREAS, BLUE NILE, Requirements for Concluding a Process for Achieving Durable Peace and Political Transformation
58. The Parties agreed on achieving sustainable, inclusive and comprehensive peace in accordance with the framework provided in this Agreement, and particularly the following sequencing requirements:
58.2.The Transitional Government of Sudan shall commit to convening the Constitutional Conference after reaching a comprehensive peace and before the end of the transitional period.
58.3.The Constitutional Conference shall be convened with the participation of all the real stakeholders to agree a permanent constitution for Sudan which guarantees fundamental democratic rights, above all, the right to citizenship without discrimination, and answers the historic question of how Sudan should be governed before deciding who should govern Sudan.
58.4.The Constitutional Conference shall address, among other issues, the relationship between religion and state, and shall resolve this issue in a manner that is in accordance with the right of citizenship without discrimination.

Page 101-102, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 31. The Parties agree upon the establishment of a committee composed of all of the parties in the state/region to develop a draft transitional constitution in the state/region included in this agreement after holding the Governance Conference stipulated in this agreement provided that it is consistent with the Constitutional Charter and the Peace Agreement.

Page 102, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 39. Approve the state/region constitution. The state/region governor shall ratify it.

Page 110, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GENERAL PROVISIONS, 104. It has been agreed that small conferences shall be held in the Two Areas to prepare and draft the constitution within the framework of preparing for the national constitutional conference.

Page 111, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GENERAL PROVISIONS, 112. This Agreement shall be an integral part of the Constitutional Charter. In the event of conflict, the provisions of this Agreement shall prevail.

Page 162, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Integrate peace agreements in the Constitutional Charter
Timing: Within 10 days of the date of the final signing
Implementing Party: The Legislative Council (Sovereign Council and Council of Ministers)
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures:
Reference article: 21.2

Page 164, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish the Constitution Drafting and the Constitutional Conference Commission
Timing: Within 6 months of the date of signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Sovereign Council
Source of Funding:
Composition: All Sudanese parties
Procedures: Issue a decree creating the commission and its own law
Reference article: 9.2, 9.4

Page 164, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Prepare for an hold the Constitutional Conference
Timing: Sufficiently in advance of the end of the transitional period
Implementing Party: The Constitution Drafting and the Constitutional Conference Commission
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures:
Reference article: 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7

Page 173, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Integrate the peace agreements in the Constitutional Charter
Timing: Within 10 days of the date of the final signing
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Take the necessary measures
Reference article: 24.1 and article 21.1 of the National Issues Protocol

Page 202, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Integrate the Peace Agreement of the Two Areas into the Constitutional Charter
Timing: Ten days after signing the Final Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan and partners of peace
Composition: The Parties
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: Through a joint committee by The Parties, in accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 112

Page 202, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Hold small conferences in the Two Areas to prepare and draft the constitution
Timing: Before holding the national constitutional conference
Implementing Party: state / regional government
Source of Funding: state / regional government and donors
Composition: state / regional government
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 104

Page 209, TITLE 9, 12. Northern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Integrate the present agreement in the Constitutional Charter
Timing: Immediately upon ratifying the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Sources of Funding: -
Composition: -
Procedures:
Reference / article: Article 8 General Principles
Elections
Page 6, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.12.Just power sharing is important to the unity, security and stability of Sudan. The peaceful transfer of power through free and fair elections, and the delegation of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the different levels of governance are guarantees for stability and is the solid foundation for democratic governance in Sudan.

Page 8, TITLE 1, 3. Article (20) of the Constitutional Charter [coder note: this refers to ability of certain persons to run in elections after the transition period]:
3.1. The Parties agree to exempt representatives of parties to the peace process signatory to this agreement from Article 20 of the Constitutional Charter in the Sovereign Council and the Council of Ministers. This provision shall not apply to state/region governors. The aforementioned provision shall apply to exempt representatives, provided that they shall submit their resignation six months prior to the end of the agreed upon transitional period. Their respective organizations may choose their successors in those positions.

Page 10-11, TITLE 1, 13. Elections:
13.1.The Parties agree to hold free and fair general elections with international monitoring at the end of the transitional period, provided that it is preceded by the implementation of the agreed plan for the return of IDPs and refugees, as stipulated in the different track agreements, holding of the national Constitutional Conference, conducting the census, issuing the law on elections and political parties, and establishing the Elections Commission.

Page 93, TITLE 3, CHAPTER 2: FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT FOR THE TWO AREAS OF BLUE NILE AND SOUTH KORDOFAN / NUBA MOUNTAINS, ISSUES OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE FOR THE TWO AREAS, BLUE NILE, Requirements for Concluding a Process for Achieving Durable Peace and Political Transformation
58. The Parties agreed on achieving sustainable, inclusive and comprehensive peace in accordance with the framework provided in this Agreement, and particularly the following sequencing requirements:
58.5.The Parties agreed that a general election shall be held as a peace dividend and after reviewing the election laws and requirements, and conducting a new nationwide census following the voluntary return of IDPs and refugees within the framework of the transitional period arrangements.

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:…
10.14.Conduct population census and partake in revising elections laws.

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 11. National Powers: the national government shall assume the following exclusive executive and legislative powers:
11.34.Laws regulating national elections and monitoring elections through the national commission for elections.

Page 162, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Exempt representatives of Parties to the Peace Process signatory to this Agreement from Article 20 of the Constitutional Charter
Timing:
Implementing Party:
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures:
Reference article: 3

Page 165, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Hold general elections
Timing: Before the end of the transitional period
Implementing Party: The Elections Commission
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Implement the plan for the return of the IDPs and refugees, hold the Constitutional Conference, conduct the census, issue the elections and political parties law, and establish the elections commission
Reference article: 13.1
Electoral commission
Page 10-11, TITLE 1, 13. Elections:
13.1.The Parties agree to hold free and fair general elections with international monitoring at the end of the transitional period, provided that it is preceded by the implementation of the agreed plan for the return of IDPs and refugees, as stipulated in the different track agreements, holding of the national Constitutional Conference, conducting the census, issuing the law on elections and political parties, and establishing the Elections Commission.

Page 165, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish the Elections Commission
Timing: Sufficiently in advance of holding elections
Implementing Party: Sovereignty Council
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Issue the Elections Law and the decision to create the Commission
Reference article: 13.1
Political parties reform
Rebels transitioning to political parties
Page 15, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
6. For the purpose of being registered as political parties, the Parties agree to exempt armed political movements from the provisions of the Political Parties Law of 2007 provided that those movements are signatory to the Peace Agreement that includes security arrangements.

Page 101, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 29. The Parties agree that the SPLM-N-SRF shall partake in the institutions of the transitional authority in accordance with the National Issues Agreement, as well as all commissions and mechanisms related to the implementation of the Peace Agreement and the Constitutional Charter.

Page 170, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Exempt armed political movements from the provisions of the Political Parties Law of 2007
Timing: Upon registration
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Take the necessary measures
Reference article: 6
Other political parties reform
Page 7, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.26.Political pluralism and the formation of political parties, trade unions and other organizations are essential for good governance and political participation in Sudan.

Page 10-11, TITLE 1, 13. Elections:
13.1.The Parties agree to hold free and fair general elections with international monitoring at the end of the transitional period, provided that it is preceded by the implementation of the agreed plan for the return of IDPs and refugees, as stipulated in the different track agreements, holding of the national Constitutional Conference, conducting the census, issuing the law on elections and political parties, and establishing the Elections Commission.

Page 165, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Issue the Political Parties Law
Timing:
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue the Political Parties Regulation Law
Reference article: 13.1
Civil society
Page 7, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.26.Political pluralism and the formation of political parties, trade unions and other organizations are essential for good governance and political participation in Sudan.

Page 30, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL,
General Principles
11. Children implicated in the conflict, who may have been involved in the commission of crimes under international law, if any, shall be considered victims and treated in accordance with the Convention on the Rights of the Child, Protocol II to the Geneva Convention, the African Charter on Rights and Welfare of the Child, the Beijing Rules, and relevant international juvenile justice and standards of fair trial. In conjunction with UNICEF and other relevant international organizations, the Parties shall work to rehabilitate and reintegrate child soldiers into society.

Page 38, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 12. Compensation and Reparations Fund
12.14.The Fund may receive assistance from national, regional and international organizations and NGOs in its field of work.

Page 42, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 7. International Support
7.2. The Parties shall commit to granting national and international aid organizations full land, air, and sea access to all territories and IDPs to implement the voluntary return and resettlement programs, within the framework of ratified international agreements, and in accordance with national laws;

Page 43, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 8. Internally Displaced Persons and Refugees Commission
8.6.16.Work with UNAMID/ a third party, UN agencies, relevant national and international agencies, and other international and national aid organizations to ensure proper protection and dignified treatment of IDPs and refugees during the process of return and reintegration or resettlement;

Page 49, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, Preamble
RECOGNIZING that the core of this agreement is inclusiveness and the involvement of armed groups, political forces, and civil society to become part of the peace process, to play a role therein, and contribute to maintaining this agreement.

Page 51, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 9.Guiding principles for the final security arrangements, reform, development and modernization of security sector.
9.3. All agreements on and arrangements for the cessation of hostilities or permanent ceasefire, or for security arrangements and all other reforms shall also serve to facilitate or ensure safe, immediate, and unhindered humanitarian access;
9.4. The Parties shall create appropriate security conditions for the unimpeded flow of humanitarian assistance and goods;

Page 55, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 17. Permissible Acts
17.1.7.Humanitarian action by facilitating the flow of relief and humanitarian assistance in accordance with the agreed regulations;
17.1.8.Medical evacuation;

Page 55, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 18. Prohibited Acts
18.17.Assembly area forces may not object to any social, humanitarian, or societal services provided by the competent authorities;

Page 60, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 25. Command and Control Mechanisms
25.6.The Permanent Ceasefire Committee:
25.6.4.11.Facilitate the flow of humanitarian assistance;
25.6.4.12.The Ceasefire Committee shall work with the Parties and the Joint Humanitarian Committee to define specific methods, as necessary, to provide humanitarian assistance to specific areas in coordination with the Humanitarian Assistance Commission. Chairman of the committee shall make any final decisions on the means of the delivery of humanitarian aid in consultation with the Parties.

Page 61, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 25. Command and Control Mechanisms
25.7.Sectoral Committee.
25.7.1.4.To have bylaws to regulate its work;

Page 68, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 29. Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.Functions of the Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.9.Creating an appropriate environment for humanitarian action in areas of return for IDPs and refugees by facilitating and protecting access to national, foreign, governmental, and non-governmental aid organizations;
...
29.5.11.Helping to secure a protective environment for civilians through the protection of general prosecution offices, branch police stations, motor and on-foot police patrols, and humanitarian aid convoys;

Page 89, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 2: FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT FOR THE TWO AREAS OF BLUE NILE AND SOUTH KORDOFAN / NUBA MOUNTAINS, ISSUES OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE FOR THE TWO AREAS, BLUE NILE, Confidence-building measures for implementation
57. The Parties commit to immediate implementation of confidence-building measures, including the following:
57.1.Continued implementation of unrestricted and unconditional delivery of relief and humanitarian aid from within and outside of Sudan, as provided for in the Agreement on humanitarian assistance and cessation of hostilities signed on 17 December 2019.

Page 112, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Permanent Ceasefire Arrangements
General and Fundamental Provisions
...
17. The Parties agree that inclusiveness is the essence of this agreement and thereby to engage the armed groups, political forces, and civil society as part of the peace process that shall play a role therein and contribute to safeguarding this agreement.
...
20. The Parties shall commit to engaging judicial and legal bodies, national organizations, and the International Committee of the Red Cross in the process of releasing all prisoners of war and other people detained or convicted as a result of the war as well as looking for missing persons in a fashion that promotes reconciliation and heals the wounds of war.
Traditional/religious leaders
Page 34, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL,
23. Traditional Justice Mechanisms.
23.12.Local and regional leaders and tribal elders shall oversee the functions of traditional justice mechanisms. Judges and members of justice mechanisms shall be persons of high integrity.
23.13.The Parties shall consult local and regional leaders and civil administrations on how to bestow an official character to traditional justice mechanisms in the national justice system.

Page 38, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 12. Compensation and Reparations Fund
12.8.All forms of documents issued by competent bodies shall be admissible before the Compensations and Reparations Fund, after examining and verifying their authenticity, including but not limited to:
...
12.8.2.Testimony by traditional and local leaders;

Page 42-43, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 8. Internally Displaced Persons and Refugees Commission
8.6.3.The IDPRC in Darfur shall establish local committees for claims that shall be comprised of local, traditional, and community leaders, including representatives of IDPs, refugees, and women. The local committees shall investigate compensation-related claims and other means of reparations, and submit their reports to the IDPRC in Darfur;

Page 47, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 9. Darfur Lands and Hawakeer Commission
9.6. The DLHC shall form local committees for claims, which include local, traditional, and community leaders, including representatives of IDPs, refugees and women, to investigate claims related to compensations and other means of reparations. The committees submit their reports to the DLHC.

Page 47, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 10. DLHC Powers and Competencies
10.1.The DLHC shall have the following powers and competencies:
...
10.1.3.To undertake all appropriate arrangements to ensure the full and effective participation of IDPs, refugees, local and traditional leaders, women, and all affected individuals of local communities in its procedures, including the investigation of disputed land claims.

Page 187, TITLE 9, 5. Darfur Track: Displaced Persons and Refugees Implementation Matrix
Activity: Form local committees for claims comprising local, traditional, and community leaders
Timing: Immediately after the establishment of the IDPRC
Implementing Party: IDPRC
Source of Funding:
Composition: Local, traditional, and community leaders, and representatives of IDPs, refugees and women’s organizations
Procedures: Issue decisions to form the committees
Reference/Article: 8.6.3

Page 191, TITLE 9, 7. Darfur Track: Land and Hawakeer Implementation Matrix
Activity: Form local committees for claims that include local, traditional, and community leaders.
Timing: Immediately after the establishment of the DLHC
Implementing Party: DLHC
Source of Funding:
Composition: Local, traditional and community leaders, and representatives of IDPs, refugees and women’s organizations
Procedures: Issue decisions to form the committees
Reference/Article: 9.6
Public administration
Page 7, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.18.Without prejudice to the conditions of qualification and competency and the implementation of the peace agreements concluded with the signatory parties, all Sudanese citizens shall be fairly represented in the civil service, public committees, institutions, commissions, armed forces, and other regular forces at all levels.
1.19.The participation of all Sudanese people shall be guaranteed at all levels of governance, state institutions, and civil service. Fair standards for power sharing shall be developed, without prejudice to the conditions of qualification and competency.
1.20.The importance of fair and effective representation of women at all levels of power and decision-making positions, at a rate of not less than 40% forty percent.

Page 9, TITLE 1, 8. National Commissions, Committees, Agencies, and Institutions:
8.4. The Parties agree that the Civil Service Reform Commission shall undertake the task of reviewing appointments in leading positions in the civil service that were made since the formation of the Transitional Government, provided that the Parties agree on how the commission should be formed.

Page 10, TITLE 1, 12. Census:
12.1.The Parties agree to conduct a national census in an effective and transparent manner before the end of the transitional period, with international support and oversight.

Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
18. All Sudanese citizens shall be justly and fairly represented in the civil service, public bodies, institutions, commissions, armed forces and other regular forces at all upper and middle levels.

Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
19. Darfur citizens shall be guaranteed participation at all levels of government, state institutions, and civil service through equitable power-sharing standards.

Page 17, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 26. National Civil Service
26.1.The Parties agree to address the imbalance in the national civil service in favor of citizens of Darfur at all levels of employment according to population ratio and positive discrimination standards, provided that appointments are made in accordance with eligibility and competence criteria.

Page 17-18, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 26. National Civil Service
26.2.The Parties agree to accommodate the men and women of Darfur in upper and mid-level positions (undersecretaries, ambassadors, members of diplomatic missions, general managers, various administrations and departments in national ministries and commissions, the judiciary, public prosecution, national and semi-national institutions, banks, and the boards of public and semi-public companies) by 20% provided that appointment is made by political decree within 45 (forty-five days) of the date of signing the Peace Agreement.
26.3.The Parties agree to form a joint committee to select persons to be accommodated by the foregoing article.

Page 18, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 26. National Civil Service
26.4.The Parties agree to form a committee to identify the imbalance in civil service. The committee shall comprise specialists agreed upon by the Parties under the supervision of the Civil Service Reform Commission to identify the imbalance in the representation of the men and women of Darfur in the national civil service at all employment levels and in all state institutions within a period not exceeding 6 (six months) from the date it commences operations. The committee shall submit its report to the Civil Service [Reform] Commission and the Parties to this Agreement. The Prime Minister shall take all necessary corrective measures within no more than 45 (forty-five days) from the date of the submission of the report, provided that the committee commences undertaking its mandates within 60 (sixty days) from the date of signing of the Peace Agreement.
26.5.The Parties agree to address the imbalance in the representation of the men and women of Darfur in the national civil service as defined by the committee referred to in the aforementioned paragraph by applying the standards of population proportionality and positive discrimination, while taking stock of the advantages and disadvantages of previous experiences and taking standards of qualification and competence into consideration.
26.6.Persons arbitrarily dismissed from civil service for reasons related to the conflict in Darfur shall have their situation remedied through the National Committee for the Reinstitution of Arbitrarily Dismissed Persons.

Page 20, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. 30. Powers of the Regional Government of Darfur
30.1.The Parties agree that Darfur Region shall have exclusive executive and legislative powers to enable it to implement the Peace Agreement as follows:
...
30.1.5.To appoint employees in the government of the Darfur Region, determine their authorities, and pay their salaries;

Page 31, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, 23. Traditional Justice Mechanisms
23.13.The Parties shall consult local and regional leaders and civil administrations on how to bestow an official character to traditional justice mechanisms in the national justice system.

Page 60, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 25. Command and Control Mechanisms
25.6.The Permanent Ceasefire Committee:
25.6.4.2.Institute a communications system and procedures for effective and trustworthy communication with the Parties and other actors and stakeholders (leaders of civil administrations, civil society, IDPs, and refugees);

Page 65, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 27. The Police
27.4.The Parties recognize that the Sudanese police shall be a law-enforcement service that is composed and commanded at a national level, operating at state/regional level with the presence of federal departments that undertake their federal obligations and duties;
...
27.11.The state shall provide the necessary logistics and budget;

Page 88-98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 2: FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT FOR THE TWO AREAS OF BLUE NILE AND SOUTH KORDOFAN / NUBA MOUNTAINS, ISSUES OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE FOR THE TWO AREAS, BLUE NILE, 52. The Parties need to rectify the historic lack of representation of the residents of the Blue Nile region / state in the governance structure of Sudan through positive discrimination in the federal government and national civil service.

Page 95-96, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.5. The provisions on positive discrimination as set forth in this Agreement related to power, wealth, and civil service matters is [a means] to remedy grievances suffered by the people of the Two Areas and address the root causes of the crisis that led to wars in the Two Areas.
...
9.14.To appoint employees and civil servants in the state/regional government, determine their competencies, and pay their salaries.

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:…
10.16.Positive discrimination for the Two Areas at the national level, especially in civil service.

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 11. National Powers: the national government shall assume the following exclusive executive and legislative powers:
11.8.Definition and provision of wages and allowances for civil servants at the national level.

Page 111, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GENERAL PROVISIONS, 109. Staff of civil service institutions in the areas controlled by the SPLM-N-SRF shall be reviewed, integrated, and included in civil service structures in the Two Areas to ensure the unification of governance institutions, the state mandate and the system that emerged by virtue of the agreement on all Sudanese territories in accordance with the legislation and standards of civil service while observing positive discrimination.

Page 135, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, Representation of the People of the East in Civil Service, 14. The Parties agreed to remedy the imbalance in national civil service for citizens of Eastern Sudan at all levels of employment proportionate to population weight and according to positive discrimination criteria provided that appointment is made according to qualification and competence standards;
15. The Federal Government shall endeavor to accommodate the men and women of Eastern Sudan in all national civil service posts by a percentage of up to 14% of all public employment posts. This shall be done under the supervision of the National Commission for Civil Service
Reform;

Page 163-164, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Review appointments in the leading positions in civil service
Timing: Within 90 days of of the date of integrating the peace agreements in the Constitutional Charter
Implementing Party: The Civil Service Reform Commission
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Review appointments
Reference article: 8.4

Page 165, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Conduct a national census
Timing: Continues after signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan with international assistance and monitoring
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan with international assistance
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision to conduct the national census
Reference article: 12.1

Page 175, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Form a joint committee to select persons to be accommodated in upper- and middle-level positions of the civil service
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: The Parties
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue decisions forming the committee
Reference article: 26.3

Page 175, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Form a committee to identify imbalance in civil service
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement, the committee commences implementation of its mandate within 60 days of the date of signing the Final Agreement, and submits its report within 6 months of the date of signing
Implementing Party: The Parties
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision forming the committee and taking the necessary corrective measures within no more than 45 days of the date of submission of the report
Reference article: 26.4, 26.5

Page 175, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Remedy the situation of persons arbitrarily dismissed from civil service for reasons related to the conflict in Darfur
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: The National Committee for reinstituting the arbitrarily dismissed persons
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Take the necessary measures
Reference article: 26.8

Page 199, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish a joint committee to reform the civil service and accommodate the men and women of the Two Areas
Timing: Within 180 days of the date of signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the peace agreement
Reference article: Articles 68 to 70

Page 199, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Represent the men and women of the Two Areas in the national commission of reforming the civil service
Timing: after signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Articles 71 and 72

Page 203, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Integrate and accommodate for staff of civil service in the areas controlled by the SPLM-N-SRF
Timing: After signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: state / regional government
Source of Funding: state / regional government
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria:
Reference article: Article 109

Page 219, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Remedy the imbalance in representation in the national civil service for citizens of Eastern Sudan at all levels
Timing: After final signing of the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan (Commission of reforming the national civil service)
Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition: The parties
Procedures: Issue the appointment decrees and decisions (undersecretaries, university deans, directors and presidents of institutions and organs, the diplomatic sector, media outlets, etc.)
Reference / article: 14 & 15

Power sharing

Political power sharing
State level
Page 6, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.12.Just power sharing is important to the unity, security and stability of Sudan. The peaceful transfer of power through free and fair elections, and the delegation of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the different levels of governance are guarantees for stability and is the solid foundation for democratic governance in Sudan.

Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
19. Darfur citizens shall be guaranteed participation at all levels of government, state institutions, and civil service through equitable power-sharing standards.

Page 132, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, Participation at the national level
12. Eastern Sudan's Track's share at the national level shall be included within the peace bloc

Page 218, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Participation at the national level
Timing: Within 7 days of ratifying the agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Funding: Transitional
Composition:
Procedures: Issue appointment decrees and decisions
Reference / article: 12
Sub-state level
Page 8-9, TITLE 1, 7. The National Capital:
7.5. To ensure that the administration of the national capital reflects the diversity of Sudan, the Parties agree that the peace process parties shall participate in the institutions of the national capital administration after deciding on its status in the Governance Conference.

Page 14, TITLE 1, 28. Northern Sudan and Central Sudan Tracks
28.1.The Parties agree to 10% representation of the parties to the peace agreement by in governance of the Northern State, Nile River State, Sennar State, El Gezira State, and White Nile State.
29. State of North and West Kordofan
29.1.The Parties agree to 10% representation of the parties to the peace agreement and any other parties determined by the Parties in governance in North Kordofan State and West Kordofan State.

[Summary: TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS contains provisions for sub-state power sharing in institutions of the state/region of Blue Nile and the states of South Kordofan/ Nuba Mountains and West Kordofan. These have been coded in the relevant power-sharing categories.]

Page 135, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, Participation at the Regional/State-Level
13. The Parties agreed to allocate 30% of the representation for the opposition’s Beja Congress and the United Popular Front for Liberation and Justice at legislative and executive levels in Eastern Sudan’s three states as appropriate for the goals of just peace.

Page 163, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Parties to the Peace Process participate in the administration institutions of the capital city
Timing: Within one month of adopting its status in the governance system conference
Implementing Party:
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures:
Reference article: 7.5

Page 169, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Represent Parties of the peace process signatory to this Agreement in governance in the Northern State and the states of, Nile River, Sennar, Gezira, and the White Nile
Timing: Upon forming the states/regional governments
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue appointment decisions
Reference article: 28.1

Page 169, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Represent Parties of the peace process signatory to this Agreement in governance in the North Kordofan and West Kordofan States
Timing: Upon forming the states/regional governments
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue appointment decisions
Reference article: 29.1

Page 174, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Represent Parties to the agreement in governance in Darfur region/states
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: The Parties
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision of appointment in accordance with the proportions stated in the Agreement. Stakeholders shall be selected through a supervision mechanism to be agreed by The Parties
Reference article: 25.6, 25.6.1, 25.6.2, 25.6.3, 25.6.4, 25.6.5

Page 174, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Presidency of the regional government shall be among the components of Darfur Track
Timing: After establishment of the regional government
Implementing Party: The Parties
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision appointing head of the regional government
Reference article: 25.7

Page 217, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Allocate 30% of executive and legislative power in the three eastern states
Timing: Upon forming the state/regional institutions
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue the appointment decrees and decisions
Reference / article: 13
Executive coalition
Page 8, TITLE 1, 2. Transitional Period:
2.1. The Parties agree to a thirty-nine (39) month transitional period that enters into force upon the date of signing the peace agreement.
3. Article (20) of the Constitutional Charter:
3.1. The Parties agree to exempt representatives of parties to the peace process signatory to this agreement from Article 20 of the Constitutional Charter in the Sovereign Council and the Council of Ministers. This provision shall not apply to state/region governors. The aforementioned provision shall apply to exempt representatives, provided that they shall submit their resignation six months prior to the end of the agreed upon transitional period. Their respective organizations may choose their successors in those positions.
4. Sovereign Council:
4.1. The Parties agree that parties of the peace process signatory to this agreement shall be represented on the current transitional Sovereignty Council by three (3) members.
5. Council of Ministers:
5.1. The Parties agree that the peace process parties signatory to this agreement shall be represented on the Council of Ministers by five ministries, which equals twenty five percent (25%) of the national Council of Ministers, in accordance with the procedures established in the Constitutional Charter.

Page 101, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 30. The Parties agree that the SPLM-N-SRF shall be represented by virtue of appointment to the position of state/region governor in the state of the Blue Nile and the position of state/region deputy governor in the states of South Kordofan/ Nuba Mountains and West Kordofan. SPLM-N-SRF shall also have 30% representation in the executive and legislative authorities of the states of Blue Nile and South Kordofan/ Nuba Mountains and West Kordofan, according to their agreed status. If the country reverts to the regional system of governance, SPLM-N-SRF shall keep the position of deputy governor in the region of South Kordofan/ Nuba Mountains and West Kordofan and a 30% representation in the region’s executive and legislative organs in the region.

Page 135, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, Participation at the Regional/State-Level
13. The Parties agreed to allocate 30% of the representation for the opposition’s Beja Congress and the United Popular Front for Liberation and Justice at legislative and executive levels in Eastern Sudan’s three states as appropriate for the goals of just peace.

Page 161, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Appoint Parties to the Peace Process in the Sovereign Council
Timing: Within 7 days of integrating the peace agreements in the Constitutional Charter
Implementing Party: The Sovereign Council
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Select 3 members by Parties to the Peace Process
Reference article: 4

Page 162-163, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Appoint Parties to the Peace Process in the Council of Ministers
Timing: Within 7 days of integrating the peace agreements to the Constitutional Charter
Implementing Party:
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Select ministers by the Parties to the Peace Process
Reference article: 5

Page 175, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Accommodate the men and women of Darfur in upper- and mid-level positions by 20%
Timing: Within 45 days of the date of signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue appointment decisions
Reference article: 26.1
26.2
Proportionality in legislature
Page 8, TITLE 1, 6. The Transitional Legislative Council:
6.1. The Parties agree that the peace process parties signatory to this agreement shall be represented on the Transitional Legislative Council by twenty five percent (25%), which is equal to seventy-five (75) seats out of the total number of the three hundred (300) seats.

Page 101, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 30. The Parties agree that the SPLM-N-SRF shall be represented by virtue of appointment to the position of state/region governor in the state of the Blue Nile and the position of state/region deputy governor in the states of South Kordofan/ Nuba Mountains and West Kordofan. SPLM-N-SRF shall also have 30% representation in the executive and legislative authorities of the states of Blue Nile and South Kordofan/ Nuba Mountains and West Kordofan, according to their agreed status. If the country reverts to the regional system of governance, SPLM-N-SRF shall keep the position of deputy governor in the region of South Kordofan/ Nuba Mountains and West Kordofan and a 30% representation in the region’s executive and legislative organs in the region.

Page 102, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 32. Composition: the state/regional legislative council shall be comprised on the basis of the population census, while observing diversity, balance, and equitable representation of localities in the state/region of Blue Nile and the states of South Kordofan/ Nuba Mountains and West Kordofan. Members thereof shall be appointed in accordance with this Agreement.
33. Appointment shall be based on the following conditions:
33.1.Be the holder of Sudanese nationality by birth and a citizen of the state/region.
33.2.Be no less than twenty-one years of age.
33.3.Be of sound mind.
33.4.Be literate.
33.5.Have not been convicted with a dishonorable or disgraceful crime.
34. Women shall be represented by no less than 40% [of the seats] on the legislative council.
35. Geographic representation and ethnic and religious diversity shall be observed in the composition of the legislative council.

Page 135, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, Participation at the Regional/State-Level
13. The Parties agreed to allocate 30% of the representation for the opposition’s Beja Congress and the United Popular Front for Liberation and Justice at legislative and executive levels in Eastern Sudan’s three states as appropriate for the goals of just peace.

Page 163, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Appoint Parties to the Peace Process in the Legislative Council
Timing: Within 60 days of the date of the final signing
Implementing Party: The Sovereign Council
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Select members on the Transitional Legislative Council by Parties to the Peace Process
Reference article: 6
Other proportionality
Page 101, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 29. The Parties agree that the SPLM-N-SRF shall partake in the institutions of the transitional authority in accordance with the National Issues Agreement, as well as all commissions and mechanisms related to the implementation of the Peace Agreement and the Constitutional Charter.

Page 103, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 50. Appointing local men/women of the Two Areas in the judicial institutions:
50.1.Local men and women of the Two Areas shall be appointed in judicial institutions at a percentage to be agreed, while observing positive discrimination for the men and women of the state/region, taking into consideration the competence criteria for appointment in judicial institutions, including the judiciary and public prosecution.
50.2.Women and men from the Two Areas shall be appointed as judges on the national Constitutional Court in accordance with the criteria of competency and proficiency.
50.3.Women and men from the Two Areas shall be represented in the National Commission for Judicial Service and/or the Supreme Judicial Council in accordance with the criteria of competence and professionalism.
50.4.Women and men from the Two Areas shall be represented in the High Public Prosecution Council in accordance with the criteria of competence and professionalism.
50.5.One of the deputy chief justices shall be from the Two Areas in accordance with the criteria of competence and professionalism.
50.6.Institutional reform shall be introduced to the justice system at all levels, provided that it is participatory, transparent, and inclusive, especially in the Two Areas due to the wars.

Page 110, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GENERAL PROVISIONS, 106. Positive discrimination policies shall be adopted for admission of the men and women of the Two Areas in universities and high institutes.

Page 111, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GENERAL PROVISIONS, 109. Staff of civil service institutions in the areas controlled by the SPLM-N-SRF shall be reviewed, integrated, and included in civil service structures in the Two Areas to ensure the unification of governance institutions, the state mandate and the system that emerged by virtue of the agreement on all Sudanese territories in accordance with the legislation and standards of civil service while observing positive discrimination.

Page 173, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Form an independent expert committee by the Supreme Judicial Council concerned with accommodating men and women from Darfur in the judiciary
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: The Supreme Judiciary Council
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision forming the committee
Reference article: 27.2

Page 173, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Appoint/accommodate men and women from Darfur in the judiciary at a rate of 20%
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: The Judiciary
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue appointment decisions
Reference article: 27.1

Page 173, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Form an independent expert committee by the High Council of the Public Prosecution concerned with accommodating men and women from Darfur in the Public Prosecution Office
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: The Supreme Council of the Public Prosecution
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision forming the committee
Reference article: 28.2

Page 173, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Appoint/accommodate men and women from Darfur in the public prosecution office at a rate of 20%
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: The Attorney General
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue appointment decisions
Reference article: 28.1

Page 173, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Reconsider admission eligibility criteria for universities and public high institutes, and introducing positive discrimination to admission policies
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision of revision and introduce policies
Reference article: 29.1.1

Page 197, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Participation of SPLM-N-SRF in national authority organs
Timing: Upon forming the transitional governance organs
Implementing Party: Transitional government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Location: The Parties
Procedures, Method & Criteria: Issue decisions
Reference article: Article 29
Other
Page 9, TITLE 1, 8. National Commissions, Committees, Agencies, and Institutions:
8.1. Representation in the commissions and committees provided for in the peace agreements shall be in accordance with the provisions stipulated in the peace agreements concluded in the different negotiation tracks.
8.2. National committees whose nature requires appointing partisan personalities, shall include representation of the peace process parties in the same proportion as their representation at the national level, including the chairmanship of those bodies, without prejudice to what has been agreed in the different negotiation tracks.
8.3. The Parties agree that signatory parties to this agreement shall hold the positions that they have obtained under this agreement until the end of the transitional period. They shall respectively assume responsibility for providing a replacement if a position becomes vacant, in accordance with the loss of membership conditions for the specific position.
8.4. The Parties agree that the Civil Service Reform Commission shall undertake the task of reviewing appointments in leading positions in the civil service that were made since the formation of the Transitional Government, provided that the Parties agree on how the commission should be formed.
8.5. The Parties agree on the participation of signatory parties to this agreement in the Anti- Corruption Committee and other committees to be established pursuant to the conditions thereof.
8.6. The Parties agree to establish and structure commissions relevant to the implementation of the peace agreement in partnership with signatory parties to this agreement.

Page 163, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Represent Parties to the Peace Process on the national committees whose nature require partisan representation
Timing: Within 30 days of integrating the peace agreements in the Constitutional Charter
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision appointing representative of the Parties to the Peace Process on these committees
Reference article: 8.2

Page 164, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Participation of signatory parties to this agreement on the Anti-Corruption Committee and other committees established or to be established
Timing: Immediately after integrating the peace agreements in the Constitutional Charter
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue appointment decisions
Reference article: 8.5

Page 199, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish a joint committee to reform the civil service and accommodate the men and women of the Two Areas
Timing: Within 180 days of the date of signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the peace agreement
Reference article: Articles 68 to 70

Page 199, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Represent the men and women of the Two Areas in the national commission of reforming the civil service
Timing: after signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Articles 71 and 72

Page 209, TITLE 9, 12. Northern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Share power and wealth according to equitable and proven standards
Timing: Immediately upon ratifying the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Independent mechanisms
Sources of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Establish mechanisms
Reference / article: Article 15 General Principles
Territorial power sharing
Federal or similar sub-divided government
Page 6, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.12.Just power sharing is important to the unity, security and stability of Sudan. The peaceful transfer of power through free and fair elections, and the delegation of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the different levels of governance are guarantees for stability and is the solid foundation for democratic governance in Sudan.

Page 7-8, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.29. Regions of Sudan shall be represented in federal and legislative institutions of power in proportion to their population size to ensure just power sharing, while observing the principle of positive discrimination for the most underdeveloped and war-affected regions, for equitable distribution of wealth.

Page 9-10, TITLE 1, 10. System of Governance Conference:
10.1.The Parties agree to hold a System of Governance Conference to define the powers and vertical and horizontal relationships of the regional system of governance, without prejudice to the obligations stipulated in the different track-specific agreements.
10.2.The Parties agree to establish a system of regional governance as set forth in the peace agreements, provided that the Transitional Government of Sudan shall take the necessary legal measures to issue an official decision to restore the system of regions in a period of no more than (60) sixty days from the date of signing the peace agreement with the signatory parties of this agreement.
10.3.The System of Governance Conference in Sudan shall be held no more than (6) six months after the date of signing the peace agreement. The conference shall aim to review the borders and administrative division of the regions; the different levels of governance; and structures, powers and competencies of the regions in a fashion that does not contravene the peace agreements signed by the parties in Juba.

Page 15, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
2. Sudan is a federal, independent, and sovereign state in which sovereignty is vested in the people and is exercised by the state in accordance with the provisions of the Constitutional Charter.

Page 17, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 25. Power and Levels of Governance
25.1.The Parties agree to restore the regional-federal system of governance based on the principle of establishing a genuine federal system of governance that meets the aspirations of citizens and engages them in governance.
25.2.The Parties agree on establishing a regional-federal system of governance in Sudan including in the Darfur Region provided that the Transitional Government of Sudan takes the necessary legal measures to issue an official decision to restore the system of regions within no more than 60 (sixty days) from the date of signing the Peace Agreement.
25.3.A conference on the system of governance in Sudan shall be held within no more than 6 (six months) after the signing of the comprehensive Peace Agreement provided that it aims at reviewing the administrative division of the various regions and levels of governance as well as the structures, powers, and jurisdictions thereof. The Parties shall further agree on participants of the conference.
25.4.If the conference is not held in the specified time, then the government of the Region of Darfur shall be activated in all its powers and competencies in no more than 7 (seven months) from the date of signing this agreement.
25.5.The Parties agree on defining the legislative and executive competencies, authorities, and powers in Darfur Region under the Peace Agreement provided that the conference on the system of governance makes no amendment to those competencies, authorities, and powers except by adding to them. These powers and authorities shall be activated within no more than 30 (thirty days) after holding the conference on the system of governance.
25.6.The Parties agree to the representation of parties to the Darfur Track agreement in power as follows:
25.6.1.40% of power in Darfur to the components of the Darfur Track;
25.6.2.30% of power in Darfur to the components of Sudan’s Transitional Government;
25.6.3.10% of power in Darfur to other movements signatory to this agreement;
25.6.4.20% of power in Darfur to stakeholders, as defined in the stakeholders’ document and through a mechanism to supervise their selection to be agreed on by the Parties.
25.6.5.The Parties shall take into account all components of Darfur when selecting representatives in the aforementioned percentages, so as to reflect the geographic, social, and civil diversity in Darfur to ensure social coexistence and a durable peace.
25.7.The Parties agree that components of the Darfur Track shall participate in the regional government after it is established and that this government’s leadership shall be nominated by the components to the Darfur Track.
25.8.The Parties agree to form a joint high committee that shall work with the Peace Commission, provided that this committee oversees and monitors the implementation of this Agreement and works side by side with the concerned state institutions according to the schedules of the implementation matrix.

Page 20, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 30. Powers of the Regional Government of Darfur
30.1.The Parties agree that Darfur Region shall have exclusive executive and legislative powers to enable it to implement the Peace Agreement as follows:
30.1.1.To adopt and amend the constitution of the regional government of Darfur in a manner that does not contradict the national constitution;
30.1.2.To enact legislation related to the structures of the Darfur government to provide services at all levels of the regional government of Darfur;
30.1.3.To borrow money on the credit of the government of Darfur Region within the national macro-economic policy;
30.1.4.To plan services in Darfur Region, including health, education and welfare of citizens;
30.1.5.To appoint employees in the government of the Darfur Region, determine their authorities, and pay their salaries;
30.1.6.To develop financial revenues for the regional government of Darfur.
30.1.7.To collect taxes and incomes exclusive to the regional government of Darfur;
30.1.8.To draft the budget of the regional government of Darfur.
30.1.9.[To regulate] public facilities of the Region;
30.1.10.[To undertake] reconstruction and development of the Darfur Region;
30.1.11.[To provide] media, media platforms, and publications of the regional government of Darfur;
30.1.12.To rehabilitate and support disabled veterans, orphans, and widows and provide care for the families of war-disabled heroes.
30.1.13.[To undertake] urban and rural planning;
30.1.14.[To provide] emergency and firefighting services;
30.1.15.To reform youth institutions affiliated with the regional government of Darfur;
30.1.16.[To regulate] recreational and sports facilities of the regional government of Darfur;
30.1.17.To define the powers and competencies of local governance according to charts of exclusive powers defined by the Region.
30.1.18.[To regulate] cultural affairs within the Region;
30.1.19.To manage, allocate, and utilize lands of the Region;
30.1.20.[To regulate] regional businesses and enterprises;
30.1.21.To register marriage, divorce, inheritance, births, deaths, adoption and lineages;
30.1.22.To enforce laws of the Region;
30.1.23.[To establish/regulate] nurseries, primary and secondary schools, and private education;
30.1.24.[To manage/maintain] roads and public transportation within the Region;
30.1.25.[To manage/maintain] public libraries, museums, cultural and heritage sites, and other historical sites in the region;
30.1.26.To develop and promote local languages and cultures;
30.1.27.[To enact] laws based on norms and traditions; and
30.1.28.[To designate] the flag and emblem of the regional government of Darfur.

Page 21, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 31. Concurrent Powers
31.1.The national federal government and the regional government of Darfur shall have the following executive and legislative powers:
31.1.1.Implementation of the Peace Agreement;
31.1.2.Social and economic development in Darfur Region;
31.1.3.Police, prisons, wild life, and civil defense;
31.1.4.Health policies;
31.1.5.Urban development, planning, and housing;
31.1.6.Commerce, industry, and industrial development;
31.1.7.Public service provision;
31.1.8.Banking;
31.1.9.Insurance;
31.1.10.Manufacturing licenses;
31.1.11.Electricity generation and water and waste management;
31.1.12.Natural resources;
31.1.13.Wired and wireless communications;
31.1.14.Environmental management, protection, and preservation;
31.1.15.Relief, resettlement, rehabilitation and reconstruction;
31.1.16.Proposing and negotiating international and regional agreements on culture, sports, trade, investments, loans, grants, and technical assistance without prejudice to federal and regional legal systems;
31.1.17.Financial and economic policies and planning;
31.1.18.Promoting the role of women and women empowerment.
31.1.19.Gender policies;
31.1.20.Pastures, veterinary services, combating cattle and livestock diseases;
31.1.21.Consumer safety and protection;
31.1.22.Maternal and child care and protection;
31.1.23.Water resources except those belonging jointly to regions;
31.1.24.Total quality control;
31.1.25.Regulating land possession and utilization and exercising relevant rights;
31.1.26.Immigration and foreigners;
31.1.27.Cross-border trade;
31.1.28.Setting education policies and scientific research;
31.1.29.Setting general policies and standards for building localities and local governance;
31.1.30.Charities, religious affairs and endowments;
31.1.31.Development and coordination of policies of interacting with the central government;
31.1.32.Development of airports in the Region; and
31.1.33.Residual powers and competencies.

Page 21, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 32. Residual Powers and competencies
32.1.For any residual powers or competencies that arise and that are not mentioned in the exclusive or concurrent powers herein, the federal government shall exercise the residual powers of a federal nature, whereas the regional government shall exercise powers of regional nature. The federal and regional levels together shall exercise the residual powers and competencies of a concurrent nature.

Page 22, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 33. Resolving disputes related to concurrent powers
33.1.In the event of a conflict between the provisions of the law of Darfur Region, the federal law and powers of local governance, the law that shall prevail is that which most effectively deals with the subject matter of the law while observing the following:
33.1.1.The need to recognize the sovereignty of the Nation while accommodating the autonomy of Darfur Region;
33.1.2.Identifying the need for national standards and norms;
33.1.3.The principle of subsidiarity;
33.1.4.The need to promote the welfare of the people and to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms for all.

Page 134, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, General principles
Second: In order to eliminate political marginalization in Eastern Sudan, the Parties agree to the following principles:
1. Adopting a decentralized, federal, pluralistic and democratic system of governance which ensures delegation of powers and resource allocation and which comprises three levels of governance (federal –state-level/Regional – local).

Page 143, TITLE 5. General Principles
2. The Republic of Sudan is a decentralized state which comprises three levels of governance (federal, regional/state, local).

Page 164, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Restore the regional system of governance
Timing: Within no more than 60 days of the date of signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision restoring the regional system of governance
Reference article: 10.2

Page 164, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Hold the system of governance conference
Timing: Within 6 months of the date of signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision forming the national committee for the preparation of the conference
Reference article: 10.1, 10.3

Page 197, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish a committee to draft a transitional constitution of the state / region
Timing: After the system of governance conference
Implementing Party: State / region governor
Source of Funding: state / regional government
Composition: Partners in the transitional governance
Location: state / region
Procedures, Method & Criteria:
Reference article: Article 31

Page 198, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Appoint members of the legislative council
Timing: Within 30 days of appointing the governor
Implementing Party: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Source of Funding:
Composition: Partners in the transitional governance in the state / region
Location: state / region
Procedures, Method & Criteria: Issuing a decision
Reference article: Articles 30, 32

Page 199, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Appoint the state / region governor and deputy thereof
Timing: Within 30 days of the date of signing the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: Issuing decisions
Reference article: Article 30

Page 199, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Appoint the state / regional Council of Ministers
Timing: after appointing the state / region governor
Implementing Party: the state / region governor
Source of Funding:
Composition: Partners of the transitional governance in the state / region
Location: state / region
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 30 & 55
Autonomous regions
Page 94, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, DEFINITION OF THE TWO AREAS AND THE SYSTEM OF GOVERNANCE, 7. Definition of the Two Areas: The Two Areas shall mean the following:
7.1. The Blue Nile State/Region: means the current Blue Nile state and what is stipulated in the provisions of this Agreement.
7.2. South Kordofan State/ Nuba Mountains: means the current South Kordofan State/ Nuba Mountains and what is stipulated in the provisions of this Agreement.
7.3. Status of West Kordofan State: The Parties agree that the Two Areas Agreement, including the political and security arrangements and the power and wealth sharing, shall include the West Kordofan State, which will remain a separate state as it is now, until the issue of the borders of South Kordofan/ Nuba Mountains and West Kordofan is solved. In the event South Kordofan State/ Nuba Mountains and West Kordofan State form one region, or West Kordofan State remains a stand-alone state as determined by the Governance Conference that shall decide on border issues as provided for in the framework agreement between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement – North/ The Revolutionary Front (SPLM-N-SRF), the Governance Conference shall not impact the final peace agreement between the Parties, save for border issues.

Page 95, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, DEFINITION OF THE TWO AREAS AND THE SYSTEM OF GOVERNANCE, 8. System of Governance in The Two Areas: The Parties agree that without prejudice to the unity of Sudan’s people and territory, the exclusive, joint or residual powers agreed upon in this Agreement, the Two Areas shall enjoy autonomy by which they shall exercise the powers stipulated in this Agreement.

Page 95-97, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:
9.1. To draft, adopt, and amend the state/regional constitution as stipulated in the Final Peace Agreement and to incorporate the special status of the Two Areas, which includes the right to legislate as an inherent right that does not contravene the national constitution.
9.2. To exercise the powers and authorities of the state/region in the Two Areas, including the right to legislate, provided that this is based on the Constitution of 1973, amended in 1974.
9.3. To exercise the rights enumerated in the power and wealth sharing sections as stipulated in the Final Peace Agreement.
9.4. To address issues of land and compensation and review contracts related to lands, mining, and agricultural and industrial projects, in accordance with the provisions of the Final Peace Agreement.
9.5. The provisions on positive discrimination as set forth in this Agreement related to power, wealth, and civil service matters is [a means] to remedy grievances suffered by the people of the Two Areas and address the root causes of the crisis that led to wars in the Two Areas.
9.6. The different levels of governance in the Two Areas shall have exclusive powers with regard to transitional justice, reparations, investigating crimes and violations perpetrated, reconciliation, healing the wounds of war, promoting values of peaceful coexistence, and strengthening social fabric.
9.7. To establish and rehabilitate institutes for teaching indigenous languages, culture, heritage, folklore, and antiquities which reflect diversity and work to develop and promote local cultures and provide them with opportunities at the national, regional, and international levels as an integral part of Sudanese cultures that must be celebrated for all their differences and diversity.
9.8. To establish a mechanism, council, or commission to promote the languages of the Two Areas in particular.
9.9. Residents of the Two Areas shall have the right to participate in rewriting the history of Sudan by recognizing the different contributions made by the peoples of Sudan in order to give meaning and value to national unity. Institutions in the Two Areas may create the appropriate mechanisms to implement this in an integrated manner with that of the national levels.
9.10. The government of the Two Areas shall have the right to name facilities and institutions in order to celebrate and promote the cultural and historic heritage of the peoples of the Two Areas in a way that promotes national unity and removes all legacies that have led to national discord, and to objectively study our common history, including the era of slave trade in order to remove the cultural and moral effects thereof, to strengthen the bonds of citizenship without discrimination, and to promote national unity.
9.11.To enact legislation related to the structures of state/regional government at its different levels.
9.12.To borrow money for the purposes of development and construction from national bodies with the guarantee of the state/regional government.
9.13.To plan for regional government services including health, education, and welfare among other services.
9.14.To appoint employees and civil servants in the state/regional government, determine their competencies, and pay their salaries.
9.15.To develop and improve financial revenues of the state/regional government.
9.16.To collect state/regional taxes and revenues.
9.17.[To manage] the general budget of the state/region.
9.18.[To manage] public facilities of the state/regional government.
9.19.To reconstruct and develop the state/region.
9.20.Mass media, prints, publications, and different media outlets in the state/region.
9.21.To rehabilitate and assist veterans, persons with special-needs, orphans, widows, and care for martyrs’ families.
9.22.To conduct population censuses and prepare statistics in the state/region.
9.23.To open outlets for the civil registry, driving licenses, vehicle licenses, and other necessary documentation in the state/region.
9.24.[To manage] lands and resources of the state/region in accordance with what has been agreed.
9.25.Cultural affairs within the state/region.
9.26.To regulate issues of faith and religion.
9.27.To manage trade and regulate businesses and licenses in the state/region.
9.28.[To regulate] commercial businesses and local projects.
9.29.[To issue] marriage, divorce, inheritance, birth, death, adoption, and lineage documents and register them paying heed to religion, customs, or personal status law.
9.30.To enforce laws of the state/region.
9.31.[To enact] laws related to agriculture, industry, and services in the state/region.
9.32.[To regulate] non-international and national heliports within the framework of civil aviation laws.
9.33.[To manage] roads, bridges and public transportations within the state/region.
9.34.To develop and maintain an environmental policy that is appropriate for the state/region, while observing international standards, in coordination with the competent national bodies and the department of environment and environmental conservation.
9.35.[To regulate] charities and donations.
9.36.Cultural and heritage sites, museums, libraries, and heritage.
9.37.To protect traditions and customary law.
9.38.[To manage] irrigation and establish water harvesting projects for the state/region.
9.39.To maintain ancient documents and antiquities and create monuments.
9.40.[To provide] ambulance and firefighting services.
9.41.Recreation and sports in the state/region.
9.42.To license small firearms in accordance with federal regulations.
9.43.[To set] the flag and emblem of the state/region.
9.44.Socioeconomic development in the state/region.
9.45.[To regulate] unions and vocational associations in the state/region.
9.46.Vocational and professional training and capacity building.
9.47.[To issue] health policies and services in the state/region.
9.48.[To undertake] urban development and planning and planning of urban and rural areas.
9.49.Trade, industry, and industrial development in the state/region.
9.50.To provide public services.
9.51.[To undertake] disaster preparedness, provision of aid, and combat epidemics in the state/region.
9.52.State/regional print media, publications, and information.
9.53.[To manage] resettlement, rehabilitation, and reconstruction of the state/region.
9.54.To negotiate and conclude international and regional agreements, in the fields of education, culture, sports, trade, loans, grants, and technical assistance with foreign governments and foreign non-governmental organizations, without contravening national policies and in coordination with the competent federal authorities.
9.55.To promote the role of women and youth and child protection.
9.56.To exercise the right to collect revenue and spend funds in the state/region.
9.57.To exercise the right to borrow loans with the Sudan Central Bank or the state/regional government securing the collateral.
9.58.To exercise the right to conclude investment contracts without contravening Sudan’s foreign policies and in coordination with the competent federal authorities.
9.59.To develop fisheries.
9.60.To develop tourism and confer revenues to the region in order to improve and preserve tourism.
9.61.Forestry of the state/region.

Page 97, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:
10.1.Powers and competencies of police, prisons, wildlife, civil defense, and customs at the level of the Two Areas.
10.2.Borrowing funds for the purpose of development and reconstruction from regional and international financing institutions for the regional government, with the guarantee of the Government of Sudan.
10.3.Provision of urgent humanitarian assistance.
10.4.Voluntary return of IDPs and refugees.
10.5.Reconstruction and sustainable development programs.
10.6.Review and design of programs that address land issues in the Two Areas, including ownership, use, and compensation related to land expropriation, to be implemented during the transitional period.
10.7.The national and locally competent bodies shall address land issues in the Two Areas, with effective participation of local communities.
10.8.Transitional justice and reconciliation shall have joint mechanisms derived from the norms, cultures, and heritage of the peoples of Sudan and the Two Areas.
10.9.Create mechanisms that help to end impunity for perpetrators and bring justice for victims to establish a process of national reconciliation and healing. This shall be founded on upholding the rule of law and the international conventions of human rights and the international humanitarian law.
10.10.Allocate national and state/regional resources to the Two Areas.
10.11.Immediate resolution of the issues of borders and lands confiscated from the Two Areas once this has been proven.
10.12.Review the contracts and decisions to award lands and mining projects and [provide] compensations in the Two Areas.
10.13.Create the different commissions stipulated in the peace agreement.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:...
10.14.Conduct population census and partake in revising elections laws.
10.15.The joint mechanism for the implementation and evaluation of commissions’ work and other mechanisms provided for in this agreement within an agreed period.
10.16.Positive discrimination for the Two Areas at the national level, especially in civil service.
10.17.Transboundary water resources of the state/region.
10.18.Socioeconomic development.
10.19.Enforcement of national laws in the state/region.
10.20.Issues related to taxation, ownership, and economic planning which require joint decisions or implementation between the state/regional government and the national government.
10.21.Manage and monitor human and veterinary drugs.
10.22.Animal health and veterinary services.
10.23.Wired and wireless telecommunication.
10.24.Natural resources.
10.25.Relief.
10.26.Population policy and family planning.
10.27.Quarries regulations.
10.28.Banking activities.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 11. National Powers: the national government shall assume the following exclusive executive and legislative powers:
11.1.Defense, national security, and the protection of national borders.
11.2.Foreign affairs and international representation.
11.3.Nationality and naturalization.
11.4.Passports and visas.
11.5.Migration and foreigners.
11.6.National judiciary.
11.7.National police, including the criminal investigation department and coordinating bilateral, regional and international criminal affairs and the standards and regulations, including police training standards.
11.8.Definition and provision of wages and allowances for civil servants at the national level.
11.9.Postal services.
11.10.Civil aviation.
11.11.Ships and marine navigation.
11.12.Lighthouses for warning and guidance.
11.13.The central bank and issuing and coining national currency.
11.14.Bills of exchange and promissory notes.
11.15.Scales, standards, specifications, assessment and timing.
11.16.Meteorology.
11.17.National prisons.
11.18.National institutions provided for in the Constitutional Charter or the national constitution.
11.19.Customs duties, taxes, and export commitments.
11.20.Intellectual property rights, including patents and copyrights.
11.21.The national flag and anthem.
11.22.Signing international treaties of interest for the Republic of Sudan.
11.23.National debts and borrowing on the bases of public credit.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 11. National Powers: the national government shall assume the following exclusive executive and legislative powers:
11.24.National census and statistics.
11.25.National emergencies.
11.26.International transportation and domestic transportation between the states, including roads, airports, water crossings, seaports, railroads and national infrastructures.
11.27.National public facilities.
11.28.National museums, archeological sites, and national heritage.
11.29.National economic planning and policies.
11.30.Managing the Nile waters and cross-border waters.
11.31.National media, national publications, and wired and wireless telecommunication systems.
11.32.National taxes and improving national income.
11.33.National budget and public debt.
11.34.Laws regulating national elections and monitoring elections through the national commission for elections.
11.35.Issuing identification cards or documents.
11.36.Fundamental rights and freedoms.
11.37.Foreign trade.
11.38.National telecommunications.
11.39.Pensions.
11.40.Insurance.
11.41.Value added tax.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 12. Residual Powers and Competencies: Residual powers shall be exercised according to their nature; national powers shall be exercised by the national government; state/regional powers shall be exercised by the state/regional government; and joint powers shall be exercised by both parties.

Page 101, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 26. Powers in the states/regions of Blue Nile and South Kordofan/ Nuba Mountains and West Kordofan (in their current status) shall be as follows:
26.1.Executive Authority.
26.2.Legislative Authority.
26.3.Judicial Authority.

Page 101, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 27. The Executive Authority: organs of executive authority in the state/region shall comprise of:
27.1.State/regional governor.
27.2.State/regional council of ministers.
27.3.State/regional commissions.
28. The Legislative Authority: the state/region shall have a legislative authority/legislative council.

Page 170, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Issue decision to restore the regional system of governance
Timing: Within no more than 60 days of the date of signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision
Reference article: 25.1 25.2 and article 10.2 of the National Issues

Page 171, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Activate the government of the Region of Darfur in all its authorities and competencies if the system of governance conference is not held
Timing: Within no more than 7 months of the date of signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision activating the region
Reference article: 25.4

Page 171, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Activate powers and competencies of Darfur Region
Timing: Within 30 days of the date of holding the system of governance conference
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision activating powers and authorities
Reference article: 25.5

Page 193, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Autonomy in the Two Areas by which Powers stipulated in this agreement are exercised, without prejudice to the unity of Sudan
Timing: Upon integrating the Peace Agreement into the Constitutional Charter
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan & State/regional government
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 8

Page 193, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Pass legislation without contravening the national constitution
Timing: Upon integrating the Peace Agreement into the Constitutional Charter
Implementing Party: State/regional government
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article (9.1. - 9.2) & 37
Other
Page 11-12, TITLE 1, 14. National Issues of Particularity: The Parties agree on the importance of addressing the following national issues of particularity:
14.4.Conference for the States of Khartoum and North Kordofan
14.4.1.To achieve nationwide comprehensive peace in Sudan, including in the regions/states outside of the conflict areas; the parties agree to the following:
14.4.1.1.Without prejudice to what has been agreed to in the Tracks, the Transitional  Government of Sudan shall organize two conferences to address the issues of the states of North Kordofan and Khartoum within (6) months from the date of signing this agreement.
14.4.1.2.The conferences shall address issues of development, public services, environment, and peaceful coexistence, in those two states.
14.4.1.3.The Transitional Government shall commit to enforcing the outcomes of the two conferences.

Page 46, TITLE 2: CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 7. The Historical Borders of Darfur
7.1. The Parties agree on the need to prioritize demarcating borders of Sudan regions, including the historical borders of Darfur, via the National Borders Commission after it is restructured.

Page 91, TITLE 3, ISSUES OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE FOR THE TWO AREAS, BLUE NILE
50.2.The Parties agree that the transitional government of Sudan shall return all the lands that were taken away from the administrative authority of the Blue Nile region / state, in particular the Northwest triangle of Eastern Agadi and the Dinder National Park in a way that protects the interests of humans, fauna and flora, and biodiversity, natural resources of the park once it is proven it belongs to the Blue Nile region / state.

Page 92, TITLE 3, CHAPTER 2: FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT FOR THE TWO AREAS OF BLUE NILE AND SOUTH KORDOFAN / NUBA MOUNTAINS ISSUES OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE FOR THE TWO AREAS, BLUE NILE, Confidence-building measures for implementation
57. The Parties commit to immediate implementation of confidence-building measures, including the following:
57.5. Achieving detailed political and security arrangements for the Two Areas that ensures the fair and effective representation of the Two Areas.

Page 187, TITLE 9, 7. Darfur Track: Land and Hawakeer Implementation Matrix
Activity: Demarcate borders of Sudan’s regions including the historical borders of Darfur
Timing: After holding the system of governance conference
Implementing Party: National Borders Commission
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Take the necessary measures
Reference/Article: 7.2

Page 166, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Hold the conference of North Kordofan State
Timing: Within 6 months of signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision establishing the preparatory committee
Reference article: 14.4

Page 166, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Hold the Khartoum conference
Timing: Within 6 months of signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision establishing the preparatory committee
Reference article: 14.4

Page 204, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Return the north-western triangle of East Agadi and al-Dinder Reserve, once its affiliation with the state / region is proven
Timing: After forming the state / regional government
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan and the state / regional government
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition: Transitional Government of Sudan and the state / regional government
Location: Blue Nile
Procedures, Method & Criteria:
Reference article: Article 50
Economic power sharing
Sharing of resources
Page 7, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.21.The equitable sharing of power and wealth, while observing positive discrimination for war- and conflict-affected areas and least developed areas, as well as addressing the issues of marginalization and the most afflicted and vulnerable groups, is necessary in order to build a state of durable peace, stability, and good governance.

Page 12, TITLE 1, 23. The National Commission of Resources and Financial Revenue Sharing and Allocation
23.1.By virtue of a law, a commission for the division, allocation, and monitoring of financial revenues shall be established in accordance with the standards to be agreed upon. The commission shall be chaired by an independent person appointed by the Prime Minister.
The law shall ensure fair representation of the regions/states therein.
23.2.A law activating the commission shall be issued within no more than ninety (90) days of signing the peace agreement.
23.3.The Commission shall commit to ensuring transparency, remedying the imbalances in the allocation of national revenues, and distributing those revenues on a horizontal and vertical basis fairly among Sudan’s various regions, particularly regions affected by the war and cumulative historical grievances. The commission shall further ensure that neither the federal government nor any other party shall be deprived from receipt of their financial entitlements and shall ensure timely disbursement as agreed.

Page 23, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, General Principles
1. The Parties recognize that sustainable peace in Sudan requires a fair allocation of resources and revenues between the Government of Sudan and the different regions of Sudan, especially the conflict-affected regions.
2. All lands and natural resources in Sudan regions/states, including Darfur, shall be resources for the good of all the people of Sudan.
...
5. The Parties agree to setting specific standards and mechanisms for wealth and revenue sharing, to be regulated in accordance with laws and regulations based on the principles of proportional and equitable distribution, transparent management, and national, regional, and local oversight of the resources.
6. The Parties understand that the sources of wealth stipulated in this Agreement do not only mean direct state revenues, but include opportunities of income generation from employment in the private and public sectors, the return of investment in different areas, the revenues of border trade returns, grants and loans, and other sources of income.
...
10. Development of sound foundations for sharing wealth generated from oil, natural gas, and other natural resources in Sudan and directing them to meet the needs of development and the reconstruction of Sudan’s regions/states in general, while prioritizing the marginalized and war-affected regions/states, and paying special attention to the environment.

Page 24, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 12. National Revenue
12.1.The Government of Sudan shall have the authority to generate revenue from all sources of wealth in the country;
12.2.There should be definitive identification and clear separation between the sources of revenue of the federal government and the sources of revenue of the regions/states to avoid disputes and ensure good production and management of resources.
13. National Revenue Fund
13.1.A national fund for revenue shall be established and regulated by a law wherein all national financial revenue is deposited. It shall be the only institution for depositing revenue.

Page 24, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 14. National Commission for the Division, Allocation, and Monitoring of Financial Resources and Revenue
14.1.A commission for the division, allocation, and monitoring of financial resources and revenue shall be established by a law in accordance with the standards to be agreed upon. The Commission shall have an independent chairperson appointed by the Prime Minister. The law shall ensure equitable representation of the regions/states;
14.2.A law shall be enacted to activate the Commission within no more than ninety (90) days from the date of signing this Agreement;
14.3.The Commission shall be committed to ensuring transparency and to addressing shortcomings in the equitable allocation and distribution of national resources horizontally and vertically between the different regions of Sudan and monitoring thereof, especially regions affected by the war and accumulated historic grievances. The Commission shall also ensure that neither the federal government nor any other party are deprived of the enjoyment of their financial dues and it shall ensure the flow thereof at the agreed intervals.

Page 24, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 15. The Commission for the Division, Allocation, and Monitoring of Financial Resources and Revenue shall have the following competencies:
15.1.Monitor all national revenues deposited in the National Revenue Fund and place them under its mandate;
15.2.Determine the dues and allocations of the federal government and the regions/states from the national revenue to meet the needs of all levels of governance, horizontally and vertically;
15.3.Ensure this allocation is based on fair and equitable standards and bases that are agreed upon and subject to regular revision, in keeping with the developments at the federal and regional/state levels;
15.4.Ensure that the transfer of funds to the states and regions occurs in a timely and unfettered manner. It shall also ensure the optimal use and sharing of these transfers between the regions/states and the different levels of governance;
15.5.Ensure that resources allocated to war-affected areas are transferred in accordance with the agreed upon standards;
15.6.Transparent implementation of the agreed upon standards, bases, and proportions to guarantee fairness when allocating funds to the federal government and the regions/states;
15.7.Ensure that national resources are allocated according to standards and principles that ensure equality among the Sudanese people and encourage production and effectiveness in revenue collection and good resource management.

Page 27, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 22. Natural Resources
22.1.The Sudanese people shall own the natural resources found on and under its soil. The people of the regions/states in which such resources are found or extracted shall have special rights that must be met according to specific agreements and percentages thereon.

Page 27, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 23. Management of Natural Resources
23.1.The regions/states shall be a genuine partner with the federal government in managing natural resources extracted from their lands throughout all the phases of allotment, awarding, contracting, production, and marketing. The regions/states shall hold primary responsibility for the preservation of their environment and shall be entitled to impose conditions to ensure its environmental integrity and that extraction processes do not encroach on the health of citizens.
23.2.The federal government and governments of the regions/states shall pay heed to the rights of future generations in the arrangements for and allocation of natural resource extraction by investing a specific percentage of the revenue of extracted resources for the good of those generations.
23.3.The federal government and governments of the regions/states shall be responsible for utilizing natural resources therein and managing them transparently, justly, and fairly.
23.4.The federal government and governments of the regions/states shall identify natural resources, the manner and timing of their utilization, issuance of excavation and extraction licenses, negotiation of sales contracts and revenue-sharing with the investing firms, withdrawal of licenses and revocation of contracts, planning of the overall resource development, ensuring workers’ health and safety, and environment protection.

Page 27-28, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 24. Status of Current and Future Contracts and Agreements for the Extraction of Natural Resources
24.1.The Region of Darfur and other regions/states, in cooperation with the federal government, shall be entitled to review all existing natural resource extraction contracts within their respective territories. Upon review, they shall be entitled to make adjustments to these contracts to ensure the fair and equitable allocation of revenue, as well as sufficient environmental protections.
24.2.Regions/states whose natural resources will be extracted shall participate in the negotiation of and approve any new contracts or agreements in relation to the exploration, extraction, and production of natural resources within the borders of their respective regions/states. Any such contracts shall be governed by regulations adopted by the regions/states, in addition to the applicable regulations adopted by the federal government.
24.3.When allotting public lands in Darfur or granting utilization concessions for the extraction of natural resources, the inhabitants of the land shall be consulted before land utilization and they shall be adequately compensated.

Page 28, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 25. Allocation of Revenue Generated from Natural Resources
25.1.The Parties agree to allocate 40% of the nation’s net revenue from mineral and petroleum resources located in Darfur to the region for a period of ten years.
25.2.The Darfur Region shall allocate 3% of the revenue from natural resources for local population in areas from which these resources are extracted.

Page 28, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 28. Positive Discrimination
28.1.The principle of positive discrimination shall apply to the Darfur Region/States and other historically marginalized and war-affected regions/states in Sudan when allocating resources to enable them to keep up with other regions/states which are ahead in terms of development and service delivery for citizens.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:…
10.10.Allocate national and state/regional resources to the Two Areas.

Page 100, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR THE STATE/REGIONAL GOVERNMENT, 16. Wealth Sharing in the Two Areas:
16.1.For a period of ten years, the state/regional government shall receive forty percent (40%) of income from the revenue of natural resources, extracted wealth from the state/region, tax revenue from the state/region, and taxes levied in the state/region, with the remaining sixty percent (60%) going to the national government.
16.2.The fixed percentage or any other appropriate option the Parties agree on shall be determined in a conference involving the Parties, stakeholders of the Two Areas population, and the mediator at the end of the transitional period.
17. When the state/regional government collects the joint taxes and other imposed levies, it shall deduct its own percentage and transfer the percentage for the national government to the public treasury.
18. The percentage of taxes and expenses related to the development of natural resources within the state/region to be distributed to areas and localities within the state/region shall be regulated by the law adopted by the state/regional legislative council.

Page 100, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR THE STATE/REGIONAL GOVERNMENT, 21. Share of the state/region from annual national revenue:
21.1.Based on national standards and the principle of positive discrimination, the national government shall pay to the state/region its allocated share from annual national resources, foreign aid, support and relief as well as other financial aid for advancing development.

Page 100, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR THE STATE/REGIONAL GOVERNMENT, 22. Reform and correction of the banking system by adopting monetary, regulatory, and institutional policies that serve the accumulation of savings, funding, development, attracting investments, and facilitating banking transactions, including the conventional banking system and multiple outlets.
23. Participation of the Two Areas in managing the Revenue Allocation and Monitoring Commission.

Page 110, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, NATIONAL PROJECTS IN THE STATE/REGION, 97. All national projects in the states of Blue Nile, South Kordofan/ Nuba Mountains and West Kordofan shall be dealt with in accordance with the provisions of the wealth-sharing agreement provided that state/regional executive bodies shall undertake implementation thereof alongside relevant national bodies.

Page 138, TITLE 4, CHAPTER TWO: THE SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUE, Developing and Managing Natural Resources and Infrastructure, 58. The Parties agreed to allocate 30% of the Federal government’s net revenue from mineral and oil resources extracted from the states/Region of Eastern of Sudan for the benefit of these states/Region for a period of seven years

Page 142, TITLE 5. ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK (POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC) ISSUES, 12. The Parties shall allocate a share of the revenues of the Merowe Dam to the two states/the region in accordance with the law.

Page 168, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish the Commission for Sharing, Allocation, and Monitoring of Resources and Financial Revenues
Timing: Within 90 days of the date of signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: The Prime Minister
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision and a law establishing the Commission
Reference article: 23.1, 23.2, 23.3

Page 176, TITLE 9, 3. Darfur Track: Wealth Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Institute sound principles for wealth-sharing
Timing: Continues after signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan, Regional/states governments and signatory parties
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Develop principles, strategies, and standards
Reference article: 10

Page 176, TITLE 9, 3. Darfur Track: Wealth Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Establish the National Commission for the Division, Allocation, and Monitoring of Financial Resources and Revenue
Timing: Within 90 days of the date of signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Prime Minister
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision establishing the Commission
Reference article: 14.1 14.2 14.3 15 and Articles 23.1 23.2 23.3 of National Issues

Page 196, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish a joint committee to regulate, oversee, and monitor the activities of mining, petroleum
Timing: Within 60 days of forming the state / regional government
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan & state / regional government
Source of Funding:
Composition: The Parties
Location: State/region
Procedures, Method & Criteria:
Reference article:Article 16.1 & 92

Page 196-197, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Share wealth generated from the revenue of natural resources and wealth extracted, tax revenue and taxes levied within the state/region.
Timing: Within 60 days of forming the state / regional government
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan & state/regional government
Source of Funding:
Composition: Government of Sudan & state / regional government
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria:
Reference article: Articles 16.1

Page 197, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Conference to determine the fixed shares of wealth
Timing: At the end of the transitional period
Implementing Party: Transitional government of Sudan & state / regional government
Source of Funding: Transitional government of Sudan & state / regional government
Composition: The Parties
Location: State / region
Procedures, Method & Criteria:
Reference article: Article 16.2

Page 197, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Participation of the Two Areas in the Revenue Allocation and Monitoring Commission
Timing: Within 90 days of commencing implementation of the Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Transitional government of Sudan
Composition: The Parties
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria:
Reference article: Article 21, 23

Page 209, TITLE 9, 12. Northern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Share power and wealth according to equitable and proven standards
Timing: Immediately upon ratifying the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Independent mechanisms
Sources of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Establish mechanisms
Reference / article: Article 15 General Principles

Page 211, TITLE 9, 12. Northern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Work to allocate a share of the revenue of Merowe Dam
Timing: After ratifying the peace agreement
Implementing Party: The Parties
Sources of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Issue law for sharing, allocating, and monitoring financial revenue
Reference / article: Article 12 (Northern Track Issues)

Page 218, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Resource allocation
Timing: After ratifying the agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Allocate specific resources to the region
Reference / article: 1

Page 223, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Allocate 30% of the central government’s net revenue from minerals and oil resources extracted from the states/region of eastern Sudan to the states/region for seven years
Timing: After ratifying the agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Issue implementation decisions
Reference / article: Annex A (Juba Declaration, 11 September 2019)
Fiscal federalism
Page 23, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, General Principles
7. Disbursement of all the Zakat money collected in the regions/states inside the respective regions/states through their various disbursement channels.

Page 25, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 16. Revenue of the Darfur Region/States
16.1.The Region/states of Darfur shall have the right to generate its own revenue and receive revenue from tax and non-tax related sources, including from the allocations of the National Commission for the Division, Allocation, and Monitoring of Financial Resources and Revenue; the National Revenue Fund; revenue from taxation and different fees (sales taxes, private business, in addition to their share of the value-added tax and the betterment levy, licensing fees, works fees); and the return of their investments and border trade; their share from the sale of extracted natural resources, aid, grants and loans, in accordance with federal policy and the provisions of this Agreement;
16.2.The government of the Darfur Region/States shall have the exclusive authority to determine how best to spend revenue generated or received;
16.3.The government of the Darfur Region/States shall have the power to spend its own revenue for effective governance and fulfillment of its obligations as stipulated in the Peace Agreement;
16.4.The government of the Darfur Region/States shall develop policies and regulations and determine how best to spend revenue based on the interest of the region/states, common good, environment protection, and the interests of local population without conflicting with national policies and the provisions of the Peace Agreement.

Page 25, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 17. Darfur Reconstruction and Development Commission
17.1.A commission for the reconstruction and development of Darfur shall be established within ninety (90) days of the date of signing the Peace Agreement. The headquarters of the Commission shall be in one of the cities of the region and it shall have the right to create branches in other cities when the need arises, provided that all assets belonging to the funds established for development and reconstruction by previous peace agreements be transferred to this commission. The Commission shall continue the projects that have been initiated thereunder in addition to new projects;
17.2.The Commission may seek the assistance of experts to revise and develop corrective measures for the work of the Fund and evaluate the implementation of previous development projects;
17.3.The Parties shall agree on the structure and mechanisms of the Commission for the Reconstruction and Development of Darfur pursuant to the principles stipulated in the Peace Agreement;
17.4.The Commission shall develop its own work regulations, rules and procedure, and decision-making processes under this agreement.

Page 26-27, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 21. Sources of exclusive revenue for the Government of Darfur Region/States: The Government of Darfur Region/States shall have the following exclusive sources of revenue:
21.1.Tax on the lands of the region/states;
21.2.Revenue;
21.3.Property tax;
21.4.Social services fees;
21.5.Consumer service fees;
21.6.Licensing fees;
21.7.State/regional personal income tax;
21.8.State/regional professionals’ tax;
21.9.State/regional tax on individual business profit;
21.10.Indirect taxes;
21.11.State/regional production tax;
21.12.State/regional share of taxes on border trade;
21.13.Tax on agricultural production;
21.14.Tax on animals;
21.15.State/regional seal duties;
21.16.State/regional tourism tax;
21.17.State/regional tax on recreational places;
21.18.Revenue of national parks in the states/region;
21.19.Revenue of state/regional projects and investments;
21.20.Share of the region/states from oil revenue and revenue of other resources;
21.21.Central support, grants, and foreign aid through the national government;
21.22.Domestic and foreign loans and borrowing in accordance with the credit rating and in line with the national economic policy;
21.23.Any other taxes and sources of revenue that do not contravene with the taxing power of the national government.

Page 28, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 26. Grants and Loans
26.1.The Darfur Region shall be entitled to receive assistance in the form of grants or loans from states and international and regional organizations via the federal government while providing sovereign guarantees.

Page 28, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 27. Establishing Darfur Development Bank
27.1.A development bank shall be established in the Darfur Region in accordance with the Central Bank policies.

Page 28-29, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 29. The Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund
29.1.The parties agree to establish a peace support fund called the Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund, within 60 (sixty days) of the date of signing the Peace Agreement, provided that it fulfils its duties in a period of 10 (ten years) as of the date of its establishment.
29.2.The Parties shall agree on the organizational and functional structure of the Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund in accordance with the parameters provided for in the Agreement.
29.3.The Fund shall develop its own regulations, rules of procedures, and decision-making methods under this Agreement.
29.4.The successive governments of Sudan shall commit to seek, along with the international and regional communities, to provide the necessary support for development and reconstruction projects in Darfur.
29.5.The Fund shall have the following functions:
29.5.1.Soliciting domestic and foreign support for funding peace-related projects in Darfur.
29.5.2.Funding commissions and mechanisms established by virtue of the Darfur Peace Agreement as well as any other needs related thereto.
29.6.In addition to Darfur’s share from the funds transferred by the National Commission for the Division, Allocation and Monitoring of Financial Resources and Revenue, the Government of Sudan shall commit to pay 750,000,000 (seven hundred fifty million US Dollars) annually for a period of ten years to the Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund to fund the implementation of the Peace Agreement in Darfur.
29.7.The Government of Sudan commits to filling the necessary financial gap for the implementation of the Peace Agreement in Darfur.
29.8.The Government of Sudan commits to providing 100,000,000 (one hundred million US Dollars) within one month of the date of signing this Agreement.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.56.To exercise the right to collect revenue and spend funds in the state/region.
9.57.To exercise the right to borrow loans with the Sudan Central Bank or the state/regional government securing the collateral.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:…
10.2.Borrowing funds for the purpose of development and reconstruction from regional and international financing institutions for the regional government, with the guarantee of the Government of Sudan.

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR THE STATE/REGIONAL GOVERNMENT, 13. The state/regional government shall be entitled to pass legislation to collect revenues and fees from the sources below:
13.1.Tax on personal income in the state/region.
13.2.Business profits tax in the state/region.
13.3.Service fees in the state/region.
13.4.Service fees on petroleum fuels.
13.5.The state/regional government projects and businesses.
13.6.Foreign grants and aid without contravening national policy and national sovereignty.
13.7.Tax on sales, services, and production in the state/region.
13.8.Loans and borrowing in accordance with the national macroeconomic policy.
13.9.Licenses in the state/region.
13.10.Tourism fees in the state/region.
13.11.Service fees on the products of natural and forestry resources in the state/region.
13.12.Stamp fees in the state/region.
13.13.Fees on cross-border trade in the state/region, without contravening national policies.
13.14.The state/region share of central support.
13.15.Taxes on agriculture, animals, and veterinary quarantines in the state/region.
13.16.Any other fees in accordance with the constitution.

Page 100, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR THE STATE/REGIONAL GOVERNMENT, 14. The state/region shall enjoy fiscal decentralization.

Page 100, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR THE STATE/REGIONAL GOVERNMENT, 15. Accounting Standards:
15.1.The state/regional government shall abide by the approved accounting and financial accountability standards to ensure that public funds are allocated and spent according to the budget allocated to them.
15.2.Income and revenue collected by the state/regional government shall be deposited in public accounts subject to public auditing, accounting, and review.
15.3.The law shall regulate adopted accounting procedures, standards, and financial accountability.
15.4.All accounts of the state/regional government shall be subject to auditing and verification as regulated by law.
15.5.Distribution of the local tax revenue.

Page 100, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR THE STATE/REGIONAL GOVERNMENT, 19. Issuance of financial pledges, instruments, promissory notes, and bills of exchange: The state/regional government shall be entitled to issue financial pledges, instruments, bills of exchange, promissory notes or other financial documents provided that they are regulated by a law enacted by the state/regional legislative council, based on the balance of the state/region in accordance with national financial policies.
20. The state/region governor may, with the approval of the state/regional legislative council, conclude contracts or agreements for foreign or national loans in accordance with the controlling national terms and standards.

Page 101, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR THE STATE/REGIONAL GOVERNMENT, 24. Foreign Investment: the state/regional government shall be entitled to regulate foreign investments within its jurisdiction in coordination with the competent national institutions.
25. Zakat: The system of the Zakat Bureau and its aspects of spending must be reviewed at the national, state/regional level, so as to comply with the changes brought about by the glorious December revolution, provided that this resource is directed as a social resource for the benefit of those entitled.

Page 176, TITLE 9, 3. Darfur Track: Wealth Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Develop policies, regulations, and best methods to spend revenue of the Darfur region/states
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Darfur regional/ states government
Source of Funding: Darfur regional/ states government
Composition:
Procedures: Develop policies, regulations and best ways of spending
Reference article: 16.4

Page 177, TITLE 9, 3. Darfur Track: Wealth Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Establish the Darfur Reconstruction and Development Commission
Timing: Within 90 days of the date of signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: The Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund
Composition: Within 90 days of the date of signing the Final Agreement
Procedures: Issue a decision creating the Commission
Reference article: 17.1 18

Page 177, TITLE 9, 3. Darfur Track: Wealth Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: All assets belonging to the funds established for development and reconstruction by the previous peace agreements are to be transferred to this Commission
Timing: After establishment of the Darfur Reconstruction and Development Commission
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: The Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund
Composition: Within 90 days of the date of signing the Final Agreement
Procedures: Issue a decision creating the Commission
Reference article: 17.1

Page 177, TITLE 9, 3. Darfur Track: Wealth Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Agree on the organizational and functional structures of the Darfur Reconstruction and Development Commission
Timing: After establishment of the Darfur Reconstruction and Development Commission
Implementing Party: The Parties
Source of Funding:
Composition: In consultation between The Parties
Procedures: Develop the organizational and functional structure of the Commission
Reference article: 17.3

Page 177, TITLE 9, 3. Darfur Track: Wealth Sharing Implementation Matrix Activity: Develop the regulations and rules of procedures of the Darfur Reconstruction and Development Commission
Timing: After establishment of the Darfur Reconstruction and Development Commission
Implementing Party: The Commission
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Develop and adopt the regulations and rules of procedures
Reference article: 17.4
Other
Page 7-8, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.29. Regions of Sudan shall be represented in federal and legislative institutions of power in proportion to their population size to ensure just power sharing, while observing the principle of positive discrimination for the most underdeveloped and war-affected regions, for equitable distribution of wealth.

Page 223, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Allocate 348,000,000 (three hundred forty- eight million USD) for the Eastern Development Fund
Timing: After ratifying the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Undertake financial decisions for implementation
Reference / article: 73

Page 223, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish the National Eastern Sudan Bank
Timing: After ratifying the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: East Sudan states/region
Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision approving the establishment of the bank
Reference / article: 74

Page 223, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Create a mechanism for identifying the share of social responsibility of national projects for the benefit of the states/region of eastern Sudan
Timing:Within 3 months of the date of signing the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition: The Parties
Procedures: Issue a decision to establish the joint mechanism
Reference / article: Annex A (Juba Declaration, 11 September 2019)
Military power sharing
Merger of forces
Page 62, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration
26.1.The Parties agree to integrate the forces of the signatory armed struggle movements in the military establishment and security services;
26.2.The ultimate purpose of the integration process is for the Sudanese Armed Forces, with its new unified military doctrine that protects citizens, the homeland, and the constitution; to be the only professional national army and to integrate all other forces present on Sudanese territory in a unified professional national army;
26.3.The Parties agree that the assembly, examination, distribution, and vetting of the forces of the armed struggle movements/ Darfur Track shall be completed within (90 days) from the date of signing the peace agreement, in accordance with the agreed upon procedures for Assembly areas. The period may be extended by the Joint High Council;
26.4.The integration process shall start immediately upon provision of integration requirements agreed upon in this agreement. The Assembly and training processes shall be completed within 15 months of the signing of this agreement;
26.5.The Parties agree to keep the integrated forces of the armed struggle movements in Darfur for a period of (40) forty months from the date of the signing of this agreement, which may be extended if deemed necessary for security and humanitarian reasons in the region. After this period, the forces shall be deployed according to the strategic deployment plan of the Armed Forces.
26.6. The Parties agree that forces of the armed struggle movements shall be integrated in the military establishment and other security services in the form of full military units according to the organization of the Sudanese Armed Forces

Page 64, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration
26.18.Integration Requirements
26.18.1.The Government of Sudan shall ensure the integration of the armed struggle movements’ forces into the Sudanese military establishment and security services, according to the agreed timetables, criteria, and principles;
26.18.2.Forces of the armed struggle movements shall be integrated in the military establishment and other security institutions in accordance with numbers to be agreed upon later;
26.18.3.Combatants of the armed struggle movements’ forces who are integrated into the military and security institutions may not go into retirement in the first 6 years of their integration, except as the result of discipline violations and violations of the law;

Page 66, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 27. The Police
27.12.The Parties agree to assemble the police forces in the Darfur states/ region to speed up the integration process.

Page 66, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 28. The General Intelligence Service
28.1.The Parties recognize that the General Intelligence Service shall be a national and
professional body whose members may not have any political affiliation or affiliation to a certain group, faction, region, or area. It shall owe allegiance to the homeland. Joining the General Intelligence Service shall be guaranteed for all Sudanese people in accordance with applicable criteria and standards;
28.2.The Parties agree to integrate an agreed number of members from the intelligence of the armed struggle movements/ Darfur Track into the General Intelligence Service in accordance with the agreed criteria and standards;
...
28.4.The Parties agree to establish a Joint Intelligence Technical Committee to undertake the task of integrating the individuals of the armed struggle movements/ Darfur Trak into the General Intelligence Service in accordance with the agreed upon criteria

Page 67, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 29. Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.1.Creation of a security keeping force in Darfur.
29.1.1.The Parties agreed to establish a security keeping force and its command in Darfur so as to ensure the participation of forces from the armed struggle movements after receiving intensive training within 90 days of the date of the signing of this agreement.
...
29.3.The security keeping force in Darfur shall be composed of the following forces: 29.3.1.Sudanese Armed forces;
29.3.2.Rapid Support Forces;
29.3.3.The Police forces;
29.3.4.Forces of the General Intelligence Service; and
29.3.5.Forces of the signatory armed struggle movements.
29.4.Composition
29.4.1.The Parties agree that the security keeping force in Darfur shall be composed of a twelve thousand-strong force, that may be increased if necessary. It shall be distributed as follows:
29.4.1.1.(6,000) individuals from the Armed Forces, the Rapid Support Forces, the Police, and the General Intelligence Service;
29.4.1.2.(6,000) individuals from the forces of the armed struggle movements.

Page 74, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 33. Reform, Development, and Modernization of the Military Establishment and Other Security Services
33.5.The Parties agree on the following:
33.5.1.To reform, develop, and modernize the military and other security services; build a single national professional army with a new unified military doctrine that reflects the demographic diversity of Sudan and defends the supreme interests of Sudan composed of all parties to the final security arrangement agreement signed by the negotiating parties in Juba, making the Armed Forces, the Rapid Support Forces, other security services and the armed struggle forces of Darfur Track a single unified regular force that serves the supreme interests of State of Sudan, based on professionalism, without politicization and narrow affiliations;

Pages 122-126, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Integration
[This section in its entirety deals with the merger or integration of forces]
Joint command structures
Page 62, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration
26.7.The Parties agree to establish a Joint High Council chaired by the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, with the membership of the commander of Rapid Support Forces, Minister of Defense, Minister of the Interior, the Chief of Staff, the Director General of the Police, Director General of the General Intelligence Service, head of the Military Intelligence Authority and heads of the armed struggle movements for supervision, monitoring, evaluation, and follow up on the implementation of integrating the forces of the armed struggle movements and evaluating the security and humanitarian situation in Darfur. The Joint High Council shall hold periodic meetings. It shall, among other functions, form a mechanism to address the issue of war prisoners and missing persons of both Parties.
...
26.9.The Parties agree to exceptionally appoint a number of senior officers from the armed struggle movements in the general command, based on the size of forces integrated therein, through a task force that shall introduce plans and policies for managing the forces for the entirety of the agreed upon period during which the forces remain in Darfur. The task force shall submit its periodic reports to the Joint High Council;
26.10.The Parties agree to exceptionally appoint a number of senior officers from the armed struggle movements in the ground forces, the police, and General Intelligence Services based on the size of the integrated forces;
26.11.The Parties agree that leadership of the integrated forces shall be pursuant to units and seniority;

Page 64, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration
26.18.Integration Requirements
26.18.4.The Joint High Military Committee for Security Arrangements shall create a technical integration committee to supervise the integration of the former combatants of the armed struggle movements’/Darfur Track forces including undertaking planning, implementation, management, and monitoring of the process. The committee shall develop a plan for integrating former combatants. The technical integration committee shall include representatives of the Parties, a representative of the DDR Commission and a representative of a third party. Chairmanship of the committee shall be rotated between the Parties;

Page 65, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 27. The Police
27.5.The Parties agree to integrate the number to be agreed upon of the forces of the armed struggle movements/ Darfur Track in the different departments of the Sudanese police.
27.6.The Parties agree to establish a Joint Police Technical Committee to integrate and accommodate commissioned and non-commissioned officers and soldiers in accordance with the agreed-upon terms and conditions;
27.7.The Parties agree that forces of the armed struggle movements shall receive the number of officers in the agreed-upon low-level and senior ranks, professional development, and education in the police force, in accordance with the agreed standards.
27.8.The Joint Police Technical Committee shall be composed of the following:
27.8.1.Representatives of the Sudanese police;
27.8.2.Representatives of forces of the signatory armed struggle movements/ Darfur Track;

Page 66, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 28. The General Intelligence Service
28.3.The Parties agree that the agreed number of officers in low-level and senior ranks from the intelligence of the armed struggle movements shall receive professional development and education in general intelligence, in accordance with the established standards.

Page 70, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 30. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR)
30.3.Structure of DDR Mechanisms.
30.3.1.At the national level:
30.3.1.1.The DDR High Council;
30.3.1.2.The National DDR Commission.
30.3.2. At the regional level:
30.3.2.1.The Darfur Regional DDR Commission.
30.4.The Parties agree to restructure the DDR High Council and the National DDR Commission within 45 days from the date of the signing of the peace agreement, to ensure the representation of parties to the agreement in the structures of the Council and the Commission.
30.5.DDR High Council.
30.5.1.The Council shall be responsible for developing, supervising, coordinating, and evaluating DDR policies. It shall also coordinate with the DDR Commission at the national level.

Page 72, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 30. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR)
30.8.7.The Darfur Regional DDR Commission shall be composed of the following:
30.8.7.1.(5) representatives of the Government of Sudan;
30.8.7.2.(5) representatives of the armed struggle movements signatory to this agreement;
30.8.7.3.One representative of a UN third party;
30.8.7.4.Stakeholders and donors.
30.8.8.The Parties shall appoint a commissioner for the Darfur Regional DDR Commission by consensus;
30.8.9.The Parties agree to ensure the participation of women in DDR decision-making processes, to effectively and appropriately meet the needs and interests of women, including the representation of women in the Darfur Regional DDR Commission.
30.8.10.The Commission may seek the help of national and foreign technical experts in accordance with the laws in effect in the country.
(part of extensive DDR sub section within chapter, see also DDR category)

Page 73, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 31. Darfur Commission for Security Arrangements.
31.1.The Parties agreed to restructure the current Darfur Commission for Security Arrangements with five branch offices in the states/region of Darfur and to make use of its capacity to ensure the representation of signatory Parties therein. It shall supervise and implement security arrangements and introduce the plans and programs necessary therefor, provided that the Parties to this Agreement are members of the Commission. The chairman of the Commission shall be selected by consensus of the Parties to this Agreement.

Page 73, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 33. Reform, Development, and Modernization of the Military Establishment and Other Security Services
33.1.Security and Defense Council
33.1.1.The Council shall develop and approve the general plan for the reform, development, and modernization of the military establishment and security services and monitor the implementation thereof.
33.1.2.The Parties agree to refer the implementation of reform, development and modernization of the military establishment and other security services policies and plans to the Joint High Council.
33.1.3.The Council shall hold periodic meetings, as agreed-upon, to review the implementation of the security arrangements agreement included in the final peace agreement. Leaders of the armed struggle movements signatory to the peace agreement that have no representatives on the Council shall be invited to attend meeting of the Council that are focused on instituting policies and plans for the reform, development, and modernization of the military establishment and other security services.
33.2.The Sovereign Council and Council of Ministers
33.2.1.The Councils shall, among other tasks, monitor the implementation of the security arrangements agreement and provide the necessary resources for the implementation of the agreed plan of reform, modernization, and development.
33.3.Security and Defense Committee in the Transitional Parliament.
33.3.1.The Security and Defense Committee in the Transitional Parliament shall, among other duties, pay special attention to overseeing the implementation of the security arrangements agreement and the reform, modernization, and development plan for the military establishment and security institutions.

Page 75, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 33. Reform, Development, and Modernization of the Military Establishment and Other Security Services
33.5.The Parties agree on the following:
33.5.11.To reform the Sudan Armed Forces to be representative of all people of Sudan, in their general membership and leadership at all levels;
...
33.8.The Parties agree to address the imbalance in the representation of Darfuri people in the security sector in all military ranks, including commissioned and non-commissioned officers at all levels, by according proportionate representation of population and positive discrimination.

Pages 123, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Integration
90. The Joint Police Technical Committee shall be composed of the following: 90.1.Representatives of the Sudanese police.
90.2.Representatives of the police from SPLA-N/SRF forces.
90.3.The Joint Police Technical Committee shall submit its recommendations to the security arrangements’ higher joint military committee for approval and adoption.
91. Duties of the Joint Police Technical Committee:
91.1.Receive the agreed list of candidates for integration into the police force.
91.2.Review official identification documents and certificates and conduct the necessary checkups and medical examinations.
91.3.Review the terms, criteria, and plans for integration into the police force, taking into consideration positive discrimination for the population of the Two Areas, especially women, provided that the specified criteria is not violated.
91.4.Determine the proposed ranks for the commissioned and non-commissioned officers.
91.5.Recommend enlisting them in the police training centers.
91.6.The state shall provide the necessary logistics and budget for the integration process.
91.7.The Parties agree on the necessity of accelerating the integration process and assembling the police forces in the Two Areas in agreed locations.
91.8.The Parties agree that during the transitional period the police force shall undertake the following functions:
91.9.Prevent and combat crime.
91.10.Enforce the law, maintain public order, and ensure the safety of money, people, and public tranquility.
91.11.Undertake all internal security operations, including securing strategic and vital facilities, protecting important persons, and maintaining communal security. 91.12.Combat organized and cross-border crime, including terrorism, human trafficking, illegal migration, weapons and drugs smuggling, money laundering and electronic crimes.
91.13.Combat corruption.
91.14.Provide police services which include the civil record, passports, traffic policing and civil defense.
91.15.Undertake functions of the prison sector, protect wild life, and engage in customs functions without violating the technical jurisdiction of the Ministry of Finance.
91.16.Protect and secure IDP camps and participate in securing humanitarian assistance routes.
91.17.Protect and secure the roads and villages for voluntary return of IDPs and refugees.
91.18.Protect families and children.
91.19.Ensure the rule of law and bring perpetrators to justice.

Page 193, TITLE 9, 9. Darfur Track Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements Implementation Matrix
(10) Activity: Establish the Joint High Council
Timing: D-Day + 14
Implementing Party: Commander- in-Chief of the Armed Forces
Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition: The Parties
Procedures: Establishing decision
Reference: Article 26.7

Page 194, TITLE 9, 9. Darfur Track Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements Implementation Matrix
(18) Activity: Restructure the National DDR Commission and DDR High Council
Timing: D-Day +45
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition: The Parties
Procedures: Decision
Reference: Article 30.4

Page 195, TITLE 9, 9. Darfur Track Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements Implementation Matrix
(22) Activity: Appoint officers from the armed struggle movements in the planning and policy unit
Timing: D-Day + 90
Implementing Party: The Parties
Composition: The Parties
Procedures: Decision
Reference: Article 26.9

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 7, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.16.Legal reform, restructuring and improving the judicial and legal system, and ensuring the independence of the judiciary and the rule of law are tasks that must be implemented.

Page 7, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.22.Justice, accountability, reconciliation, and transitional justice are critical for ensuring durable peace and security in Sudan. Justice shall be founded on upholding the rule of law, the ratified international human rights conventions, and international humanitarian law, including through mechanisms based on the customs, cultures, and heritage of the Sudanese peoples.

Page 22, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 33. Resolving disputes related to concurrent powers
33.1.In the event of a conflict between the provisions of the law of Darfur Region, the federal law and powers of local governance, the law that shall prevail is that which most effectively deals with the subject matter of the law while observing the following:
...
33.1.4.The need to promote the welfare of the people and to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms for all.

Page 27, TITLE 2. Chapter 3: Justice, Accountability, and Reconciliation Protocol
General Principles
1. Respect for international human rights law and international humanitarian law.
...
8. The unconditional condemnation of atrocities, abuses, and violations of human rights and international humanitarian law committed during the conflicts, and the importance to take all necessary steps to prevent the repetition of such violations.
...
11. Children implicated in the conflict, who may have been involved in the commission of crimes under international law, if any, shall be considered victims and treated in accordance with the Convention on the Rights of the Child, Protocol II to the Geneva Convention, the African Charter on Rights and Welfare of the Child, the Beijing Rules, and relevant international juvenile justice and standards of fair trial. In conjunction with UNICEF and other relevant international organizations, the Parties shall work to rehabilitate and reintegrate child soldiers into society.

Page 28, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL,
General Principles
13. The importance of continuing to undertake legal and institutional reforms to strengthen the rule of law, and to establish relevant mechanisms thereto in accordance with the international standards.
...
15. The review of public services to identify and remove individuals who perpetrated abuses and violations of human rights and international humanitarian law to curb impunity, build confidence, and strengthen the rule of law in Darfur.

Page 39, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 2. General Principles
2.2. The human rights of displaced persons shall be fully respected and guaranteed under international and national laws, whether during the voluntary return, resettlement, or thereafter;

Page 41, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 4. Suitable Conditions for Return
4.1. With the assistance of the concerned international and domestic institutions, the Parties agree to create the political, economic, social, and security conditions conducive to the voluntary return and acceptable reintegration of IDPs and refugees, without giving preference to any particular group. These conditions shall include, but not be limited to:
...
4.1.11.The Parties shall refrain from attacking, intimidating, or harassing IDPs, refugees or returnees in any way at all times. The human rights of IDPs, refugees and returnees shall be fully respected, with special considerations, protections, and processes for vulnerable groups such as women, children, the elderly, and persons with disabilities;

Page 51, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 9.Guiding principles for the final security arrangements, reform, development and modernization of security sector.
9.7. The Parties agree to reform, develop, and modernize the military establishment and other security services/the security sector, provided that there are short and long-term reforms in furtherance of the objectives and provisions of this agreement, supporting the establishment of a permanent, professional, and independent system to improve their capacity, effectiveness, impartiality, inclusiveness, and professionalism, as well as to strengthen the rule of law in Sudan in accordance with international law and best practices and to establish armed forces that represent the diversity of Sudan and are capable of defending Sudan against foreign enemies and maintaining the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Sudan;

Page 53, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 14. General Provisions and Principles of the Permanent Ceasefire
14.5.The Parties shall commit to immediately releasing the remaining prisoners of war unless they are indicted in private rights cases as a sign of national reconciliation, in addition to releasing any other persons detained due to the war in furtherance of confidence building measures and searching for missing persons;

Page 54, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 14. General Provisions and Principles of the Permanent Ceasefire
14.16.The Parties acknowledge that the primary responsibility for enforcing law and maintaining public safety falls with a recognized police authority that carries out its duties in accordance with the law and acceptable standards;

Page 55, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 18. Prohibited Acts
18.4.Using force and violence against civilians and subjecting them to maltreatment, including sexual violence against women, which constitutes a violation of international law and relevant domestic law

Page 55, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 18. Prohibited Acts
18.10.Violating human rights, international humanitarian law, and obstructing freedom of movement;

Page 65, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 27. The Police
27.2.The police force shall be professional and impartial and work in accordance with laws and regulations;
...
27.4.The Parties recognize that the Sudanese police shall be a law-enforcement service that is composed and commanded at a national level, operating at state/regional level with the presence of federal departments that undertake their federal obligations and duties;

Page 66, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 27. The Police
27.13.9.Ensure the rule of law and bring perpetrators to justice

Page 67, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 28. The General Intelligence Service
28.7.The General Intelligence Service shall have the following competencies:
28.7.3.Undertake the necessary search and investigation to reveal any conditions, facts, activities, or elements that may infringe upon the national security and safety of Sudan, in accordance with the provisions of the law;

Page 67, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 29. Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.1.Creation of a security keeping force in Darfur.
29.2.Legal Framework.
29.2.1.The security keeping force in Darfur shall be subject to Law of the Armed Forces of 2007, amended in 2013, and the provisions of this Agreement;
29.2.2.The security keeping force shall operate pursuant to the working frameworks that apply to the Sudanese Armed Forces;
29.2.3.Rules of engagement shall be issued therefor.

Page 68, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 29. Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.Functions of the Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.7.Protecting and helping civilians, abiding by international humanitarian law and international human rights law to end violence threatening life and individuals;

Page 72, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 30. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR)
30.8.10.The Commission may seek the help of national and foreign technical experts in accordance with the laws in effect in the country.

Page 74, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 33. Reform, Development, and Modernization of the Military Establishment and Other Security Services
33.4.Areas of reform in the security sector.
33.4.1.Reforming laws and regulations of the military establishment and the security services;

Page 75, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 33. Reform, Development, and Modernization of the Military Establishment and Other Security Services
33.5.The Parties agree on the following:
33.5.6.Legally-authorized institutions shall enjoy exclusive possession of arms;
...
33.5.15.The Parties commit to implementing a comprehensive program for reform, development, and modernization of the military establishment and other security services to improve their capabilities, effectiveness, impartiality, and professionalism and to promote the rule of law, in accordance with acceptable standards.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:…
10.9.Create mechanisms that help to end impunity for perpetrators and bring justice for victims to establish a process of national reconciliation and healing. This shall be founded on upholding the rule of law and the international conventions of human rights and the international humanitarian law.

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 11. National Powers: the national government shall assume the following exclusive executive and legislative powers:
11.36.Fundamental rights and freedoms.

Page 104-105, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, DELEGATION OF POWERS, 65. The Parties agreed that when delegating powers, the state/regional government shall observe the following:
...
65.2.Recognition of the duty of the state/regional government to develop, improve, and care for the people and protect the fundamental human rights and freedoms and the rule of law.
...
65.4.Achievement of good governance through democracy, transparency, accountability, and the rule of law at all levels of governance to establish durable peace and economic, social, and political stability.

Page 108, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, DEVELOPMENT AND RECONSTRUCTION COMMISSION AND MECHANISM, 86. The National Commission for Religious Freedoms:
86.1.The Parties agree to establish a National Commission for Religious Freedoms in Sudan, with branches thereof in the Two Areas.
86.2.The Parties stressed the freedom of religions and faiths and the importance of tolerance and religious coexistence. The Parties also highlighted the necessity to establish a national ministry for peace and human rights to promote and protect human rights in Sudan.
86.3.Realize religious coexistence among all followers of religions and faiths to link and promote the peace process with the acquired rights.

Page 114, TITLE 3, CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Permanent Ceasefire Arrangements, 30. Prohibited Acts:
...
30.10.Violation of human rights, international humanitarian law, and obstruction of the freedom of movement.

Page 125, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Integration
91. Duties of the Joint Police Technical Committee
...
91.19.Ensure the rule of law and bring perpetrators to justice.
92. The Parties shall seek, with the international community, ways to provide technical assistance for police training and capacity building in order to maintain peace and the rule of law.

Page 134, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, Human Rights and Transitional Justice
5. The federal government shall endeavor to promote human rights in accordance with ratified international and regional instruments and protect freedom of expression, thought, belief and political affiliation;
6. The Parties affirm their willingness to cooperate fully and without restrictions in relation to persons against whom arrest warrants have been issued including, among other things, facilitating bringing those wanted to the International Criminal Court to stand trial;
7. The Parties shall consider signing and ratifying treaties, agreements and protocols, particularly those related to the rights of women, children and families and complying with the internationallaw and rules of human rights;
8. Codifying UNSC resolution 1325 related to Women, Peace and Security;
9. The Federal Government shall endeavor to carry out fair investigations and trials for all violations perpetrated in the region since 30 June 1989, particularly the events of 29 January 2005, the events of 27-28 Ramadan 2019 in Port Sudan, preceding events in the state of alQadarif and the rest of the region and the various events that followed in the region by forming independent investigation committees and bringing perpetrators to stand trial as soon as
possible;
10. Guaranteeing the rights of shipping and unloading workers onboard and off-board ships and reaching lasting remedies for their employment status in accordance with the law;

Page 143, TITLE 5, General Principles
7. Activating mechanisms to ensure the respect of human rights, the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples of 2007, as well as international instruments, agreements, and treaties ratified by the Republic of Sudan.
...
11. The state shall ensure for men, women, and persons with special needs the equal and balanced right to enjoy all civil, political, social, cultural, and economic rights while observing positive discrimination.
12. Recognizing the principles of justice, accountability, and no impunity and bringing all the accused to national and international courts and tribunals.
13. Committing to the principles of transparency, accountability and combating all forms of corruption and creating the necessary mechanisms for that purpose.
...
20. Legal reform and rebuilding and improving the rights and justice system and ensuring the independence of the judiciary

Page 154, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 20. Prohibited Acts.
20.4. Using force and violence against civilians and subjecting them to maltreatment, including sexual violence against women, which constitute a violation of international law and relevant domestic law.
...
20.10. Violating human rights and international humanitarian law and obstructing the freedom of movement.

Page 184, TITLE 9, 5. Darfur Track: Displaced Persons and Refugees Implementation Matrix
Activity: Design mechanisms to monitor human rights conditions in areas of return
Timing: After establishing the IDPRC
Implementing Party: IDPRC
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Create the mechanisms
Reference/Article: 8.6.8

Page 218, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Rights of the loading and unloading workers
Timing: After final signing of the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Funding:
Composition: The High Committee for Implementing the Agreement
Procedures: Review laws and develop policies and permanent remedies for the employment status of workers
Reference / article: 10
Equality
Page 4, PREAMBLE:
SEEKING to fulfill the longings and aspirations of our peoples to end the wars and conflicts and achieve a just, comprehensive, and sustainable peace, that establishes a state based on equal citizenship without discrimination, and brings justice to millions of Sudanese from displaced persons, refugees and the dispossessed who were forcibly displaced by the former regime, who against them committed war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide;

Page 7, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.17.Equal citizenship without discrimination is the basis for all civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights and duties.

Page 12, TITLE 1, 18. Combating Racism
18.1.The Parties agree to issue strict legislation criminalizing all kinds of racism and to adopt clear state policies to combat different forms of racial attitudes, discrimination, and manifestations of ethnic and religious supremacy through education curricula, media, and building an integrated societal culture that respects human dignity and upholds the values of equality between human being without discrimination.

Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
12. The Charter of Rights contained in the Constitutional Charter shall be a covenant between all the people of Sudan and between them and their governments at all levels, and there is an obligation on their part to respect and promote the human rights and fundamental freedoms contained in the Charter, which shall be considered the cornerstone of social justice, equality, and democracy in Sudan.

Page 71, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 30. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR)
30.7.4.The principles of fairness, transparency, equality, and impartiality shall be observed during the social and economic reintegration of former combatants. Furthermore, former combatants shall receive equal treatment, regardless of their past affiliation with any of the movements;

Page 73, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 30. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR)
30.10.3.To ensure fairness, transparency, and equity when deciding on the eligibility of former combatants to receive the targeted assistance;
30.10.4.Throughout the reintegration processes, former combatants shall be treated equally, regardless of their past affiliations with the armed struggle movements signatory to the Final Peace Agreement.;

Page 143, TITLE 5, General Principles
6. Reforming governance organs and state institutions. Engaging all people of the country and endeavoring to ensure equal opportunities, while stressing the principle of qualification, competency and honest competition for public office.
Democracy
Page 15, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
3. Ending the war and achieving peace in Sudan represents the proper path for the realization of security, stability, and the country’s transition to democratization.

Page 15-16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
10. Power-sharing is significantly important to the unity, security and stability of the country and represents the peaceful transfer of power through free and fair elections, and the transfer of legislative and executive powers as a guarantee of stability and the foundation of democratic governance in Sudan.
11. The separation of executive, legislative, and judicial powers should unite the foundations of good governance, accountability, transparency and commitment to the security and well-being of the people.
12. The Charter of Rights contained in the Constitutional Charter shall be a covenant between all the people of Sudan and between them and their governments at all levels, and there is an obligation on their part to respect and promote the human rights and fundamental freedoms contained in the Charter, which shall be considered the cornerstone of social justice, equality, and democracy in Sudan.

Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
17. Establishing a system of governance in which the authorities are effectively empowered and responsibilities are fairly distributed, ensuring general and equal participation of all citizens in Sudan.

Page 49, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, Preamble
MINDFUL that the history of Sudan has proven that peace cannot be achieved without democratization and that democratization cannot be achieved without peace.

Page 54, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 14. General Provisions and Principles of the Permanent Ceasefire
14.13.The Parties agree on a permanent ceasefire between all their forces in fulfilment of a broader goal which is to safeguard the final peace agreement, promote the culture of peace and reconciliation, and build confidence and the new democratic system;

Page 110, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, ENVIRONMENT ISSUES, 96. The Parties shall work to establish a strategic partnership between all the stakeholders of the revolution, peace, and democracy to ensure the success of the transitional period.

Page 143, TITLE 5, General Principles
5. The people are the source of authority

Page 104-105, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, DELEGATION OF POWERS, 65. The Parties agreed that when delegating powers, the state/regional government shall observe the following:
...
65.4.Achievement of good governance through democracy, transparency, accountability, and the rule of law at all levels of governance to establish durable peace and economic, social, and political stability.

Page 151, TITLE 7. Preamble
Recalling the efforts exerted towards building a national democratic inclusive state, and the commitment to transitional governance as stipulated in the Constitutional Decree;
Determined to seize this opportunity to achieve just peace, citizenship without discrimination, and put an end to all current wars throughout Sudan, in conjunction with genuine democratization based on the pillars of just peace and citizenship without discrimination;
Protection measures
Protection of civilians
Page 55, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 17. Permissible Acts
17.1.9.Routine movements of the Armed Forces, to secure international borders and confront national security threats, that pass through assembly areas and bases of the armed struggle movements’ forces; after informing the Military Ceasefire Committee.

Page 55, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8 PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 18. Prohibited Acts
18.4.Using force and violence against civilians and subjecting them to maltreatment, including sexual violence against women, which constitutes a violation of international law and relevant domestic law;
...
18.19.All acts of hostility, harassment, or intimidation against military personnel or civilians affiliated with the other party, including harassment through unjustified detention;

Page 62, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration
26.2.The ultimate purpose of the integration process is for the Sudanese Armed Forces, with its new unified military doctrine that protects citizens, the homeland, and the constitution; to be the only professional national army and to integrate all other forces present on Sudanese territory in a unified professional national army;

Page 67, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 28. The General Intelligence Service
28.7.The General Intelligence Service shall have the following competencies:
28.7.1.Preserve the national security of Sudan, protect its constitution, social fabric, and the safety of its citizens from any threat, in coordination with other regular forces;

Page 68, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 29. Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.Functions of the Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.1.Undertaking the constitutional, moral, and political responsibility of the Government of Sudan in protecting civilians;
...
29.5.7.Protecting and helping civilians, abiding by international humanitarian law and international human rights law to end violence threatening life and individuals;

Page 75, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 33. Reform, Development, and Modernization of the Military Establishment and Other Security Services
33.5.The Parties agree on the following:
33.5.8.To review the strategic deployment of the Armed Forces to ensure defense of the borders and maintaining the sovereignty of the state;

Page 153, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT WEASEFIRE, 19. Permissible Acts
19.1.9. Routine movements of the Armed Forces, to secure international borders and confront national security threats.

Page 154, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT WEASEFIRE, 20. Prohibited Acts.
20.4. Using force and violence against civilians and subjecting them to maltreatment, including sexual violence against women, which constitute a violation of international law and relevant domestic law.
...
20.19. All acts of hostility, harassment, or intimidation against military personnel or civilians affiliated with either party, including harassment through unjustified detention.
Protection of groups
Page 41, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 4. Suitable Conditions for Return
4.1. With the assistance of the concerned international and domestic institutions, the Parties agree to create the political, economic, social, and security conditions conducive to the voluntary return and acceptable reintegration of IDPs and refugees, without giving preference to any particular group. These conditions shall include, but not be limited to:
...
4.1.11.The Parties shall refrain from attacking, intimidating, or harassing IDPs, refugees or returnees in any way at all times. The human rights of IDPs, refugees and returnees shall be fully respected, with special considerations, protections, and processes for vulnerable groups such as women, children, the elderly, and persons with disabilities.

Page 41, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 5. Humanitarian Aid
5.2. Certain IDPs and refugees, such as children, expectant mothers, mothers with young children, female heads of household, persons with disabilities, and elderly persons, shall be entitled to protection and assistance required by their condition and to treatment which pays heed to their special needs;

Page 42, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 7. International Support
7.4. The Parties shall commit to protecting the safety and security of all foreign government staffs and employees, as well as national and international aid workers and equipment thereof.

Page 43, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 8. Internally Displaced Persons and Refugees Commission
8.6.16.Work with UNAMID/ a third party, UN agencies, relevant national and international agencies, and other international and national aid organizations to ensure proper protection and dignified treatment of IDPs and refugees during the process of return and reintegration or resettlement;

Page 59, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 25. Command and Control Mechanisms
25.4.The Parties agree to designate a 320-person force for the protection of important persons in the Darfur Track within the framework of this agreement after integration, training, and qualification.

Page 66, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 27. The Police
27.13.3.Undertake all internal security operations, including securing strategic and vital facilities and protecting important persons;

Page 67, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 28. The General Intelligence Service
28.7.The General Intelligence Service shall have the following competencies:
28.7.8.Protect important persons and public facilities and secure cities in coordination with other regular forces;

Page 68, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 29. Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.Functions of the Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.8.Deploying police forces to secure villages for voluntary return, IDP camps, confirming their civil status, working to disengage parties to tribal conflicts, securing IDP camps in coordination with the management thereof, and preventing recruitment, especially among children;

Page 149, TITLE 6, 3. Development, Services, and Revenues
The Government of Sudan shall commit to the following:
3.2. Establish specialized centers to combat epidemics and endemic diseases in hot areas, as well as maternity and children’s centers.

Page 152, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, Objectives of the Agreement
8. To create an appropriate environment for the voluntary and safe return of IDPs and refugees to their areas of origin.

Page 153, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 20. Prohibited Acts.
20.19. All acts of hostility, harassment, or intimidation against military personnel or civilians affiliated with either party, including harassment through unjustified detention.

Page 157, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 26. The General Intelligence Service
26.3. The General Intelligence Services shall have the following competencies:
26.3.8. Protect important persons and public facilities and secure cities in coordination with other regular forces.

Page 194, TITLE 9, 9. Darfur Track Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements Implementation Matrix
(13) Activity: Arrival of guard force to protect important persons arrives for training
Timing: D-Day + 30
Implementing Party: Armed Struggle Movements
Funding: Government of Sudan
Procedures: Arrival of individuals
Reference: Article 25.4
Protection of rights and legal frameworks
Page 150, TITLE 6. 3. Development, Services, and Revenues
3.3. Provide judicial services and implement police law, and other laws to protect the social and communal peace.
Other
Page 157, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 26. The General Intelligence Service
26.3. The General Intelligence Services shall have the following competencies:
26.3.1. Preserve the national security of Sudan, protect its constitution, social fabric, and the safety of its citizens from any threat, in coordination with other regular institutions.
Human rights framework
Bill of rights
Page 7, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.14.The bill of rights enshrined in the Constitutional Charter constitutes a social contract among all Sudanese people. Fundamental human rights and freedoms included in this document shall be upheld and advanced.

Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
12. The Charter of Rights contained in the Constitutional Charter shall be a covenant between all the people of Sudan and between them and their governments at all levels, and there is an obligation on their part to respect and promote the human rights and fundamental freedoms contained in the Charter, which shall be considered the cornerstone of social justice, equality, and democracy in Sudan.
Treaty incorporation
Page 7, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.15.All rights and freedoms provided for in international and regional human rights agreements, covenants, and charters ratified by the Republic of Sudan shall be an integral part of this agreement.

Page 7, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.22.Justice, accountability, reconciliation, and transitional justice are critical for ensuring durable peace and security in Sudan. Justice shall be founded on upholding the rule of law, the ratified international human rights conventions, and international humanitarian law, including through mechanisms based on the customs, cultures, and heritage of the Sudanese peoples.

Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
13. All rights and freedoms enshrined in international and regional human rights treaties and conventions ratified by the Republic of Sudan are an integral part of this Agreement.

Page 39, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 2. General Principles
2.1. The Parties shall be bound to all international agreements and treaties related to displaced persons and refugees ratified by the Government of Sudan;
2.2. The human rights of displaced persons shall be fully respected and guaranteed under international and national laws, whether during the voluntary return, resettlement, or thereafter;
Other
Page 209, TITLE 9, 12. Northern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Activate mechanisms to ensure the respect of human rights
Timing: After signing the agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Sources of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition: -
Procedures: Issue decisions and activate the mechanisms
Reference / article: Article 7 General Principles
Civil and political rights
Equality
Page 94, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, General Principles
1. Equal citizenship without discrimination shall be the basis for all rights and duties. The state shall stand at equal distance from all religions and cultures, without any ethnic, religious, or cultural bias that may lead to derogation of this right. It shall be enshrined in the Constitutional Charter governing the transitional period.

Page 94, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, General Principles
2. Equal citizenship without discrimination shall be the basis for all civil, political, social, economic, and cultural rights and duties to build a decentralized state based on a system of equitable power and wealth sharing and necessary positive discrimination.
Freedom of movement
Page 39, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 2. General Principles
2.5. IDPs and refugees shall enjoy the same human rights and fundamental freedoms of any citizen in Sudan, including the right to move freely and reside anywhere on Sudanese territory;

Page 40, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 4. Suitable Conditions for Return
4.1. With the assistance of the concerned international and domestic institutions, the Parties agree to create the political, economic, social, and security conditions conducive to the voluntary return and acceptable reintegration of IDPs and refugees, without giving preference to any particular group. These conditions shall include, but not be limited to:
...
4.1.2.The right to free movement and choice of residence;

Page 53, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 14. General Provisions and Principles of the Permanent Ceasefire
14.7.The Parties must commit to providing and facilitating humanitarian assistance by creating conditions that encourage provision of urgent humanitarian assistance to the homeless, IDPs, refugees, and affected persons and their right to voluntary return to their areas of origin;

Page 54, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 17. Permissible Acts
17.1.4.Freedom of movement for unarmed soldiers in civilian attire who are on vacation, on sick leave, or are visiting their families pursuant to an authorization from the competent authority and with the knowledge of the field teams;

Page 55, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 18. Prohibited Acts
18.10.Violating human rights, international humanitarian law, and obstructing freedom of movement;
...
18.12.Obstructing the freedom of movement of the monitoring mechanisms in implementing their mandated tasks;

Page 112, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Permanent Ceasefire Arrangements
General and Fundamental Provisions
19. The permanent ceasefire agreement shall ensure freedom of movement for persons, especially civilians, goods and services throughout Sudan and opening crossings and borders with neighboring countries in accordance with the agreements signed with them and the necessary security measures.

Page 113, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Permanent Ceasefire Arrangements
29. Permissible Acts: Due to the wide-scale damage and adverse effects of the war, the main principle underlying the permissible acts shall be the removal of the effects of war on civilians and affected areas, and to encourage public support for peace. The permissible acts shall include:
...
29.4.Freedom of movement of unarmed soldiers in civilian attire who are on leave, on sick leave, or are visiting their families in accordance with an authorization from the competent authority and with the knowledge of the field teams.

Page 114, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Permanent Ceasefire Arrangements
30. Prohibited Acts:
30.10.Violation of human rights, international humanitarian law, and obstruction of the freedom of movement.

Page 115, Title 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, 39. Preparatory Phase of the Ceasefire:
39.2.The Parties, upon declaring the permanent ceasefire and entry into force thereof, shall commit to immediately embark on defining the assembly areas for the SPLA-N/SRF forces through the Joint High Military Ceasefire Committee in areas to be agreed upon by the Parties.
Vote and take part
Page 39, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 2. General Principles
2.7. The Parties shall adhere to the following principles and rights of return:
...
2.7.6.Rights and privileges of IDPs and refugees to citizenship and participation shall not be affected due to their status as IDPs or refugees, and their rights and privileges shall be fully restored and guaranteed in Sudan;
2.7.7.It shall be prohibited to discriminate against IDPs and refugees or prevent them from participating in government or electing officials. IDPs and refugees shall enjoy the right to participate fully and equally in public affairs at all levels and have equal access to public services;
Other
Page 92-93, TITLE 3. CHAPTER TWO: FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT FOR THE TWO AREAS OF BLUE NILE AND SOUTH KORDOFAN / NUBA MOUNTAINS, Requirements for Concluding a Process for Achieving Durable Peace and Political Transformation
58. The Parties agreed on achieving sustainable, inclusive and comprehensive peace in accordance with the framework provided in this Agreement, and particularly the following sequencing requirements:
58.4.The Constitutional Conference shall address, among other issues, the relationship between religion and state, and shall resolve this issue in a manner that is in accordance with the right of citizenship without discrimination.
Socio-economic rights
Health
Page 136, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, Health Issues
24. The Government shall commit to providing primary health and reproductive health care and emergency services free of charge for all citizens in addition to developing public health and establishing, developing and rehabilitating essential treatment and diagnostic institutions;
25. The Federal Government and the state/regional government shall commit to improving and consolidating the health system and rehabilitating educational, reference and mobile hospitals, medical schools and health centers in addition to providing qualified medical staff and auxiliary personnel;
26. The Federal Government and the state/regional government shall commit to making
specialized health centers available in rural and remote areas;
27. The Government shall commit to conducting an integrated study on the environmental and health impacts resulting from the use of asbestos in houses’ roofs and water networks in New Halfa area and introducing the necessary remedies;
28. The Government shall commit to conducting a study on endemics and contagious diseases in the state/region with the help of organizations working in the field of health and introducing the necessary remedies;
29. The Government shall commit to conducting a study on health and education to determine the priorities and sites for establishing and rehabilitating schools, hospitals and health centers in coordination with the competent authorities;

Page 145, TITLE 5. ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK (POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC) ISSUES, 11. Working to address all the issues of resettlement in the villages of the New Hamdab (alMultaqa), through the following:
11.2.Rehabilitating all health and educational services and completing drinking water supply from the Nile and establishing economic projects;

Page 147, TITLE 5. ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK(POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC), 32. Addressing the problems of health and education and conducting social studies to remedy the negative phenomena in the community of the displaced persons after displacement.

Page 219-220, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Public health issues
Timing: After ratifying the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan and the state/regional government
Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition: Government of Sudan and health organizations
Procedures: 1-Provide healthcare and improve and rehabilitate health facilities 2- Improve and promote the health system
3- Make available specialized health centers in rural areas 4- Conduct a study on the impact of asbestos and remedy thereof
5- Study and remedy endemics and contagious diseases
6- Conduct a study on health and education sectors to identify priorities of establishing and rehabilitating facilities
Reference / article: 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 & 29
Education
Page 13-14, TITLE 1, 26. Education
26.1. As a comprehensive development renaissance in the country requires modern education, the Parties agree that the Government of Sudan shall commit to mandatory and free public education, introducing policies, holding education conferences, providing the necessary resources to assure quality education for all and to eliminating gaps and regional, gender, and social imbalances in education particularly in the war-affected and least developed areas.

Page 135, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, Education and Human Development Issues
16. The Parties reaffirm that education is a right guaranteed for every citizen. The state shall ensure that basic education is free and mandatory and endeavor to eradicate illiteracy;
17. The Federal Government shall prioritize the promotion of education at all levels in Eastern Sudan and pay utmost attention to the education of girls;
18. The Federal Government shall endeavor to promote and celebrate local languages. Competent national institutions shall consider methods to integrate them into national curricula in the framework of the overall policy for other national languages;
19. The state/regional government shall endeavor to open boarding schools as needed;
20. The Federal and state/regional government shall endeavor to develop and disseminate professional and vocational education in the state/region;
21. The principle of positive discrimination shall be applied to the men and women of the East in higher education scholarships and external university scholarships in accordance with the policies, regulations and standards of higher education;
22. The Government and the East Fund shall allocate a specified share of their resources to paying the tuition of students from Eastern Sudan in governmental universities after carrying out a social study;
23. The communal administration in Eastern Sudan shall urge citizens and encourage them to pursue education.

Page 136, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, Health Issues
29. The Government shall commit to conducting a study on health and education to determine the priorities and sites for establishing and rehabilitating schools, hospitals and health centers in coordination with the competent authorities;

Page 139, TITLE 4. CHAPTER TWO: THE SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUE, Issues of Lands, Dams and Displaced Persons
62. The Government shall commit to creating a fair investigation committee in relation to displaced persons, to redress and preserve their humanity, revise land surveys and decisions of compensation committees and provide the necessary services including water, electricity, education, health, and security. Its recommendations shall be submitted to the competent authority to undertake the necessary measures;

Page 145, TITLE 5. ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK (POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC) ISSUES, 11. Working to address all the issues of resettlement in the villages of the New Hamdab (alMultaqa), through the following:
11.2.Rehabilitating all health and educational services and completing drinking water supply from the Nile and establishing economic projects;
...
11.4.Addressing the issue of those who were included by the displacement scheme, but were not displaced in the areas of Kalkeely and al-Hamdab Island, compensating them with rights, property, and by the provision of health and educational services, establishing agricultural projects, and creating a mechanism to engage local people for that end;

Page 147, TITLE 5. ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK (POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC) ISSUES, 32. Addressing the problems of health and education and conducting social studies to remedy the negative phenomena in the community of the displaced persons after displacement.

Page 168, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Ensure the provision of mandatory and free public education and quality thereof
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Hold education conferences and institute policies
Reference article: 26.1

Page 203, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Introduce the necessary policies to ensure that higher education is free of charge and grant scholarships in order to cover expenses of students from war-affected areas
Timing: After signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: Introducing the necessary policies
Reference article: Articles 106 to 108

Page 203, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Allocate full university and post-graduate scholarships for men and women of the positively discriminated state / region to reverse the impact of wars
Timing: After signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan and the state / regional government
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 108

Page 219, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Issues of education and human resources development
Timing: After final signing of the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan and the state/regional government
Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: 1- Mandatory and free of charge education 2- Prioritize education of girls
3- Promote local languages
4- Open boarding schools
5- Disseminate professional and vocational education 6- Apply positive discrimination
7- Pay students’ tuition fees
Reference / article: 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 & 22
Shelter/housing
Page 39, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 2. General Principles
2.4. IDPs and refugees shall enjoy the rights to voluntary return, citizenship, identity, participation, ownership, and housing, as set forth in this Agreement;

Page 39, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 2. General Principles
2.7. The Parties shall adhere to the following principles and rights of return:
2.7.1.All IDPs and refugees shall have the right to make an informed decision for the voluntary return to their place of origin, homes, or to places or areas of their habitual residence; they shall also have the right to resettle to other places of their choosing, in accordance with the terms of the Agreement, especially those related to the necessary conditions of return;

Page 40, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 3. Property, Housing, and Compensation Rights
3.1. All IDPs and refugees shall enjoy the right to voluntary return to their homes, lands, and property, provided that they be fairly compensated for their losses of homes, lands, or property;
3.2. IDPs and refugees shall enjoy all rights to property, ownership of housing, the freedom of movement and residence, and compensation and reparations, as stipulated in this Agreement;
3.3. If the return of IDPs, refugees, and displaced persons to their homes or lands, or the restoration of their property is impossible, they shall have the right to receive fair compensation for their loss and the psychological damages resulting from forced displacement. The compensation shall be paid by the Compensations and Reparations Fund in accordance with international principles and the right of voluntary return for all IDPs and refugees.
NHRI
New or fundamentally revised NHRI
Page 109, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, DEVELOPMENT AND RECONSTRUCTION COMMISSION AND MECHANISM, 88. The Ministry of Peace and Human Rights: The Parties agreed to establish a national ministry for peace and human rights.

Page 200, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish a national ministry for peace and human rights
Timing: after signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition: Government of Sudan
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 88
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 42, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 7. International Support
7.2. The Parties shall commit to granting national and international aid organizations full land, air, and sea access to all territories and IDPs to implement the voluntary return and resettlement programs, within the framework of ratified international agreements, and in accordance with national laws;

Page 51, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 9.Guiding principles for the final security arrangements, reform, development and modernization of security sector.
9.3. All agreements on and arrangements for the cessation of hostilities or permanent ceasefire, or for security arrangements and all other reforms shall also serve to facilitate or ensure safe, immediate, and unhindered humanitarian access;
9.4. The Parties shall create appropriate security conditions for the unimpeded flow of humanitarian assistance and goods;

Page 53, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 14. General Provisions and Principles of the Permanent Ceasefire
14.4.The permanent ceasefire agreement must ensure freedom of mobility for people, particularly civilians, commodities, and services across Sudan as well as opening border crossings with neighboring countries in accordance with the agreements signed with them and the necessary security measures;

Page 55, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 17. Permissible Acts
17.1.7.Humanitarian action by facilitating the flow of relief and humanitarian assistance in accordance with the agreed regulations;
17.1.8.Medical evacuation;

Page 60, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 25. Command and Control Mechanisms
25.6.The Permanent Ceasefire Committee:
25.6.4.11.Facilitate the flow of humanitarian assistance;
25.6.4.12.The Ceasefire Committee shall work with the Parties and the Joint Humanitarian Committee to define specific methods, as necessary, to provide humanitarian assistance to specific areas in coordination with the Humanitarian Assistance Commission. Chairman of the committee shall make any final decisions on the means of the delivery of humanitarian aid in consultation with the Parties.

Page 68, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 29. Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.Functions of the Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.9.Creating an appropriate environment for humanitarian action in areas of return for IDPs and refugees by facilitating and protecting access to national, foreign, governmental, and non-governmental aid organizations;
...
29.5.11.Helping to secure a protective environment for civilians through the protection of general prosecution offices, branch police stations, motor and on-foot police patrols, and humanitarian aid convoys;

Page 92, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 2: FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT FOR THE TWO AREAS OF BLUE NILE AND SOUTH KORDOFAN / NUBA MOUNTAINS, ISSUES OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE FOR THE TWO AREAS, BLUE NILE, Confidence-building measures for implementation
57. The Parties commit to immediate implementation of confidence-building measures, including the following:
57.1.Continued implementation of unrestricted and unconditional delivery of relief and humanitarian aid from within and outside of Sudan, as provided for in the Agreement on humanitarian assistance and cessation of hostilities signed on 17 December 2019.

Page 115, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, 38. Humanitarian access during the permanent ceasefire:
38.1.The Parties shall commit to complying with the Humanitarian Assistance Agreement signed by the Transitional Government and the SPLM-N/SRF in Juba on 21 October,
2019.
38.2.The Parties shall commit to ensuring the continuation of safe, immediate and unhindered humanitarian access and the non-obstruction of the flow of humanitarian assistance from within Sudan or across the border for the affected populations.
38.3.The Parties shall commit to ensuring the safety and protection of humanitarian workers, equipment, and property.
38.4.The Parties shall commit to protecting and securing humanitarian assistance from looting, theft, and corruption.
38.5.The Parties shall abide by comprehensive measures that regulate the movement and protection of humanitarian assistance convoys in the Two Areas.
38.6.The Parties shall abide by the principles and spirit of international humanitarian law while enforcing the permanent ceasefire.

Page 125, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Integration
91. Duties of the Joint Police Technical Committee
...
91.16.Protect and secure IDP camps and participate in securing humanitarian assistance routes.

Page 135, TITLE 4. CHAPTER TWO: THE SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUE, General Principles
48. The government shall take the necessary measures to resume shipping and unloading operations and the measures of customs and customs clearance to the states/region of Eastern Sudan;

Page 151, TITLE 7. Definitions
1. Assembly: means the process of moving combatants to selected locations (in accordance with the standards of assembly areas) for the purpose of completing the necessary complementary administrative and military procedures.

Page 153, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 19. Permissible Acts
19.1.3. Socioeconomic activities such as assisting the freedom of movement of people, goods and services.
19.1.4. Freedom of movement for unarmed soldiers in civilian attire who are on leave, on sick leave, or are visiting their families pursuant to an authorization issued by the competent authority.
19.1.5. Supplying non-combat material, such as food, water, medicine, fuel, lubricating oils, office stationary, clothing, and all administrative needs and movements.
...
19.1.9. Routine movements of the Armed Forces, to secure international borders and confront national security threats.

Page 154, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 20. Prohibited Acts.
20.10. Violating human rights and international humanitarian law and obstructing the freedom of movement.
...
20.12. Obstructing the freedom of movement of the oversight and monitoring mechanisms in implementing their mandated tasks.
...
20.15. Individuals can only move after submitting a prior notice and shall move without arms in civilian attire.

Page 183, TITLE 9, 5. Darfur Track: Displaced Persons and Refugees Implementation Matrix
Activity: Grant national and international aid organizations access to all IDP areas
Timing: After signing the Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Facilitate access procedures
Reference/Article: 7.2 7.3 7.4

Page 221, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Take the necessary measures to resume shipping and unloading operations and customs and customs clearance procedures in states/region of Eastern Sudan
Timing: After ratifying the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan and the state/regional government
Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Take measures and decisions on implementation
Reference / article: 47
Detention procedures
Page 55, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 18. Prohibited Acts
18.19.All acts of hostility, harassment, or intimidation against military personnel or civilians affiliated with the other party, including harassment through unjustified detention;

Page 154, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 20. Prohibited Acts.
20.19. All acts of hostility, harassment, or intimidation against military personnel or civilians affiliated with either party, including harassment through unjustified detention.
Media and communication
Governance of media
Page 20, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 30. Powers of the Regional Government of Darfur
30.1.The Parties agree that Darfur Region shall have exclusive executive and legislative powers to enable it to implement the Peace Agreement as follows:
...
30.1.11.[To provide] media, media platforms, and publications of the regional government of Darfur;

Page 21, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 31. Concurrent Powers
31.1.The national federal government and the regional government of Darfur shall have the following executive and legislative powers:
...
31.1.13.Wired and wireless communications;

Page 62, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 25. Command and Control Mechanisms
25.9.Code of Conduct
25.9.1.5.No member of the Permanent Ceasefire Committee shall have the right to speak to the press or issue any statements on behalf of the Ceasefire Committee without prior authorization by the chairperson;

Page 73, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 32. The Joint Military Media Committee.
32.1.The Parties agree to establish a Joint Military Media Committee upon signing the final ceasefire agreement, to work together to promote the peace agreement to the community and to create a new spirit between the forces partaking in the reform, development, and modernization of the military and security institutions that include the partners of peace

Page 96, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.20.Mass media, prints, publications, and different media outlets in the state/region.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.52.State/regional print media, publications, and information.

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:…
10.23.Wired and wireless telecommunication.

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 11. National Powers: the national government shall assume the following exclusive executive and legislative powers:
11.31.National media, national publications, and wired and wireless telecommunication systems.
...
11.38.National telecommunications.

Page 192, TITLE 9, 9. Darfur Track Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements Implementation Matrix
(2) Activity: Form the Joint Media Committee
Timing: D-Day
Implementing Party: The Parties
Funding: Government of Sudan
Procedures: Decision
Reference: Article 32.1
Media roles
Page 7, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.27.Transparency and free access to information shall be guaranteed for all citizens on equal footing, in accordance with the Constitution and as regulated by law.

Page 12, TITLE 1, 18. Combating Racism
18.1.The Parties agree to issue strict legislation criminalizing all kinds of racism and to adopt clear state policies to combat different forms of racial attitudes, discrimination, and manifestations of ethnic and religious supremacy through education curricula, media, and building an integrated societal culture that respects human dignity and upholds the values of equality between human being without discrimination.

Page 73, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 32. The Joint Military Media Committee.
32.2.The civilian population shall remain informed about the gradual implementation of the ceasefire provisions through print, visual, audio, and electronic means of media, wherever possible.
Other
Page 53, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 14. General Provisions and Principles of the Permanent Ceasefire
14.8.The Parties agree to inform commissioned and non-commissioned officers and soldiers of their respective forces of the agreement as a means to promote the permanent ceasefire agreement and to use official media outlets to do so;

Page 55, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 18. Prohibited Acts
18.5.Hostile propaganda and psychological warfare from within the country or from abroad.

Page 60, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 25. Command and Control Mechanisms
25.6.The Permanent Ceasefire Committee:
25.6.4.7.Disseminate information about this agreement and promote it;

Page 112, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, General and Fundamental Provisions
22. The Parties agree to inform the officers and troops affiliated with their respective armed forces about the agreement as a means to promote the permanent ceasefire agreement and use official media to do so.

Page 218, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish the foundations of civil peace
Timing: After final signing of the Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition: The High Committee for Implementing the Agreement
Procedures: Review laws and means of implementation thereof, make decisions, hold the necessary workshops and conferences for that purpose and activate the role of media
Reference / article: 11

Page 119, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Permanent Ceasefire Arrangements
60. Code of Conduct
60.5.No member of the Ceasefire Committee shall be allowed to speak to the media or issue statements on behalf of the Ceasefire Committee without prior authorization by the Chairperson.

Page 126, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Integration
95. The Media: A Joint Military Media Committee shall be established that includes all parties to the final security arrangements to work together for the promotion of the peace agreement in general and the security arrangements in particular to the community and to create a new spirit between the forces partaking in the reform, development, and modernization of the military and security institutions, which include the partners of peace.
Citizenship
Citizen, general
Page 151, TITLE 7. Preambule
Determined to seize this opportunity to achieve just peace, citizenship without discrimination, and put an end to all current wars throughout Sudan, in conjunction with genuine democratization based on the pillars of just peace and citizenship without discrimination;

Page 104-105, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, DELEGATION OF POWERS, 65. The Parties agreed that when delegating powers, the state/regional government shall observe the following:
65.1.Creation of management principles and standards at the level of the Two Areas which stress the rights of citizenship without discrimination; reflect diversity, the multiple cultures, and respect for all languages; and promote national unity.
Citizens, specific rights
Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
15. Citizenship shall be the basis of rights and duties with no discrimination on the basis of race, tribe, religion, gender, sex or origin. This does not prevent the existence of laws, programs or activities aimed at improving the conditions of those individuals or groups who have been deprived of their rights based on race, color, religion, or regional or national origin.

Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
16. The displacement of citizens inside or outside Sudan does not prevent the full exercise of their civil rights.

Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
18. All Sudanese citizens shall be justly and fairly represented in the civil service, public bodies, institutions, commissions, armed forces and other regular forces at all upper and middle levels.

Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
19. Darfur citizens shall be guaranteed participation at all levels of government, state institutions, and civil service through equitable power-sharing standards.

Page 28, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL,
General Principles
16. Provision of security and full protection to all citizens.

Page 39, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 2. General Principles
2.5. IDPs and refugees shall enjoy the same human rights and fundamental freedoms of any citizen in Sudan, including the right to move freely and reside anywhere on Sudanese territory;

Page 39, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 2. General Principles
2.7. The Parties shall adhere to the following principles and rights of return:
...
2.7.6.Rights and privileges of IDPs and refugees to citizenship and participation shall not be affected due to their status as IDPs or refugees, and their rights and privileges shall be fully restored and guaranteed in Sudan;

Page 41-42, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL,
6. Resettlement and Repatriation Arrangements
6.1.1.Ensuring that IDPs and refugees fully enjoy all the same rights and fundamental freedoms established for all citizens;

Page 156, TTLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 24. Integration
24.9. Criteria for integrating individuals: the criteria for integrating individuals in the military establishment and security institutions shall be as follows:
24.9.1. Sudanese nationality;

Page 156, TTLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 25. The Police
25.1. The Sudanese police force shall be a national professional force that has no affiliation to any single party, group, faction, region, or area. It shall owe allegiance to the homeland. Joining the force shall be guaranteed for all Sudanese people.

Page 157, TTLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 26. The General Intelligence Service
26.1. [...] Joining the General Intelligence Service shall be guaranteed for all Sudanese people in accordance with applicable criteria and parameters.
Citizenship other
Page 10, TITLE 1, 12. Census:
12.1.The Parties agree to conduct a national census in an effective and transparent manner before the end of the transitional period, with international support and oversight.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
Criminal Justice System reform
Page 18, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 28. The Public Prosecution Office
28.1.The Parties agree to undertake institutional reforms in the Public Prosecution Office to appoint/accommodate men and women from Darfur by a percentage of 20% within no more than 6 (six months) from the date of signing the Peace Agreement while taking into consideration standards of competence, qualification, and positive discrimination for the men and women of Darfur.
28.2.The Parties agree that the High Council of the Public Prosecution shall form an independent expert committee concerned with accommodating men and women from Darfur in the Public Prosecution Office in accordance with agreed upon percentages while taking into consideration standards of competence, qualification, and positive discrimination for the men and women of Darfur.

Page 101, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 48. Public prosecution: an independent entity for public prosecution shall be established in the state/region in accordance with national standards.

Page 103, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 49. The judiciary and the public prosecution shall assume their functions in accordance with the regulations governing the national judiciary and public prosecution.

Page 173, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Form an independent expert committee by the High Council of the Public Prosecution concerned with accommodating men and women from Darfur in the Public Prosecution Office
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: The Supreme Council of the Public Prosecution
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision forming the committee
Reference article: 28.2

Page 173, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Appoint/accommodate men and women from Darfur in the public prosecution office at a rate of 20%
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: The Attorney General
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue appointment decisions
Reference article: 28.1
Delimitation of powers in Criminal Justice System
Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 11. National Powers: the national government shall assume the following exclusive executive and legislative powers:
11.7.National police, including the criminal investigation department and coordinating bilateral, regional and international criminal affairs and the standards and regulations, including police training standards.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
Page 7, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.16.Legal reform, restructuring and improving the judicial and legal system, and ensuring the independence of the judiciary and the rule of law are tasks that must be implemented.

Page 10, TITLE 1, 11. Reforming the Justice System:
11.1.The Parties agree on the importance of reforming the justice system so as to restore its professionality, independence, and prestige.

Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
14. Emphasizing legal reform and review and development of the rights and justice system and ensuring the independence of the judiciary and the rule of law.

Page 17-18, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 26. National Civil Service
26.2.The Parties agree to accommodate the men and women of Darfur in upper and mid-level positions (undersecretaries, ambassadors, members of diplomatic missions, general managers, various administrations and departments in national ministries and commissions, the judiciary, public prosecution, national and semi-national institutions, banks, and the boards of public and semi-public companies) by 20% provided that appointment is made by political decree within 45 (forty-five days) of the date of signing the Peace Agreement.

Page 18, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 27. Judiciary
27.1.The Parties agree to undertake institutional reforms in the judiciary to appoint/accommodate men and women from Darfur at a rate of 20% within no more than 6 (six months) of the date of signing the Peace Agreement while taking into consideration standards of competence, qualification, and positive discrimination for the men and women of Darfur.
27.2.The Parties agree that the Supreme Judicial Council shall form an independent expert committee concerned with accommodating men and women from Darfur in the judiciary in accordance with agreed upon percentages while taking into consideration standards of competence, qualification, and positive discrimination for the men and women of Darfur.

Page 28, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, General Principles
19. Reforming Sudan's justice sector to ensure an independent and impartial judiciary that reflects and reinforces diversity at the federal, regional, state, and local levels without distinction.

Page 38, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 12. Compensation and Reparations Fund
12.15.The Fund shall cooperate and coordinate with other commissions established pursuant to this Agreement, especially the Commission for the Return of IDPs and Refugees, the Development and Reconstruction Commission, the Lands and Hawakeer Commission, the Truth and Reconciliation Committee, the Darfur Special Court for War Crimes, and the mechanisms of traditional justice.

Page 47, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 9. Darfur Lands and Hawakeer Commission
9.5. The judicial authority shall establish a special court for the DLHC with the exclusive power to hear appeals of decisions of the DLHC and to register the ownership of lands as decided by the DLHC to any party to the conflict.

Page 53, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 14. General Provisions and Principles of the Permanent Ceasefire
14.6.The Parties must engage judicial and legal bodies, national organizations and the ICRC in the process of releasing war prisoners and other persons detained due to the war and searching for missing persons;

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 11. National Powers: the national government shall assume the following exclusive executive and legislative powers:
11.6.National judiciary.

Page 102, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 44. The Judiciary: a judicial authority shall be established in the state/region. It shall manage the judiciary and serve justice, including the regulation of courts in accordance with national standards.

Page 103, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 45. Structures of the state/region judicial authority shall consist of the following:
45.1.Circuits of the Supreme Court.
45.2.Court of Appeals.
45.3.General courts.
45.4.District courts.
45.5.Any other courts created by the Chief Justice or the head of the judiciary in the state/region.

Page 103, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 46. The head of the supreme court circuit in the state/region shall be the head of the judiciary in the state/region, or whomever is delegated by the chief justice.

Page 103, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 47. The judiciary in the state/region shall apply national as well as state/regional legislation.

Page 103, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 49. The judiciary and the public prosecution shall assume their functions in accordance with the regulations governing the national judiciary and public prosecution.

Page 103, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 50. Appointing local men/women of the Two Areas in the judicial institutions:
50.1.Local men and women of the Two Areas shall be appointed in judicial institutions at a percentage to be agreed, while observing positive discrimination for the men and women of the state/region, taking into consideration the competence criteria for appointment in judicial institutions, including the judiciary and public prosecution.
50.2.Women and men from the Two Areas shall be appointed as judges on the national Constitutional Court in accordance with the criteria of competency and proficiency.
50.3.Women and men from the Two Areas shall be represented in the National Commission for Judicial Service and/or the Supreme Judicial Council in accordance with the criteria of competence and professionalism.
50.4.Women and men from the Two Areas shall be represented in the High Public Prosecution Council in accordance with the criteria of competence and professionalism.
50.5.One of the deputy chief justices shall be from the Two Areas in accordance with the criteria of competence and professionalism.
50.6.Institutional reform shall be introduced to the justice system at all levels, provided that it is participatory, transparent, and inclusive, especially in the Two Areas due to the wars.

Page 165, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Reform the justice system
Timing: Continues after signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures:
Reference article: 11.1

Page 173, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Form an independent expert committee by the Supreme Judicial Council concerned with accommodating men and women from Darfur in the judiciary
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: The Supreme Judiciary Council
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision forming the committee
Reference article: 27.2

Page 173, TITLE 9, 2. Darfur Track: Power Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Appoint/accommodate men and women from Darfur in the judiciary at a rate of 20%
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: The Judiciary
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue appointment decisions
Reference article: 27.1

Page 188, TITLE 9, 7. Darfur Track: Land and Hawakeer Implementation Matrix
Activity: Establish a special court for the DLHC
Timing: Immediately after the establishment of the DLHC
Implementing Party: The Judiciary
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision to establish the court
Reference/Article: 9.5

Page 195, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Appoint men and women of the Two Areas in the justice system
Timing: Upon commencing implementation of the Final Agreement and continues thereafter
Implementing Party: The Judiciary and the Attorney General
Source of Funding: the Judiciary and the Attorney General
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Articles 50 to 51.5

Page 195, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish the Judiciary in the state / region
Timing: Within 60 days of the date of commencing implementation of the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: The Judiciary
Source of Funding: The Judiciary
Composition:
Location: state / region
Procedures, Method & Criteria: in accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 44 to 47

Page 195, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish the public prosecution office in the state / region
Timing: Within 90 days of signing the Final Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: The Attorney General
Source of Funding: The Attorney General
Composition:
Location: state / region
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Articles 48 and 49

Page 195, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Reform the Justice system
Timing: upon signing the peace agreement and continues thereafter
Implementing Party: The Judiciary and the Attorney General
Source of Funding: The Judiciary and The Attorney General
Composition: The Judiciary and the Attorney General
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: Issue decisions
Reference article: Article 50.6
Prisons and detention
Page 21, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 31. Concurrent Powers
31.1.The national federal government and the regional government of Darfur shall have the following executive and legislative powers:
...
31.1.3.Police, prisons, wild life, and civil defense;

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:
10.1.Powers and competencies of police, prisons, wildlife, civil defense, and customs at the level of the Two Areas.

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 11. National Powers: the national government shall assume the following exclusive executive and legislative powers:
11.17.National prisons.
Traditional Laws
Page 7, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.22.Justice, accountability, reconciliation, and transitional justice are critical for ensuring durable peace and security in Sudan. Justice shall be founded on upholding the rule of law, the ratified international human rights conventions, and international humanitarian law, including through mechanisms based on the customs, cultures, and heritage of the Sudanese peoples.

Page 20, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 30. Powers of the Regional Government of Darfur
30.1.The Parties agree that Darfur Region shall have exclusive executive and legislative powers to enable it to implement the Peace Agreement as follows:
...
30.1.27.[To enact] laws based on norms and traditions;

Pages 30-31, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, 23. Traditional Justice Mechanisms
23.1.Traditional justice mechanisms in Darfur shall be empowered to penalize individuals who committed offenses related to the conflict or to the perpetuation of intra-tribal and inter-tribal conflicts. The jurisdiction of traditional justice mechanisms shall include all offenses related to the conflicts that fall outside the jurisdiction of the ICC, the Special Court for Darfur Crimes, the national judiciary of Sudan, and the Truth and Reconciliation Committee.
23.2.Traditional justice mechanisms will establish diverse and appropriate penalties that reflect the gravity of the offenses and promote reconciliation, restitution, and compensation for the victims without prejudice to the jurisdiction of the Compensation and Reparations Fund.
23.3.The accused will have the right to plea bargain in exchange for the possibility of a reduced sentence from a traditional justice mechanism. Such a plea bargain may include public written or oral apologies.
23.4.In the interest of witness protection, severe penalties shall be imposed upon those who threaten or commit violence against any witnesses in traditional proceedings.
23.5.Unpaid community service shall be promoted as a favored penalty, particularly for those who make public apologies.
23.6.A committee shall be established to observe and monitor the fulfilment of unpaid community service obligations.
23.7.Traditional justice mechanisms shall refer all cases outside of their jurisdiction to other competent justice mechanisms, including the Special Court for Darfur Crimes, the national judiciary of Sudan, and the Truth and Reconciliation Committee.
23.8.Traditional justice mechanisms shall exercise traditional competencies and shall employ both customary substantive laws and customary procedural rules.
23.9.Respecting the due process rights of the accused and providing timely justice to victims shall be a constant consideration at all stages of proceedings within the traditional justice mechanisms.
23.10.The accused has the right to seek a lawyer.
23.11.Free legal aid shall be provided to the victims and to the defendant for an effective defense in all cases brought before traditional justice mechanisms.
23.12.Local and regional leaders and tribal elders shall oversee the functions of traditional justice mechanisms. Judges and members of justice mechanisms shall be persons of high integrity.
23.13.The Parties shall consult local and regional leaders and civil administrations on how to bestow an official character to traditional justice mechanisms in the national justice system.

Page 38, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 12. Compensation and Reparations Fund
12.9.Resolutions to award compensation and reparations issued by the relevant mechanisms to the Compensations and Reparations Fund shall include:
...
12.9.5.Any other traditional forms of compensation.

Page 46, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, General Principles
4. Traditional mechanisms for the possession of lands in Darfur should be taken into consideration in resolving conflicts arising between components of the society.
5. In the event of a conflict between the Sudanese laws and the traditional land possession system (Hawakeer) in Darfur; the said laws shall be amended to include the rights of the lands (Hawakeer) and their use according to the norms, traditions, and inherited practices of land tenure in Darfur.

Page 91-92, TITLE 3. CHAPTR 2: FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT FOR THE TWO AREAS OF BLUE NILE AND SOUTH KORDOFAN / NUBA MOUNTAINS, ISSUES OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE FOR THE TWO AREAS, BLUE NILE, 53. The Parties commit to prioritizing issues of land ownership and land usage in the Blue Nile region / state by:
53.1.Reviewing all contracts, decrees of concessions and allocation of land in the region / state.
53.2.Reviewing customary routes of transhumance, services and homesteading for nomads. 53.3.Securing transhumance routes for nomads and working for their settlement in accordance with customary laws and norms.

Page 96, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.37.To protect traditions and customary law.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Socio-economic development
Page 19, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles, 29. Educational Institutions
29.1.The Parties agree that war and neglect in Darfur had a direct impact on the deterioration of the quality of education and the low level of educational attainment. Hence, such imbalance calls for correction based on the principle of positive discrimination, according to the following policies:
29.1.1.Reconsider admission eligibility criteria for universities and public high institutes, and introduce positive discrimination to admission policies while allocating 15% in the following specializations: medicine, veterinary, animal production, medical laboratories, public health, radiology, pharmacology, engineering and all scientific disciplines among those admitted to public universities and higher institutes in Sudan and no less than 50% with regards to public universities and high institutes in Darfur to the students of Darfur for a minimum of ten years.
29.1.2.The Parties agree to the exemption of tuition fees for all men and women of Darfur studying in public universities in Darfur for a period of ten years as of the date of signing the comprehensive Peace Agreement.
29.1.3.In furtherance of positive discrimination policies, the Parties agree to the exemption of tuition fees for all men and women of Darfur studying in public universities outside the Darfur Region in the disciplines of medicine, veterinary, animal production, medical laboratories, public health, radiology, pharmacology, engineering and all scientific disciplines for a period of ten years as of the date of signing the comprehensive Peace Agreement provided that students admitted by the end of the said period shall be exempted from tuition fees until the end of their education.

Page 19, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles, 29. Educational Institutions
29.1.4.The Parties agree on introducing a system for fund allocation from the Government of Sudan to public universities in the Darfur Region to rehabilitate and improve the academic environment, expand admission, and nationalize some important disciplines.
29.1.5.The Parties agree to the formation of a joint committee comprising the Transitional Government of Sudan (Ministry of Higher Education, Ministry of Finance) and relevant authorities in the Darfur Region to undertake the following tasks:
29.1.5.1.Introduce specific policies aimed at uplifting higher education in the universities of Darfur including the situation in disciplines related to social and economic development.
29.1.5.2.The committee shall identify standards and criteria for the exemption of IDPs, refugees, and nomads from tuition fees when they are admitted to public universities outside Darfur Region.

Page 19-20, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles, 29. Educational Institutions
29.2.The Federal Government of Sudan and the regional government shall introduce and implement development plans to improve educational institutions in Darfur, along with the provision of grants, scholarships and training, to remedy the imbalance of access to basic, secondary and university education in Darfur, with the aim to upgrade education in Darfur and enable it to take its position at national levels of admission in educational institutions and accomplishments at all levels.
29.3.20% of the grants, scholarships, qualification and training opportunities inside Sudan or abroad shall be allocated to the men and women of Darfur.
29.4.Budgets shall be allocated for establishing and supporting institutes of vocational training and technical and craft education to accommodate education gaps and dropouts.
29.5.Establish pedagogical schools and institutes while introducing the necessary plans for addressing the crisis of educational gaps due to war inside and outside the Region.
29.6.Eliminate all obstacles to extracting university diplomas for students who completed studying in universities and higher institutes by virtue of previous peace agreements.

Page 20, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. 30. Powers of the Regional Government of Darfur
30.1.The Parties agree that Darfur Region shall have exclusive executive and legislative powers to enable it to implement the Peace Agreement as follows:
...
30.1.4.To plan services in Darfur Region, including health, education and welfare of citizens;
...
30.1.9.[To regulate] public facilities of the Region;
30.1.10.[To undertake] reconstruction and development of the Darfur Region;
30.1.13.[To undertake] urban and rural planning;
30.1.14.[To provide] emergency and firefighting services;
...
30.1.23.[To establish/regulate] nurseries, primary and secondary schools, and private education;
...
30.1.25.[To manage/maintain] public libraries, museums, cultural and heritage sites, and other historical sites in the region;

Page 21, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 31. Concurrent Powers
31.1.The national federal government and the regional government of Darfur shall have the following executive and legislative powers:
...
31.1.2.Social and economic development in Darfur Region;
...
31.1.4.Health policies;
31.1.5.Urban development, planning, and housing;
...
31.1.7.Public service provision;
...
31.1.15.Relief, resettlement, rehabilitation and reconstruction;
...
31.1.28.Setting education policies and scientific research;

Page 23, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, General Principles
4. The Parties emphasize the importance of mobilizing the necessary local, regional, and international support to restore what had been destroyed by the war, to rehabilitate the infrastructure, and to implement reconstruction and development programs as provided for in this Agreement.

Page 25, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 17. Darfur Reconstruction and Development Commission
17.1.A commission for the reconstruction and development of Darfur shall be established within ninety (90) days of the date of signing the Peace Agreement. The headquarters of the Commission shall be in one of the cities of the region and it shall have the right to create branches in other cities when the need arises, provided that all assets belonging to the funds established for development and reconstruction by previous peace agreements be transferred to this commission. The Commission shall continue the projects that have been initiated thereunder in addition to new projects;
17.2.The Commission may seek the assistance of experts to revise and develop corrective measures for the work of the Fund and evaluate the implementation of previous development projects;
17.3.The Parties shall agree on the structure and mechanisms of the Commission for the Reconstruction and Development of Darfur pursuant to the principles stipulated in the Peace Agreement;
17.4.The Commission shall develop its own work regulations, rules and procedure, and decision-making processes under this agreement.

Page 25-26, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 18. Functions of the Reconstruction and Development Commission
18.1.Completing ongoing projects or funding new projects;
...
18.3.Providing basic services, including the inputs of education, health, drinking water, veterinary hospitals, and police stations in areas of voluntary return;
...
18.7.Improving livestock to produce competitive products in domestic and international markets;
18.8.Planting wheat, fodder, and other winter products by utilizing water from the Nubian basin and introducing mixed agriculture into the north of the region to resettle herders and prevent tension that arises between them and farmers when they migrate southward, in search of water and grass;
...
18.10.Investing in mining to produce more materials;
18.11.Providing resources for micro-financing to increase the productivity of households in general, and households of IDPs and refugees specifically;
18.12.Training and building the capacity of women and youth to enable them to be catalysts of production;
18.13.Creating projects that generate job opportunities for the population of the region.

Page 26, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 18. Functions of the Reconstruction and Development Commission
19. Development Projects
19.1.Existing development projects shall be prioritized to receive funds from the Darfur Reconstruction and Development Fund and from international aid sources.
19.2.Revaluate, reassess, rehabilitate, and reactivate existing development projects.

Page 28-29, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 29. The Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund
29.1.The parties agree to establish a peace support fund called the Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund, within 60 (sixty days) of the date of signing the Peace Agreement, provided that it fulfils its duties in a period of 10 (ten years) as of the date of its establishment.
29.2.The Parties shall agree on the organizational and functional structure of the Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund in accordance with the parameters provided for in the Agreement.
29.3.The Fund shall develop its own regulations, rules of procedures, and decision-making methods under this Agreement.
29.4.The successive governments of Sudan shall commit to seek, along with the international and regional communities, to provide the necessary support for development and reconstruction projects in Darfur.
29.5.The Fund shall have the following functions:
29.5.1.Soliciting domestic and foreign support for funding peace-related projects in Darfur.
29.5.2.Funding commissions and mechanisms established by virtue of the Darfur Peace Agreement as well as any other needs related thereto.
29.6.In addition to Darfur’s share from the funds transferred by the National Commission for the Division, Allocation and Monitoring of Financial Resources and Revenue, the Government of Sudan shall commit to pay 750,000,000 (seven hundred fifty million US Dollars) annually for a period of ten years to the Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund to fund the implementation of the Peace Agreement in Darfur.
29.7.The Government of Sudan commits to filling the necessary financial gap for the implementation of the Peace Agreement in Darfur.
29.8.The Government of Sudan commits to providing 100,000,000 (one hundred million US Dollars) within one month of the date of signing this Agreement.

Page 38, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 12. Compensation and Reparations Fund
12.15.The Fund shall cooperate and coordinate with other commissions established pursuant to this Agreement, especially the Commission for the Return of IDPs and Refugees, the Development and Reconstruction Commission, the Lands and Hawakeer Commission, the Truth and Reconciliation Committee, the Darfur Special Court for War Crimes, and the mechanisms of traditional justice.

Page 40-41, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL
4. Suitable Conditions for Return
4.1. With the assistance of the concerned international and domestic institutions, the Parties agree to create the political, economic, social, and security conditions conducive to the voluntary return and acceptable reintegration of IDPs and refugees, without giving preference to any particular group. These conditions shall include, but not be limited to:
...
4.1.3.Demining of areas of return and access routes to markets, schools, health services, sanitation, and any other place;
...
4.1.5.Constructing adequate shelters in the return villages and areas of voluntary return, as well as the necessary health and education infrastructure;
...
4.1.8.Guaranteed subsistence for all returnees, especially food, potable water, and health supplies;
...
4.1.10.The Parties shall work with the international community to provide all possible assistance to IDPs, refugees and war-affected persons to enable the returning families and individuals to reestablish their lives and livelihoods in local communities. This assistance shall include, but not be limited to, short-term repatriation funding, ensuring the continuity of humanitarian aid throughout the return and resettlement period, rebuilding damaged or destroyed infrastructure, building new roads and infrastructure in rural areas, rehabilitating local agrarian lands, and providing education and job training programs;

Page 41-42, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 6. Resettlement and Repatriation Arrangements
6.1. The Parties shall introduce a comprehensive resettlement and repatriation strategy with the following objectives:
...
6.1.2.Reintegrating IDPs and refugees and creating the conditions that will allow them to participate fully in the economic, social, political, and cultural development of the country;

Page 45, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPMENT OF THE NOMADS AND HERDEERS SECTOR IN THE DARFUR REGION PROTOCOL, 8. The Commission shall develop strategies to address the following issues:
8.1. Organization of nomad movement and opening routes to achieve complementarity between agricultural and pastoral activities and organize the relation between farmers and herders in coordination with local authorities and community-based administration.
8.2. Development of livestock by applying technical packages, importing animal breeds to improve species, and adopting quality over quantity standards to save efforts spent on managing large unproductive herds that ruin pastures and destroy the natural environment.
8.3. Establishment of service and production centers along nomad routes (Dumur and Sawani) and paving the way for gradual voluntary settlement.
8.4. Promotion and development of the processing of animal products by building the capacity of producers in dairy and leather industries to develop production and ensure competition in the market.
...
8.6. Spread seeds of grassy vegetation along nomad routes to rebuild the natural environment and provide pastures.
8.7. Provision of veterinary services via mobile units.
8.8. Advancement of the nomad community through education, establishing schools, introducing boarding school systems, and literacy units.
8.9. Development of traditional skills in handcrafting fields such as the wool industry and others.
8.10.Development of positive values in nomad communities by promoting the spirit of solidarity and collecting popular heritage and literature.
...
8.12.Building reservoirs, wells, dams, water stations, and groundwater wells along the routes.

Page 51, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 9.Guiding principles for the final security arrangements, reform, development and modernization of security sector.
9.6. Establishing security forces and a single national army trusted by the local communities across Sudan, especially in the conflict areas, is a key element to establishing peace, security, and sustainable development in Sudan;

Page 94, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT, General Principles
6. Addressing the root causes of conflicts shall be a key requirement necessary for peacebuilding and sustainable development.

Page 96, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.12.To borrow money for the purposes of development and construction from national bodies with the guarantee of the state/regional government.
9.13.To plan for regional government services including health, education, and welfare among other services.

Page 130, TITLE 4, Preamble
Pursuing inclusive, just and sustainable development nationwide;

Page 140, TITLE 4. CHAPTER 2: THE SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUE, Reviewing Previous Rights and Projects
82. The Government shall commit to reviewing all internal local, regional and international investment agreements in the state/region including mining, agriculture, ports, electricity, water, construction and others. and development projects which were reached between 30 June 1989 and the date of signing the present agreement and reviewing the studies that were prepared for those projects through a legal-economic committee and joint expert bodies;
83. The Parties agreed to review all usurped rights of those afflicted by the policies of the defunct regime in accordance with the law;
84. The Parties agreed to hold a conference to discuss and find solutions for issues of industry, agriculture and investment and in Eastern Sudan. The conference shall be held in one of the eastern states and its committees and papers shall be determined by a joint committee by both Parties;

Page 145, TITLE 5. ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK (POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC) ISSUES, 11. Working to address all the issues of resettlement in the villages of the New Hamdab (al- Multaqa), through the following:
11.3.Completing the procedures of rehabilitating the lake agricultural project;
...
13. Working toward the establishment of development projects to encourage people to return to the region/ northern states.
...
16. The Government shall commit to carrying out the necessary feasibility studies and reviewing past ones to establish economic and service projects in order to achieve balanced development and endeavoring to find the necessary funding to achieve the following:
...
16.3.Establishing educational institutions and rehabilitating educational and health institutions;
...
16.7.Endeavoring to repatriate the nomads in the states of the Nile River and the Northern State by providing all basic services and granting them with the ownership of agrarian and residential lands.

Page 145, TITLE 5. ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK (POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC) ISSUES, 19. Encouraging the establishment of cooperatives (both productive and consumer ones) and reviewing and amending relevant laws and granting them with wider privileges so as to enable them to contribute to the economy.

Page 149, TITLE 6. Preamble
PURSUING inclusive, fair, and sustainable development nationwide;

Page 149, TITLE 6. 2. Agricultural Issues
The Government of Sudan shall commit the rehabilitation of the agricultural industry, including by developing and revitalizing the national projects and their revenues in accordance with the law on resource allocation and the priority of the nation and taking into account the particulars of each project in accordance with the laws and agreements.

Page 149-150, TITLE 6. 3. Development, Services, and Revenues
The Government of Sudan shall commit to the following:
3.1.To provide comprehensive development services by establishing socioeconomic
development priorities for the rural areas in order to address the displacement crisis that has affected the central areas and address the large percentage of marginalized workers, particularly the youth of both sexes in the cities of the central states.
...
8. The Government of Sudan confirms the creation of a special fund to support the peace called (The Reconstruction Fund for Development and Peace); the largest proportion of which is dedicated to support production, particularly agricultural production and funding projects with a quick return [on investment] and improving the skills of the producers by concentrating on the [sectors of] preferential advantage of each state.

Page 154, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 20. Prohibited Acts.
20.17. Forces may not object to any social, humanitarian, or societal services provided by the competent authorities.
Humanitarian assistance
Page 21, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 31. Concurrent Powers
31.1.The national federal government and the regional government of Darfur shall have the following executive and legislative powers:
...
31.1.15.Relief, resettlement, rehabilitation and reconstruction;

Page 28-29, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 29. The Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund
...
29.4.The successive governments of Sudan shall commit to seek, along with the international and regional communities, to provide the necessary support for development and reconstruction projects in Darfur.

Page 36, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, General Principles
7. Without prejudice to the principle of positive discrimination as set forth in the Peace Agreement, distribution of humanitarian aid, the restitution of resources and property, and the award of compensation and reparations in accordance with this Agreement, shall take place without discrimination on the basis of gender, language, tribe, ethnicity, religion, party affiliation, geographic location, status as a displaced or formerly displaced person/refugee, or any other basis.

Page 39, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 2. General Principles
2.6. Aid for conflicts-affected persons shall be distributed without discrimination based on gender, language, race, ethnicity, religion, party affiliation, geographic location, color, or any other discriminatory grounds.

Page 41, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL
4. Suitable Conditions for Return
4.1. With the assistance of the concerned international and domestic institutions, the Parties agree to create the political, economic, social, and security conditions conducive to the voluntary return and acceptable reintegration of IDPs and refugees, without giving preference to any particular group. These conditions shall include, but not be limited to:
...
4.1.10.The Parties shall work with the international community to provide all possible assistance to IDPs, refugees and war-affected persons to enable the returning families and individuals to reestablish their lives and livelihoods in local communities. This assistance shall include, but not be limited to, short-term repatriation funding, ensuring the continuity of humanitarian aid throughout the return and resettlement period, rebuilding damaged or destroyed infrastructure, building new roads and infrastructure in rural areas, rehabilitating local agrarian lands, and providing education and job training programs;

Page 49, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, Preamble
MOTIVATED by our deep awareness of the urgent need for final security arrangements that address the root causes of war and build a rapid plan of action to address the humanitarian crisis in Sudan in general and in Darfur in particular and to provide for the necessary relief and aid, rehabilitate, save, protect, and voluntarily resettle IDPs and refugees.

Page 51, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 9.Guiding principles for the final security arrangements, reform, development and modernization of security sector.
9.2. The Parties shall remain continuously committed to addressing the humanitarian situation in Darfur as a critical and necessary element of the effort to move forward with final security arrangements and security sector reform and development as part of the broader reforms within the Sudanese peace process;
9.3. All agreements on and arrangements for the cessation of hostilities or permanent ceasefire, or for security arrangements and all other reforms shall also serve to facilitate or ensure safe, immediate, and unhindered humanitarian access;
9.4. The Parties shall create appropriate security conditions for the unimpeded flow of humanitarian assistance and goods;

Page 53, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 13. Elements required in the permanent ceasefire agreement
13.1.7.Request for, coordination with, and facilitation of international aid for the implementation of the ceasefire;

Page 53, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 14. General Provisions and Principles of the Permanent Ceasefire
14.7.The Parties must commit to providing and facilitating humanitarian assistance by creating conditions that encourage provision of urgent humanitarian assistance to the homeless, IDPs, refugees, and affected persons and their right to voluntary return to their areas of origin;

Page 55, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 17. Permissible Acts
17.1.7.Humanitarian action by facilitating the flow of relief and humanitarian assistance in accordance with the agreed regulations;
17.1.8.Medical evacuation;

Page 55, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 18. Prohibited Acts
18.14.Acts of violence and attacks against personnel of international organizations and humanitarian aid organizations;
...
18.17.Assembly area forces may not object to any social, humanitarian, or societal services provided by the competent authorities;

Page 56, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 20. Humanitarian access during the permanent ceasefire:
20.1.The Parties shall commit to complying with the Humanitarian Assistance Agreement signed in Juba on 21 October 2019;
20.2.The Parties agree to activate the Humanitarian Committee established under the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement, which shall work in coordination with the Ceasefire Committee; 20.3.The Parties agree to ensure safe, immediate, and unhindered humanitarian access and to not obstruct the flow of humanitarian assistance from within Sudan or across the border for the affected populations.
20.4.The Parties shall commit to ensuring humanitarian access immediately upon entry into force of the permanent ceasefire.
20.5.In cooperation with a third party, the Parties shall ensure the safety and protection of humanitarian workers.
20.6.The Parties shall commit to protecting and securing humanitarian assistance from looting, theft, and corruption.
20.7.The Parties shall commit to opening humanitarian tracks.
20.8.The Parties agree on comprehensive measures that shall regulate the movement and protection of humanitarian assistance convoys in the states/region of Darfur.
20.9.Facilitate the work of all humanitarian organizations in Darfur to ensure the effective and efficient provision of assistance through the Humanitarian Assistance Commission.
20.10.The Joint Humanitarian Committee shall submit a report to the Ceasefire Committee on the fulfilment and accomplishment of its mandated tasks.

Page 57, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 21. The Preparatory Phase of the Ceasefire:
21.6.2.Define buffer zones and humanitarian assistance routes around assembly areas;

Page 60, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 25. Command and Control Mechanisms
25.6.The Permanent Ceasefire Committee:
25.6.4.11.Facilitate the flow of humanitarian assistance;
25.6.4.12.The Ceasefire Committee shall work with the Parties and the Joint Humanitarian Committee to define specific methods, as necessary, to provide humanitarian assistance to specific areas in coordination with the Humanitarian Assistance Commission. Chairman of the committee shall make any final decisions on the means of the delivery of humanitarian aid in consultation with the Parties.

Page 62, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration
26.5.The Parties agree to keep the integrated forces of the armed struggle movements in Darfur for a period of (40) forty months from the date of the signing of this agreement, which may be extended if deemed necessary for security and humanitarian reasons in the region. After this period, the forces shall be deployed according to the strategic deployment plan of the Armed Forces.
...
26.7.The Parties agree to establish a Joint High Council chaired by the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, with the membership of the commander of Rapid Support Forces, Minister of Defense, Minister of the Interior, the Chief of Staff, the Director General of
the Police, Director General of the General Intelligence Service, head of the Military Intelligence Authority and heads of the armed struggle movements for supervision, monitoring, evaluation, and follow up on the implementation of integrating the forces of the armed struggle movements and evaluating the security and humanitarian situation in Darfur. The Joint High Council shall hold periodic meetings. It shall, among other functions, form a mechanism to address the issue of war prisoners and missing persons of both Parties.

Page 68, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 29. Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.Functions of the Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.9.Creating an appropriate environment for humanitarian action in areas of return for IDPs and refugees by facilitating and protecting access to national, foreign, governmental, and non-governmental aid organizations;
...
29.5.11.Helping to secure a protective environment for civilians through the protection of general prosecution offices, branch police stations, motor and on-foot police patrols, and humanitarian aid convoys;

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.51.[To undertake] disaster preparedness, provision of aid, and combat epidemics in the state/region.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:…
10.3.Provision of urgent humanitarian assistance.
...
10.5.Reconstruction and sustainable development programs.

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:…
10.25.Relief.

Page 112, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, General and Fundamental Provisions
21. The Parties shall commit to providing and facilitating humanitarian assistance, by creating conditions that encourage the provision of urgent humanitarian assistance to the homeless, IDPs, refugees and affected persons and that ensure their right to voluntary return to their areas of origin.

Page 113, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Permanent Ceasefire Arrangements
29. Permissible Acts: Due to the wide-scale damage and adverse effects of the war, the main principle underlying the permissible acts shall be the removal of the effects of war on civilians and affected areas, and to encourage public support for peace. The permissible acts shall include:

29.7.Humanitarian action, through facilitating the flow of relief and humanitarian assistance in accordance with the agreed regulations.

Page 114, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Permanent Ceasefire Arrangements
34. The Parties agree that the phases of the final security arrangements shall include the following:
34.1.Continuation of the cessation of hostilities for humanitarian purposes, in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement on the Provision of Humanitarian Assistance and Cessation of Hostilities in the Blue Nile and southern Kordofan/ Nuba Mountains signed in Juba on 21 October 2019.

Page 115, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, 38. Humanitarian access during the permanent ceasefire:
38.1.The Parties shall commit to complying with the Humanitarian Assistance Agreement
signed by the Transitional Government and the SPLM-N/SRF in Juba on 21 October,
2019.
38.2.The Parties shall commit to ensuring the continuation of safe, immediate and unhindered humanitarian access and the non-obstruction of the flow of humanitarian assistance from within Sudan or across the border for the affected populations.
38.3.The Parties shall commit to ensuring the safety and protection of humanitarian workers, equipment, and property.
38.4.The Parties shall commit to protecting and securing humanitarian assistance from looting, theft, and corruption.
38.5.The Parties shall abide by comprehensive measures that regulate the movement and protection of humanitarian assistance convoys in the Two Areas.
38.6.The Parties shall abide by the principles and spirit of international humanitarian law while enforcing the permanent ceasefire.

Page 153, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 19. Permissible Acts
19.1.7. Humanitarian action by facilitating the flow of relief and humanitarian assistance in accordance with the agreed regulations.
19.1.8. Medical evacuation.

Page 154, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 20. Prohibited Acts.
20.14.Acts of violence and attacks against personnel of international organizations and humanitarian aid organizations.
...
20.17. Forces may not object to any social, humanitarian, or societal services provided by the competent authorities.

Page 182, TITLE 9, 5. Darfur Track: Displaced Persons and Refugees Implementation Matrix
Activity: Provide urgent humanitarian assistance and basic amenities
Timing: After establishment of IDP and Refugees Commission
Implementing Party: The Federal Government of Sudan, Darfur State/Regional governments, and IDPs and Refugees Commission with the help of the concerned international and domestic institutions
Source of Funding: IDP and Refugees Commission
Composition:
Procedures: Identify needs and solicit and provide assistance
Reference/Article: 5.1 5.2

Page 183, TITLE 9, 5. Darfur Track: Displaced Persons and Refugees Implementation Matrix
Activity: Establish administrative committees to monitor and assess the needs and facilitate delivery of humanitarian assistance to IDPs
Timing: After establishment of IDP and Refugees Commission
Implementing Party: IDP and Refugees Commission
Source of Funding: IDP and Refugees Commission
Composition:
Procedures: Issue decision to form the committees
Reference/Article: 5.3

Page 193, TITLE 9, 9. Darfur Track Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements Implementation Matrix
(6) Activity: Activate the Humanitarian Committee established under the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement
Timing: D-Day + 7
Implementing Party: The Parties
Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition: The Parties
Procedures: Decision
Reference: Article 20.2
Infrastructure and reconstruction
Page 20, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. 30. Powers of the Regional Government of Darfur
30.1.The Parties agree that Darfur Region shall have exclusive executive and legislative powers to enable it to implement the Peace Agreement as follows:
...
30.1.24.[To manage/maintain] roads and public transportation within the Region;

Page 21, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 31. Concurrent Powers
31.1.The national federal government and the regional government of Darfur shall have the following executive and legislative powers:
...
31.1.11.Electricity generation and water and waste management;
...
31.1.32.Development of airports in the Region;

Page 23, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, General Principles
4. The Parties emphasize the importance of mobilizing the necessary local, regional, and international support to restore what had been destroyed by the war, to rehabilitate the infrastructure, and to implement reconstruction and development programs as provided for in this Agreement.

Page 25, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 17. Darfur Reconstruction and Development Commission
17.1.A commission for the reconstruction and development of Darfur shall be established within ninety (90) days of the date of signing the Peace Agreement. The headquarters of the Commission shall be in one of the cities of the region and it shall have the right to create branches in other cities when the need arises, provided that all assets belonging to the funds established for development and reconstruction by previous peace agreements be transferred to this commission. The Commission shall continue the projects that have been initiated thereunder in addition to new projects;
17.2.The Commission may seek the assistance of experts to revise and develop corrective measures for the work of the Fund and evaluate the implementation of previous development projects;
17.3.The Parties shall agree on the structure and mechanisms of the Commission for the Reconstruction and Development of Darfur pursuant to the principles stipulated in the Peace Agreement;
17.4.The Commission shall develop its own work regulations, rules and procedure, and decision-making processes under this agreement.

Page 25-26, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 18. Functions of the Reconstruction and Development Commission
18.1.Completing ongoing projects or funding new projects;
18.2.Reconstructing schools, hospitals, health centers, water sources, and other vital institutions that have been destroyed by the war;
...
18.4.Providing the basic services set forth in Paragraph (18.2) in areas of resettlement for those who inhabited the lands of others illegally;
18.5.Building reservoirs and dams in Darfur’s main valleys to harvest water for drinking and agriculture, in addition to the provision of water and its networks for key cities in the region;
18.6.Providing the region with an electricity grid that covers urban and rural areas and that is sufficient for industrial needs;
...
18.9.Linking the region with a network of roads that facilitates the maintenance of security and movement of products to the markets within and outside the region.

Page 41, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 4. Suitable Conditions for Return
4.1. With the assistance of the concerned international and domestic institutions, the Parties agree to create the political, economic, social, and security conditions conducive to the voluntary return and acceptable reintegration of IDPs and refugees, without giving preference to any particular group. These conditions shall include, but not be limited to:
...
4.1.5.Constructing adequate shelters in the return villages and areas of voluntary return, as well as the necessary health and education infrastructure;
4.1.6.Rehabilitating damaged property, public facilities, farms, pastures, and agrarian lands, etc;
...
4.1.10.The Parties shall work with the international community to provide all possible assistance to IDPs, refugees and war-affected persons to enable the returning families and individuals to reestablish their lives and livelihoods in local communities. This assistance shall include, but not be limited to, short-term repatriation funding, ensuring the continuity of humanitarian aid throughout the return and resettlement period, rebuilding damaged or destroyed infrastructure, building new roads and infrastructure in rural areas, rehabilitating local agrarian lands, and providing education and job training programs;
4.1.12.The Government of Sudan and international partners shall ensure the reconstruction and restoration of permanent housing and other property of IDPs and refugees planning to return or be resettled.

Page 43, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 8. Internally Displaced Persons and Refugees Commission
8.6.5.Collect data concerning the numbers of IDPs and refugees willing to return, areas of origin, distance from the border, availability of housing, economic and social infrastructure in the areas of return and resettlement, and projected needs for rehabilitation/reconstruction to ascertain the most effective means for the return of displaced persons;

Page 75, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 33. Reform, Development, and Modernization of the Military Establishment and Other Security Services
33.5.The Parties agree on the following:
33.5.10.To undertake logistic preparation of operation fields including constructing roads, airports, heliports, marine bases, defense sites, command and control centers, and water and power sources among other things;

Page 92, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 2: FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT FOR THE TWO AREAS OF BLUE NILE AND SOUTH KORDOFAN / NUBA MOUNTAINS, ISSUES OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE FOR THE TWO AREAS, BLUE NILE, Confidence-building measures for implementation
57.4.Establishing a Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Fund for the Two Areas with the full participation of all the peoples of the Two Areas in management and reconstruction. This Fund should be part of the National Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Fund for the war- affected areas in Sudan.

Page 96, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.19.To reconstruct and develop the state/region.

Page 96, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.32.[To regulate] non-international and national heliports within the framework of civil aviation laws.
9.33.[To manage] roads, bridges and public transportations within the state/region.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.53.[To manage] resettlement, rehabilitation, and reconstruction of the state/region.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:…
10.5.Reconstruction and sustainable development programs.

Page 110, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, NATIONAL PROJECTS IN THE STATE/REGION, 100. While observing national policy in the field of electricity, the Blue Nile State/Region shall be given favorable privileges and prioritized in terms of power supply, sale, and use.

Page 113, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE'S LIBERATION MOVEMENT - NORTH/ THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Permanent Ceasefire Arrangements
29. Permissible Acts: Due to the wide-scale damage and adverse effects of the war, the main principle underlying the permissible acts shall be the removal of the effects of war on civilians and affected areas, and to encourage public support for peace. The permissible acts shall include:
...
29.2.Development activities such as opening and constructing roads, restoring bridges, crossings, railroads, airports, heliports and river navigation lines;

Page 138, TITLE 4. CHAPTER TWO: THE SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUE, Developing and Managing Natural Resources and Infrastructure
50. The Federal Government shall work on achieving the balanced, integrated and sustainable development goals in coastal areas of historic, economic and national importance and the fisheries and marine resources thereof and ensuring their protection and development;
51. The government shall work on reviewing financing policies for specialized banks, especially in the domain of agriculture;
52. In the context of positive discrimination, the government shall build internal paved roads which constitute an important piece of infrastructure for the desired development in Port Sudan, Kassala and Al-Qadarif, in addition to airports and heliports;
53. Paying attention to tourism in the region as an important resource for the economy by improving the necessary infrastructure and reviewing investment laws;
54. Addressing the problems of electricity in the state/region and improving the sources of energy by introducing sources of alternative energy and linking rural areas on the red sea, Kassala and al-Qadarif with the national grid.
55. The Government shall commit to addressing the problem of water in Port Sudan definitively from the Nile and al-Qadarif through Setit Dam and Kassala water harvesting projects;
56. Studying the establishment of free zones at the borders with neighboring countries;
57. Regulating traditional mining and addressing the resulting adverse environmental impacts and maintaining the rights of local communities;
58. The Parties agreed to allocate 30% of the Federal government’s net revenue from mineral and oil resources extracted from the states/Region of Eastern of Sudan for the benefit of these states/Region for a period of seven years

Page 145, TITLE 5. ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK (POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC) ISSUES, 16. The Government shall commit to carrying out the necessary feasibility studies and reviewing past ones to establish economic and service projects in order to achieve balanced development and endeavoring to find the necessary funding to achieve the following:
16.1.Building the two canals of Merowe Dam, eastern Hajar al-Asal agricultural project, alHawad agricultural project, al-Tabnah agricultural project, west of al-Goled project and establishing the Nile drinking water plants;
16.2.Rehabilitating and delivering electricity to all agricultural projects in the two states/ region;
...
16.4.Seeking to finish work on national and local roads and build and rehabilitate bridges, railways and airports in the two states/region;
16.5.Endeavoring to finish electricity projects in the two states/ region and to establish conversion plants and increase the share of the state/region in electricity supply, including the provision of electricity to the villages of the local option area and Abu Hamad;
16.6.Endeavoring to rehabilitate governmental factories present in the two states/region according to available resources and planning new industrial and craftsmanship cities as needed.

Page 147, TITLE 5. ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK (POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC) ISSUES, 31. Providing the necessary services and working to build the infrastructure for the people opting for the local option of the locals of Amri and studying the possibility of establishing development projects for them.

Page 154, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 19. Permissible Acts
19.1.2. Development activities such as constructing roads and restoring bridges, crossings, railroads, airports and heliports.

Page 185, TITLE 9, 5. Darfur Track: Displaced Persons and Refugees Implementation Matrix
Activity: Implement programs to reconstruct and repair destroyed or damaged homes
Timing: After establishing the IDPRC
Implementing Party: IDPRC in coordination with relevant commissions and bodies
Source of Funding: IDPRC
Composition:
Procedures: Institute programs
Reference/Article: 8.6.10

Page 185, TITLE 9, 5. Darfur Track: Displaced Persons and Refugees Implementation Matrix
Activity: Implement programs to rebuild public utilities and other infrastructure
Timing: After establishing the IDPRC
Implementing Party: IDPRC in coordination with relevant commissions and bodies
Source of Funding: IDPRC
Composition:
Procedures: Institute and implement programs
Reference/Article: 8.6.11

Page 200, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish a national fund for reconstruction and development
Timing: after signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition: Government of Sudan
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 89 to 91

Page 201, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Restructuring the two funds for the reconstruction and rehabilitation of the Two Areas
Timing: after signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan and the state / regional government
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition: Government of Sudan and the state / regional government
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 90 & 91

Page 201, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Address national projects in the state / region
Timing: After signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan and the state / regional government
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan and the state / regional government
Composition: The Parties
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Articles 97 to 100

Page 221, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Develop and manage natural resources and the infrastructure
Timing: After ratifying the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Institute policies and studies, make decisions, and review laws
Reference / article: 49, 50, 51, 52, 55 and 56

Page 221, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Address energy problems
Timing: After ratifying the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan and the state/regional government
Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Institute policies and studies and make decisions
Reference / article: 53

Page 221, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Address water problems in the states/region of Eastern Sudan
Timing: After ratifying the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan and the state/regional government
Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Institute policies and studies and make decisions
Reference / article: 54
National economic plan
Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 11. National Powers: the national government shall assume the following exclusive executive and legislative powers:
11.29.National economic planning and policies.

Page 150, TITLE 6. 3. Development, Services, and Revenues
The Government of Sudan shall commit to the following:
8. The Government of Sudan confirms the creation of a special fund to support the peace called (The Reconstruction Fund for Development and Peace); the largest proportion of which is dedicated to support production, particularly agricultural production and funding projects with a quick return [on investment] and improving the skills of the producers by concentrating on the [sectors of] preferential advantage of each state.

Page 139, TITLE 4. CHAPTER TWO: THE SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUE, The East Development Fund
72. The Federal Government shall commit to reviewing the Eastern Sudan Reconstruction and Development Fund seeking the assistance of experts; introducing a law for the Fund and restructuring it, provided that the parties of the Eastern Track are on its board of directors.
73. The Parties agreed to consult on the appointment of the executive director of the East Development Fund.
74. The resources of the Fund shall be allocated from the public treasury, donors and any other legitimate sources.
75. The Parties agree that the Government shall allocate an initial amount of 348,000,000 (three hundred forty-eight million US Dollars only), provided that this amount is deducted from the share of Eastern Sudan in the national resources. This shall be considered part of the positive discrimination;
76. The Parties agree to establish the National Eastern Sudan Bank;
77. The return of collective work and revitalizing cooperative work and competition in the labor market;
78. Paying attention to manufacturing and small industries through the creation of service, professional, industrial, agricultural and other cooperatives and providing legal, immaterial and financial support;
79. Facilitating the procedures for the input of means of production and marketing and removing the obstacles;
80. Mainstreaming the cooperative sector to provide the necessary and consumer needs. Controlling prices and providing subsidized commodities and preventing the monopoly of essential commodities;
81. The Parties affirm that every individual shall have the right to ownership or possession in accordance with the law and that usurped rights shall be returned to their legitimate owners by the law.
Natural resources
Page 21, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 31. Concurrent Powers
31.1.The national federal government and the regional government of Darfur shall have the following executive and legislative powers:
...
31.1.12.Natural resources;

Page 23, Title 2: CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, General Principles
2. All lands and natural resources in Sudan regions/states, including Darfur, shall be resources for the good of all the people of Sudan.
...
10. Development of sound foundations for sharing wealth generated from oil, natural gas, and other natural resources in Sudan and directing them to meet the needs of development and the reconstruction of Sudan’s regions/states in general, while prioritizing the marginalized and war-affected regions/states, and paying special attention to the environment.
11. Those foundations shall include the sustainable use of non-renewable resources, such as oil, natural gas, and other fossil fuels, in accordance with the interest of the afflicted regions/states and locals in those areas, while taking into consideration best practices for the environment, including the Guidelines for the Conservation of Bio-Diversity and the Principles of Safeguarding Cultural Heritage.

Page 26-27, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 21. Sources of exclusive revenue for the Government of Darfur Region/States: The Government of Darfur Region/States shall have the following exclusive sources of revenue:
...
21.20.Share of the region/states from oil revenue and revenue of other resources;

Page 27, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 22. Natural Resources
22.1.The Sudanese people shall own the natural resources found on and under its soil. The people of the regions/states in which such resources are found or extracted shall have special rights that must be met according to specific agreements and percentages thereon.

Page 27, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 23. Management of Natural Resources
23.1.The regions/states shall be a genuine partner with the federal government in managing natural resources extracted from their lands throughout all the phases of allotment, awarding, contracting, production, and marketing. The regions/states shall hold primary responsibility for the preservation of their environment and shall be entitled to impose conditions to ensure its environmental integrity and that extraction processes do not encroach on the health of citizens.
23.2.The federal government and governments of the regions/states shall pay heed to the rights of future generations in the arrangements for and allocation of natural resource extraction by investing a specific percentage of the revenue of extracted resources for the good of those generations.
23.3.The federal government and governments of the regions/states shall be responsible for utilizing natural resources therein and managing them transparently, justly, and fairly.
23.4.The federal government and governments of the regions/states shall identify natural resources, the manner and timing of their utilization, issuance of excavation and extraction licenses, negotiation of sales contracts and revenue-sharing with the investing firms, withdrawal of licenses and revocation of contracts, planning of the overall resource development, ensuring workers’ health and safety, and environment protection.

Page 27-28, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 24. Status of Current and Future Contracts and Agreements for the Extraction of Natural Resources
24.1.The Region of Darfur and other regions/states, in cooperation with the federal government, shall be entitled to review all existing natural resource extraction contracts within their respective territories. Upon review, they shall be entitled to make adjustments to these contracts to ensure the fair and equitable allocation of revenue, as well as sufficient environmental protections.
24.2.Regions/states whose natural resources will be extracted shall participate in the negotiation of and approve any new contracts or agreements in relation to the exploration, extraction, and production of natural resources within the borders of their respective regions/states. Any such contracts shall be governed by regulations adopted by the regions/states, in addition to the applicable regulations adopted by the federal government.
24.3.When allotting public lands in Darfur or granting utilization concessions for the extraction of natural resources, the inhabitants of the land shall be consulted before land utilization and they shall be adequately compensated.

Page 28, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 25. Allocation of Revenue Generated from Natural Resources
25.1.The Parties agree to allocate 40% of the nation’s net revenue from mineral and petroleum resources located in Darfur to the region for a period of ten years.
25.2.The Darfur Region shall allocate 3% of the revenue from natural resources for local population in areas from which these resources are extracted.

Page 44, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPMENT OF THE NOMADS AND HERDEERS SECTOR IN THE DARFUR REGION PROTOCOL, General Principles
3. Introducing alternative policies, legislation, institutions, and mechanisms which meet the needs of herders and nomads in the exercise of their right to use land and natural resources.

Page 91-92, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 2: FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT FOR THE TWO AREAS OF BLUE NILE AND SOUTH KORDOFAN / NUBA MOUNTAINS, ISSUES OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE FOR THE TWO AREAS, BLUE NILE, 50. The Parties commit to ensuring that the administration and management of the natural resources of Blue Nile shall be under the authority of the federal government and the Blue Nile regional / state government and all the revenues generated from natural resources should be distributed between the regional / state government and the central government in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement and with the following requirements:
50.1.A certain percentage of the revenues from the Roseires Dam and other revenues from natural resources present in the area shall be allocated for the development of the region / state.
50.2.The Parties agree that the transitional government of Sudan shall return all the lands that were taken away from the administrative authority of the Blue Nile region / state, in particular the Northwest triangle of Eastern Agadi and the Dinder National Park in a way that protects the interests of humans, fauna and flora, and biodiversity, natural resources of the park once it is proven it belongs to the Blue Nile region / state.
51. The Parties commit to prioritizing the reconstruction and rehabilitation of the Blue Nile region / state economically and developmentally by:
51.1.Building irrigation schemes using water of the Roseires dam for agricultural projects in the region / state.
51.2.Providing access to electricity for the local population of Blue Nile region/state at low prices.
51.3.Providing compensation for those who were negatively affected by the construction and heightening of the Roseires Dam in the Blue Nile region / state.
52. The Parties need to rectify the historic lack of representation of the residents of the Blue Nile region / state in the governance structure of Sudan through positive discrimination in the federal government and national civil service.
53. The Parties commit to prioritizing issues of land ownership and land usage in the Blue Nile region / state by:
53.1.Reviewing all contracts, decrees of concessions and allocation of land in the region / state.
53.2.Reviewing customary routes of transhumance, services and homesteading for nomads.
53.3.Securing transhumance routes for nomads and working for their settlement in accordance with customary laws and norms.
53.4.Reviewing contracts and mining concessions in the Blue Nile region / state, particularly those for chrome, gold and asbestos, and remedying the shortcomings in contracts, their environmental impact, the compensation and rights of the region / state, as stipulated in the provisions of resource-sharing for the Two Areas.

Page 95, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.4. To address issues of land and compensation and review contracts related to lands, mining, and agricultural and industrial projects, in accordance with the provisions of the Final Peace Agreement.

Page 96, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.24.[To manage] lands and resources of the state/region in accordance with what has been agreed.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.61.Forestry of the state/region.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:…
10.12.Review the contracts and decisions to award lands and mining projects and [provide] compensations in the Two Areas.

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:…
10.24.Natural resources.

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:…
10.27.Quarries regulations.

Page 100, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR THE STATE/REGIONAL GOVERNMENT, 16. Wealth Sharing in the Two Areas:
16.1.For a period of ten years, the state/regional government shall receive forty percent (40%) of income from the revenue of natural resources, extracted wealth from the state/region, tax revenue from the state/region, and taxes levied in the state/region, with the remaining sixty percent (60%) going to the national government.
16.2.The fixed percentage or any other appropriate option the Parties agree on shall be determined in a conference involving the Parties, stakeholders of the Two Areas population, and the mediator at the end of the transitional period.
17. When the state/regional government collects the joint taxes and other imposed levies, it shall deduct its own percentage and transfer the percentage for the national government to the public treasury.
18. The percentage of taxes and expenses related to the development of natural resources within the state/region to be distributed to areas and localities within the state/region shall be regulated by the law adopted by the state/regional legislative council.

Page 109, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, DEVELOPMENT AND RECONSTRUCTION COMMISSION AND MECHANISM, 92. The Parties agree to establish a joint committee to regulate, oversee, and monitor the activities of mining, petroleum, and the use of underground resources in the Two Areas and address the environmental and social impacts of such activities, in accordance with national policies and the wealth sharing provisions of this Agreement, while observing the principles of transparency, inclusivity, and participation.

Page 138, TITLE 4. CHAPTER TWO: THE SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUE, Developing and Managing Natural Resources and Infrastructure, 50. The Federal Government shall work on achieving the balanced, integrated and sustainable development goals in coastal areas of historic, economic and national importance and the fisheries and marine resources thereof and ensuring their protection and development;
51. The government shall work on reviewing financing policies for specialized banks, especially in the domain of agriculture;
52. In the context of positive discrimination, the government shall build internal paved roads which constitute an important piece of infrastructure for the desired development in Port Sudan, Kassala and Al-Qadarif, in addition to airports and heliports;
53. Paying attention to tourism in the region as an important resource for the economy by improving the necessary infrastructure and reviewing investment laws;
54. Addressing the problems of electricity in the state/region and improving the sources of energy by introducing sources of alternative energy and linking rural areas on the red sea, Kassala and al-Qadarif with the national grid.
55. The Government shall commit to addressing the problem of water in Port Sudan definitively from the Nile and al-Qadarif through Setit Dam and Kassala water harvesting projects;
56. Studying the establishment of free zones at the borders with neighboring countries;
57. Regulating traditional mining and addressing the resulting adverse environmental impacts and maintaining the rights of local communities;
58. The Parties agreed to allocate 30% of the Federal government’s net revenue from mineral and oil resources extracted from the states/Region of Eastern of Sudan for the benefit of these states/Region for a period of seven years.

Page 149, TITLE 6. Preamble
CONVINCED of the necessity of the fair allocation of resources and wealth to establish peace;

Page 178, TITLE 9, 3. Darfur Track: Wealth Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Partnership in managing natural resources
Timing: Continues after signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Darfur regional/ states government in cooperation with The Federal Government
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures:
Reference article: 23.1 24.2 24.3

Page 178, TITLE 9, 3. Darfur Track: Wealth Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Review all existing contracts on natural resources extracted from Darfur territories
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: The Regional Government in partnership with the Federal Government
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures:
Reference article: 24.1

Page 178, TITLE 9, 3. Darfur Track: Wealth Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Allocate 40% of the state’s net revenue from mineral and petroleum resources located in Darfur to the benefit of the region for a period of 10 years
Timing: After signing the Agreement and for period of 10 years
Implementing Party: Federal Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures:
Reference article: 25.1

Page 178, TITLE 9, 3. Darfur Track: Wealth Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Allocate no less than 3% of the revenue generated from natural resources for local population in areas from which these resources are extracted
Timing: After signing the Agreement and for period of 10 years
Implementing Party: Darfur regional/ state government
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures:
Reference article: 25.2

Page 196, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish a joint committee to regulate, oversee, and monitor the activities of mining, petroleum
Timing: Within 60 days of forming the state / regional government
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan & state / regional government
Source of Funding:
Composition: The Parties
Location: State/region
Procedures, Method & Criteria:
Reference article:Article 16.1 & 92

Page 196-197, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Share wealth generated from the revenue of natural resources and wealth extracted, tax revenue and taxes levied within the state/region.
Timing: Within 60 days of forming the state / regional government
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan & state/regional government
Source of Funding:
Composition: Government of Sudan & state / regional government
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria:
Reference article: Articles 16.1

Page 204, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Address adverse side effects of oil excavation and gold mining activities
Timing: After forming the state / regional government
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan and the state / regional government
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan and the State / Regional Government
Composition:
Location: the Two Areas
Procedures, Method & Criteria:
Reference article: Article 48.3

Page 204, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Review contracts and projects of mining chromium, gold, and asbestos
Timing: After forming the state / regional government
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan and the state / regional government
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan and the State / Regional Government
Composition:
Location: the Two Areas
Procedures, Method & Criteria:
Reference article: Article 54.4

Page 211, TITLE 9, 12. Northern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Regulate and control mining and address its adverse impacts
Timing: After ratifying the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Sources of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition: Government of Sudan
Procedures: Enact the necessary laws
Reference / article: Article 17 and its subparagraphs (Northern Track Issues)

Page 220, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Develop and manage natural resources and the infrastructure
Timing: After ratifying the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Institute policies and studies, make decisions, and review laws
Reference / article: 49, 50, 51, 52, 55 and 56
International funds
Page 12, TITLE 1, 15. Sudan Partners Conference to Support the Transitional Period and Peace:
15.1.The Parties agree to immediately include the signatory parties to the peace agreement in the political and technical mechanism undertaking the preparation of the Sudan partners’ conference to support the transitional period and peace.
15.2.The Government of Sudan shall commit to holding a donor conference in which pledges made therein shall be allocated for supporting the implementation of the peace agreement.

Page 26, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 18. Functions of the Reconstruction and Development Commission
19. Development Projects
19.1.Existing development projects shall be prioritized to receive funds from the Darfur Reconstruction and Development Fund and from international aid sources.

Page 26-27, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 21. Sources of exclusive revenue for the Government of Darfur Region/States: The Government of Darfur Region/States shall have the following exclusive sources of revenue:
...
21.21.Central support, grants, and foreign aid through the national government;

Page 28, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 26. Grants and Loans
26.1.The Darfur Region shall be entitled to receive assistance in the form of grants or loans from states and international and regional organizations via the federal government while providing sovereign guarantees.

Page 28-29, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 29. The Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund
...
29.4.The successive governments of Sudan shall commit to seek, along with the international and regional communities, to provide the necessary support for development and reconstruction projects in Darfur.
29.5.The Fund shall have the following functions:
29.5.1.Soliciting domestic and foreign support for funding peace-related projects in Darfur.

Page 42, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 7. International Support
7.1. The Parties shall request the international community to provide financial, technical, and material support and resources to ensure that the voluntary return and resettlement processes takes place fully, efficiently, and with respect to the dignity and safety of returnees;

Page 48, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 11. Funding
11.1.The DLHC shall be funded by the Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund for a period of 10 (ten years) from the date of this Agreement.
11.2.The Parties shall work together to receive assistance from the international community in funding the operations of the DLHC.
11.3.The period during which the Government of Sudan shall provide funding to the DLHC shall not be an indication or identification of the mandated term of DLHC.

Page 51, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 9.Guiding principles for the final security arrangements, reform, development and modernization of security sector.
9.11.The Parties shall work together to request from the international community technical, material, and financial assistance necessary for successful implementation of the Cessation of Hostilities for Humanitarian Purposes, a permanent ceasefire, DDR, and peacebuilding;

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.54.To negotiate and conclude international and regional agreements, in the fields of education, culture, sports, trade, loans, grants, and technical assistance with foreign governments and foreign non-governmental organizations, without contravening national policies and in coordination with the competent federal authorities.

Page 100, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR THE STATE/REGIONAL GOVERNMENT, 21. Share of the state/region from annual national revenue:
21.1.Based on national standards and the principle of positive discrimination, the national government shall pay to the state/region its allocated share from annual national resources, foreign aid, support and relief as well as other financial aid for advancing development.

Page 101, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR THE STATE/REGIONAL GOVERNMENT, 24. Foreign Investment: the state/regional government shall be entitled to regulate foreign investments within its jurisdiction in coordination with the competent national institutions.

Page 108, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, DEVELOPMENT AND RECONSTRUCTION COMMISSION AND MECHANISM, 83. Sources of Funding for the Commission:
83.1.The Transitional Government of Sudan.
83.2.Friends of Sudan from among the regional and international donor states.
83.3.The UN and other relevant organizations.
83.4.Any other appropriate source of funding.

Page 109, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, DEVELOPMENT AND RECONSTRUCTION COMMISSION AND MECHANISM, 91. The Parties shall solicit regional and international support and assistance from different donors and funding bodies.

Page 109, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GENERAL PROVISIONS, 105. The Parties agree to establish a fund concerned with the affairs of martyrs and wounded persons in the Two Areas within three months from the date of signing this Agreement provided that the Federal Government contribute to its funding and solicit foreign and domestic funding for that purpose.

Page 166, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Hold the Conference of Sudan Partners for support of the transitional period and peace
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan and Parties of the peace process signatory to this Agreement
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan and other international parties
Composition:
Procedures: Establish the joint political and technical mechanism
Reference article: 15.1

Page 166, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Hold a donor conference to support the Peace Agreement
Timing: Within 90 days of the date of signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan and Parties of the peace process signatory to this Agreement
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan and other international parties
Composition:
Procedures:
Reference article: 15.2

Page 192, TITLE 9, 7. Darfur Track: Land and Hawakeer Implementation Matrix
Activity: Request assistance of the international community for funding
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: The Parties
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures:
Reference/Article: 11.2

Page 199, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish the commission for the voluntary return for IDPs and refugees in the state / region
Timing: after establishing of the national commission of the voluntary return for IDPs and refugees
Implementing Party: the state / regional government
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan and donors
Composition: the state / regional government
Location: the state / regional government
Procedures, Method & Criteria:
Reference article: Articles 76 to 83

Page 200, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish the commission for transitional justice and reconciliation in the state / region
Timing: after establishing the national commission
Implementing Party: The state / regional government
Source of Funding: government of Sudan and donors
Composition: the state / regional government
Location: state / region
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 85

Page 200, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish the commission for religious freedoms in the state / region
Timing: After establishing of the national commission
Implementing Party: the state / regional government
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan and donors
Composition: the state / regional government
Location: state / region
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 86

Page 200, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish the Commission for the Development of the Nomads, Herders, and Farmers Sector in the state / region
Timing: After establishing of the national commission
Implementing Party: the state / regional government
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan and donors
Composition: the state / regional government
Location: state / region
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 87

Page 202, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Integrate the Peace Agreement of the Two Areas into the Constitutional Charter
Timing: Ten days after signing the Final Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan and partners of peace
Composition: The Parties
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: Through a joint committee by The Parties, in accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 112

Page 202, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Hold small conferences in the Two Areas to prepare and draft the constitution
Timing: Before holding the national constitutional conference
Implementing Party: state / regional government
Source of Funding: state / regional government and donors
Composition: state / regional government
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 104

Page 202-203, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish a fund concerned with affairs of martyrs and wounded persons
Timing: Within 90 days of the date of signing the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: state / regional government
Source of Funding: Transitional government of Sudan, state / regional government and donors
Composition: state / regional government
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 105

Page 223, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: The Eastern Development Fund
Timing: After ratifying the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan, donors, and any other sources
Composition: The Parties
Procedures: Issue decisions to select experts, enact a law and restructure the Eastern Sudan Reconstruction and Development Fund. Issue a decision after consultation between the Parties to establish the board of directors, provided that the Parties are on the board, and appoint the executive director.
Reference / article: 70, 71 and 72
Business
Page 13, TITLE 1, 25. Sudanese National Business Sector
25.1.The Parties agree that the Transitional Government of Sudan shall, within the framework of its economic and developmental program, commit to economic legislation and policies conducive to promoting the role of the private sector in development and to developing and establishing a productive partnership between the government and civil society based on solid foundations.

Page 17-18, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 26. National Civil Service
26.2.The Parties agree to accommodate the men and women of Darfur in upper and mid-level positions (undersecretaries, ambassadors, members of diplomatic missions, general managers, various administrations and departments in national ministries and commissions, the judiciary, public prosecution, national and semi-national institutions, banks, and the boards of public and semi-public companies) by 20% provided that appointment is made by political decree within 45 (forty-five days) of the date of signing the Peace Agreement.

Page 20, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 30. Powers of the Regional Government of Darfur
30.1.The Parties agree that Darfur Region shall have exclusive executive and legislative powers to enable it to implement the Peace Agreement as follows:
...
30.1.20.[To regulate] regional businesses and enterprises;

Page 21, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 31. Concurrent Powers
31.1.The national federal government and the regional government of Darfur shall have the following executive and legislative powers:
...
31.1.6.Commerce, industry, and industrial development;
...
31.1.16.Proposing and negotiating international and regional agreements on culture, sports, trade, investments, loans, grants, and technical assistance without prejudice to federal and regional legal systems;
...
31.1.27.Cross-border trade;

Page 23, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, General Principles
6. The Parties understand that the sources of wealth stipulated in this Agreement do not only mean direct state revenues, but include opportunities of income generation from employment in the private and public sectors, the return of investment in different areas, the revenues of border trade returns, grants and loans, and other sources of income.

Page 96, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.27.To manage trade and regulate businesses and licenses in the state/region.
9.28.[To regulate] commercial businesses and local projects.
...
9.31.[To enact] laws related to agriculture, industry, and services in the state/region.

Page 97, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.49.Trade, industry, and industrial development in the state/region.

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 11. National Powers: the national government shall assume the following exclusive executive and legislative powers:
11.37.Foreign trade.

Page 138, TITLE 4. CHAPTER TWO, THE SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUE, General Principles,
49. Reviewing investment laws and simplifying procedures

Page 139, TITLE 4. CHAPTER TWO: THE SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUE, The East Development Fund
77. The return of collective work and revitalizing cooperative work and competition in the labor market;
78. Paying attention to manufacturing and small industries through the creation of service, professional, industrial, agricultural and other cooperatives and providing legal, immaterial and financial support;

Page 141, TITLE 4. CHAPTER TWO: THE SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUE, The Economic Conference
84. The Parties agreed to hold a conference to discuss and find solutions for issues of industry, agriculture and investment and in Eastern Sudan. The conference shall be held in one of the eastern states and its committees and papers shall be determined by a joint committee by both Parties;

Page 153, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 19. Permissible Acts
19.1.3. Socioeconomic activities such as assisting the freedom of movement of people, goods and services.

Page 168, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Promote the national business sector in development
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue legislation and develop economic policies
Reference article: 25.1

Page 212, TITLE 9, 12. Northern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Improve and encourage cross- border trade and crossings
Timing: After ratifying the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan and local and international environmental organisations
Sources of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures:
Reference / article: Article 22 (Northern Track Issues)
Taxation
Power to tax
Page 20, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. 30. Powers of the Regional Government of Darfur
30.1.The Parties agree that Darfur Region shall have exclusive executive and legislative powers to enable it to implement the Peace Agreement as follows:
...
30.1.7.To collect taxes and incomes exclusive to the regional government of Darfur;

Page 23, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, General Principles
7. Disbursement of all the Zakat money collected in the regions/states inside the respective regions/states through their various disbursement channels.

Page 24, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 12. National Revenue
12.1.The Government of Sudan shall have the authority to generate revenue from all sources of wealth in the country;
12.2.There should be definitive identification and clear separation between the sources of revenue of the federal government and the sources of revenue of the regions/states to avoid disputes and ensure good production and management of resources.

Page 24, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 13. National Revenue Fund
13.1.A national fund for revenue shall be established and regulated by a law wherein all national financial revenue is deposited. It shall be the only institution for depositing revenue.

Page 25, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 16. Revenue of the Darfur Region/States
16.1.The Region/states of Darfur shall have the right to generate its own revenue and receive revenue from tax and non-tax related sources, including from the allocations of the National Commission for the Division, Allocation, and Monitoring of Financial Resources and Revenue; the National Revenue Fund; revenue from taxation and different fees (sales taxes, private business, in addition to their share of the value-added tax and the betterment levy, licensing fees, works fees); and the return of their investments and border trade; their share from the sale of extracted natural resources, aid, grants and loans, in accordance with federal policy and the provisions of this Agreement;
16.2.The government of the Darfur Region/States shall have the exclusive authority to determine how best to spend revenue generated or received;
16.3.The government of the Darfur Region/States shall have the power to spend its own revenue for effective governance and fulfillment of its obligations as stipulated in the Peace Agreement;
16.4.The government of the Darfur Region/States shall develop policies and regulations and determine how best to spend revenue based on the interest of the region/states, common good, environment protection, and the interests of local population without conflicting with national policies and the provisions of the Peace Agreement.

Page 26-27, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 21. Sources of exclusive revenue for the Government of Darfur Region/States: The Government of Darfur Region/States shall have the following exclusive sources of revenue:
21.1.Tax on the lands of the region/states;
21.2.Revenue;
21.3.Property tax;
21.4.Social services fees;
21.5.Consumer service fees;
21.6.Licensing fees;
21.7.State/regional personal income tax;
21.8.State/regional professionals’ tax;
21.9.State/regional tax on individual business profit;
21.10.Indirect taxes;
21.11.State/regional production tax;
21.12.State/regional share of taxes on border trade;
21.13.Tax on agricultural production;
21.14.Tax on animals;
21.15.State/regional seal duties;
21.16.State/regional tourism tax;
21.17.State/regional tax on recreational places;
21.18.Revenue of national parks in the states/region;
21.19.Revenue of state/regional projects and investments;
21.20.Share of the region/states from oil revenue and revenue of other resources;
21.21.Central support, grants, and foreign aid through the national government;
21.22.Domestic and foreign loans and borrowing in accordance with the credit rating and in line with the national economic policy;
21.23.Any other taxes and sources of revenue that do not contravene with the taxing power of the national government.

Page 42, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 7. International Support
...
7.3. The Parties shall refrain from levying taxes on workers, goods, or services provided by foreign governments or domestic or international aid organizations, within the framework of national laws and regulations and international agreements;

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.56.To exercise the right to collect revenue and spend funds in the state/region.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:
10.1.Powers and competencies of police, prisons, wildlife, civil defense, and customs at the level of the Two Areas.

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:…
10.20.Issues related to taxation, ownership, and economic planning which require joint decisions or implementation between the state/regional government and the national government.

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 11. National Powers: the national government shall assume the following exclusive executive and legislative powers:
11.19.Customs duties, taxes, and export commitments.

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 11. National Powers: the national government shall assume the following exclusive executive and legislative powers:
11.32.National taxes and improving national income.

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 11. National Powers: the national government shall assume the following exclusive executive and legislative powers:
11.41.Value added tax.

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR THE STATE/REGIONAL GOVERNMENT, 13. The state/regional government shall be entitled to pass legislation to collect revenues and fees from the sources below:
13.1.Tax on personal income in the state/region.
13.2.Business profits tax in the state/region.
13.3.Service fees in the state/region.
13.4.Service fees on petroleum fuels.
13.5.The state/regional government projects and businesses.
13.6.Foreign grants and aid without contravening national policy and national sovereignty.
13.7.Tax on sales, services, and production in the state/region.
13.8.Loans and borrowing in accordance with the national macroeconomic policy.
13.9.Licenses in the state/region.
13.10.Tourism fees in the state/region.
13.11.Service fees on the products of natural and forestry resources in the state/region.
13.12.Stamp fees in the state/region.
13.13.Fees on cross-border trade in the state/region, without contravening national policies.
13.14.The state/region share of central support.
13.15.Taxes on agriculture, animals, and veterinary quarantines in the state/region.
13.16.Any other fees in accordance with the constitution.

Page 100, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR THE STATE/REGIONAL GOVERNMENT, 15. Accounting Standards:
15.1.The state/regional government shall abide by the approved accounting and financial accountability standards to ensure that public funds are allocated and spent according to the budget allocated to them.
15.2.Income and revenue collected by the state/regional government shall be deposited in public accounts subject to public auditing, accounting, and review.
15.3.The law shall regulate adopted accounting procedures, standards, and financial accountability.
15.4.All accounts of the state/regional government shall be subject to auditing and verification as regulated by law.
15.5.Distribution of the local tax revenue.

Page 100, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR THE STATE/REGIONAL GOVERNMENT, 16. Wealth Sharing in the Two Areas:
16.1.For a period of ten years, the state/regional government shall receive forty percent (40%) of income from the revenue of natural resources, extracted wealth from the state/region, tax revenue from the state/region, and taxes levied in the state/region, with the remaining sixty percent (60%) going to the national government.
16.2.The fixed percentage or any other appropriate option the Parties agree on shall be determined in a conference involving the Parties, stakeholders of the Two Areas population, and the mediator at the end of the transitional period.
17. When the state/regional government collects the joint taxes and other imposed levies, it shall deduct its own percentage and transfer the percentage for the national government to the public treasury.
18. The percentage of taxes and expenses related to the development of natural resources within the state/region to be distributed to areas and localities within the state/region shall be regulated by the law adopted by the state/regional legislative council.

Page 196-197, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Share wealth generated from the revenue of natural resources and wealth extracted, tax revenue and taxes levied within the state/region.
Timing: Within 60 days of forming the state / regional government
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan & state/regional government
Source of Funding:
Composition: Government of Sudan & state / regional government
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria:
Reference article: Articles 16.1
Reform of taxation
Page 101, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR THE STATE/REGIONAL GOVERNMENT, 25. Zakat: The system of the Zakat Bureau and its aspects of spending must be reviewed at the national, state/regional level, so as to comply with the changes brought about by the glorious December revolution, provided that this resource is directed as a social resource for the benefit of those entitled.

Page 197, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Review the Zakat Bureau
Timing: Within 90 days of commencing implementation of the Final Agreement.
Implementing Party: Transitional government of Sudan & state / regional government
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria:
Reference article: Article 25
Other
Page 13, TITLE 1, 22. The National Revenue Fund
22.1.A National Revenue Fund in which all revenues and financial returns are deposited shall be established. It shall be regulated by law and be the sole institution for depositing revenues.

Page 12, TITLE 1, 23. The National Commission of Resources and Financial Revenue Sharing and Allocation
23.1.By virtue of a law, a commission for the division, allocation, and monitoring of financial revenues shall be established in accordance with the standards to be agreed upon. The commission shall be chaired by an independent person appointed by the Prime Minister.
The law shall ensure fair representation of the regions/states therein.
23.2.A law activating the commission shall be issued within no more than ninety (90) days of signing the peace agreement.
23.3.The Commission shall commit to ensuring transparency, remedying the imbalances in the allocation of national revenues, and distributing those revenues on a horizontal and vertical basis fairly among Sudan’s various regions, particularly regions affected by the war and cumulative historical grievances. The commission shall further ensure that neither the federal government nor any other party shall be deprived from receipt of their financial entitlements and shall ensure timely disbursement as agreed.

Page 168, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish the National Revenue Fund
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision and a law establishing the Fund
Reference article: 22.1

Page 168, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish the Commission for Sharing, Allocation, and Monitoring of Resources and Financial Revenues
Timing: Within 90 days of the date of signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: The Prime Minister
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision and a law establishing the Commission
Reference article: 23.1, 23.2, 23.3

Page 176, TITLE 9, 3. Darfur Track: Wealth Sharing Implementation Matrix
Activity: Establish a National Revenue Fund
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision creating the Fund and enact a law to regulate it
Reference article: 13.1 and Article 22.1 of the National Issues
Banks
Central bank
Page 28, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 27. Establishing Darfur Development Bank
27.1.A development bank shall be established in the Darfur Region in accordance with the Central Bank policies.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.57.To exercise the right to borrow loans with the Sudan Central Bank or the state/regional government securing the collateral.

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 11. National Powers: the national government shall assume the following exclusive executive and legislative powers:
11.13.The central bank and issuing and coining national currency.
11.14.Bills of exchange and promissory notes.

Page 100, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR THE STATE/REGIONAL GOVERNMENT, 22. Reform and correction of the banking system by adopting monetary, regulatory, and institutional policies that serve the accumulation of savings, funding, development, attracting investments, and facilitating banking transactions, including the conventional banking system and multiple outlets.

Page 139, TITLE 4. CHAPTER TWO: THE SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUE, The East Development Fund
76. The Parties agree to establish the National Eastern Sudan Bank;

Page 197, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Reform and correct the banking system
Timing: Within 90 days of commencing implementation of the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional government of Sudan & state / regional government
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria:
Reference article: Article 22

Page 223, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish the National Eastern Sudan Bank
Timing: After ratifying the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: East Sudan states/region
Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision approving the establishment of the bank
Reference / article: 74
Personal or commercial banking
Page 17-18, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 26. National Civil Service
26.2.The Parties agree to accommodate the men and women of Darfur in upper and mid-level positions (undersecretaries, ambassadors, members of diplomatic missions, general managers, various administrations and departments in national ministries and commissions, the judiciary, public prosecution, national and semi-national institutions, banks, and the boards of public and semi-public companies) by 20% provided that appointment is made by political decree within 45 (forty-five days) of the date of signing the Peace Agreement.

Page 20, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. 30. Powers of the Regional Government of Darfur
30.1.The Parties agree that Darfur Region shall have exclusive executive and legislative powers to enable it to implement the Peace Agreement as follows:
...
1.1.8.Banking;

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:…
10.28.Banking activities.
International finance
Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.58.To exercise the right to conclude investment contracts without contravening Sudan’s foreign policies and in coordination with the competent federal authorities.

Page 100, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR THE STATE/REGIONAL GOVERNMENT, 19. Issuance of financial pledges, instruments, promissory notes, and bills of exchange: The state/regional government shall be entitled to issue financial pledges, instruments, bills of exchange, promissory notes or other financial documents provided that they are regulated by a law enacted by the state/regional legislative council, based on the balance of the state/region in accordance with national financial policies.
20. The state/region governor may, with the approval of the state/regional legislative council, conclude contracts or agreements for foreign or national loans in accordance with the controlling national terms and standards.
Cross-border financial flows
Page 13, TITLE 1, 24. Sudanese Diaspora:
24.1.The Parties agree that the Transitional Government of Sudan shall endeavor to create the appropriate conditions to connect Sudanese diaspora abroad with their homeland through addressing, among other things, the issue of education for the children of Sudanese diaspora in Sudanese institutions, ensuring rewarding conditions for their remittances and creating incentives to improve their opportunities for investment and settlement in Sudan.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
Land reform and management
Page 20, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 30. Powers of the Regional Government of Darfur
30.1.The Parties agree that Darfur Region shall have exclusive executive and legislative powers to enable it to implement the Peace Agreement as follows:
...
30.1.19.To manage, allocate, and utilize lands of the Region;

Page 21, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 31. Concurrent Powers
31.1.The national federal government and the regional government of Darfur shall have the following executive and legislative powers:
...
31.1.25.Regulating land possession and utilization and exercising relevant rights;

Page 23, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, General Principles
2. All lands and natural resources in Sudan regions/states, including Darfur, shall be resources for the good of all the people of Sudan.
...
8. Development of enforcement structures and institutions for land management that are legally supported by legislation enacted to promote sustainable development and address environmental degradation.
9. Environmental conservation policies shall include promoting the production and development of alternative sources of energy, developing the quality and quantity of the pastoral sector, and developing policies that ensure the optimal utilization of lands and water resources and improving research capacities in these fields.

Page 27-28, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 24. Status of Current and Future Contracts and Agreements for the Extraction of Natural Resources
24.3.When allotting public lands in Darfur or granting utilization concessions for the extraction of natural resources, the inhabitants of the land shall be consulted before land utilization and they shall be adequately compensated.

Page 44, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPMENT OF THE NOMADS AND HERDEERS SECTOR IN THE DARFUR REGION PROTOCOL, General Principles, 3. Introducing alternative policies, legislation, institutions, and mechanisms which meet the needs of herders and nomads in the exercise of their right to use land and natural resources.

Page 46, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, General Principles
1. Recognizing the traditional rights to the ownership of tribal lands (known as Hawakeer) and the historic rights related to lands and the traditional and customary livestock routes and opportunities to access water.
2. The competent authorities in Darfur (region/ states), in coordination with the federal government and the neighboring regions/states, shall organize the opening of routes across the borders of the Sudanese states, for nomadic shepherds, in order to limit the likelihood of the occurrence of disputes with farmers.
3. The competent authorities shall study, develop, and amend relevant laws to integrate international norms and practices to protect the cultural heritage in Darfur, especially those related to lands and property.
4. Traditional mechanisms for the possession of lands in Darfur should be taken into consideration in resolving conflicts arising between components of the society.
5. In the event of a conflict between the Sudanese laws and the traditional land possession system (Hawakeer) in Darfur; the said laws shall be amended to include the rights of the lands (Hawakeer) and their use according to the norms, traditions, and inherited practices of land tenure in Darfur.

Page 48, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 10. DLHC Powers and Competencies
10.2.The National Lands Commission and DLHC shall cooperate and coordinate their work in terms of:
10.2.1.Sharing information and decisions made by either entity;
10.2.2.Some tasks of the National Lands Commission, including data collection and research, may be assigned to the DLHC;
10.2.3.Settlement of any issues contradictory to the findings or recommendations of either commission.

Page 91-92, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 2: FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT FOR THE TWO AREAS OF BLUE NILE AND SOUTH KORDOFAN / NUBA MOUNTAINS, ISSUES OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE FOR THE TWO AREAS, BLUE NILE, 50. The Parties commit to ensuring that the administration and management of the natural resources of Blue Nile shall be under the authority of the federal government and the Blue Nile regional / state government and all the revenues generated from natural resources should be distributed between the regional / state government and the central government in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement and with the following requirements:
50.1.A certain percentage of the revenues from the Roseires Dam and other revenues from natural resources present in the area shall be allocated for the development of the region / state.
50.2.The Parties agree that the transitional government of Sudan shall return all the lands that were taken away from the administrative authority of the Blue Nile region / state, in particular the Northwest triangle of Eastern Agadi and the Dinder National Park in a way that protects the interests of humans, fauna and flora, and biodiversity, natural resources of the park once it is proven it belongs to the Blue Nile region / state.
51. The Parties commit to prioritizing the reconstruction and rehabilitation of the Blue Nile region / state economically and developmentally by:
51.1.Building irrigation schemes using water of the Roseires dam for agricultural projects in the region / state.
51.2.Providing access to electricity for the local population of Blue Nile region/state at low prices.
51.3.Providing compensation for those who were negatively affected by the construction and heightening of the Roseires Dam in the Blue Nile region / state.
52. The Parties need to rectify the historic lack of representation of the residents of the Blue Nile region / state in the governance structure of Sudan through positive discrimination in the federal government and national civil service.
53. The Parties commit to prioritizing issues of land ownership and land usage in the Blue Nile region / state by:
53.1.Reviewing all contracts, decrees of concessions and allocation of land in the region / state. 53.2.Reviewing customary routes of transhumance, services and homesteading for nomads.
53.3.Securing transhumance routes for nomads and working for their settlement in accordance with customary laws and norms.
53.4.Reviewing contracts and mining concessions in the Blue Nile region / state, particularly those for chrome, gold and asbestos, and remedying the shortcomings in contracts, their environmental impact, the compensation and rights of the region / state, as stipulated in the provisions of resource-sharing for the Two Areas.

Page 95, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.4. To address issues of land and compensation and review contracts related to lands, mining, and agricultural and industrial projects, in accordance with the provisions of the Final Peace Agreement.

Page 96, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.24.[To manage] lands and resources of the state/region in accordance with what has been agreed.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:…
10.6.Review and design of programs that address land issues in the Two Areas, including ownership, use, and compensation related to land expropriation, to be implemented during the transitional period.
10.7.The national and locally competent bodies shall address land issues in the Two Areas, with effective participation of local communities.

Page 108, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, DEVELOPMENT AND RECONSTRUCTION COMMISSION AND MECHANISM, 84. Land Commission:
84.1.Parties signatory to the Final Peace Agreement shall participate in the National Land Commission.
84.2.The state/regional government shall establish a land commission in coordination with the National Land Commission. It shall assume the following functions:
84.2.1.Review and design programs that address land issues in the Two Areas, including ownership, usage, and compensations related to the removal of land ownership. The programs shall be implemented during the transitional period.
84.2.2.The national and local competent authorities shall address land issues in the Two Areas with effective participation of local communities on the basis of state/regional norms, laws, and mechanisms.
84.2.3.Develop policies to regulate possession and use of lands and exercise of rights thereon. Implementation shall be monitored in coordination with relevant bodies based on the land law in the state/region and the national government.
84.2.4.Define the map of land usage with the participation of local communities and in coordination with competent bodies.
84.2.5.Determine procedures for freehold land ownership.
84.2.6.Monitor and ensure the restitution of ownerships for lands that have been expropriated without consulting stakeholders.
84.2.7.The state/regional land commission shall exercise all the powers of the National Land Commission that are delegated thereto.
84.2.8.Review all land allocation and award contracts and decisions in the state/region.
84.2.9.Review investment projects in the state/region by conducting technical, economic and environmental feasibility studies.
84.2.10.Review mining contracts and projects in the state/region and address the shortcomings in contracts, environmental impacts, compensation, and the rights of the state/region as provided for in the Two Areas’ resource-sharing provisions.
84.2.11.If a national project is developed, such as roads, that adversely affects a land owner, the owner shall be sufficiently compensated.
84.2.12.Develop policies for the use of agrarian lands and forests in the state/region and allocate revenue thereof for development within the state/region.
84.2.13.Any other relevant functions.

Page 137, TITLE 2. CHAPTER TWO: THE SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUE, Issues of Lands, Dams and Displaced Persons
60. The Parties agreed to create a regional lands commission in Eastern Sudan
61. The Federal Government shall work through the National Lands Commission and the East of Sudan Lands Commission to review land settlement and registration laws, taking the local norms into consideration;

Page 139, TITLE 2. CHAPTER TWO: THE SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUE, Issues of Agriculture and Forestry
66. Reviewing and legalizing the status of agriculture projects in the three states, provided that they are registered in accordance with the law.
67. Revitalizing agriculture research centers and plant protection through training and qualifying staff to supervise the entire agricultural processes;
68. The Government shall encourage the establishment of manufacturing industries of agricultural, animal and fish products to prevent exporting raw material;
69. Activating the law of forestry and holding to account perpetrators of illegal logging at the cost of forestry;
70. Rehabilitating agricultural projects in the state/region, especially the projects of al-Qash Delta, Tokar, New Halfa and al-Rahad and providing the necessary assistance;
71. The Federal and state/regional governments shall commit to eliminating the scourge of Mesquite;

Page 143, TITLE 5. General Principles
17. Addressing land, dams, and environmental issues and providing reparations for individuals and communities.

Page 145, TITLE 5. ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK (POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC) ISSUES, 11. Working to address all the issues of resettlement in the villages of the New Hamdab (alMultaqa), through the following:
11.1.Completing the legal procedures to extract the license of researching Hamdab agricultural project (al-Multaqa) and remedying technical problems therein;

Page 150, TITLE 6. 3. Development, Services, and Revenues
The Government of Sudan shall commit to the following:
4. The First Party shall commit to reviewing the laws related to lands and investment.

Page 187, TITLE 9, 7. Darfur Track: Land and Hawakeer Implementation Matrix
Activity: Review the registration of lands which are proven to have been expropriated or forcibly taken after June 1989
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Darfur Land and Hawakeer Commission (DLHC)
Source of Funding: DLHC
Composition:
Procedures: Take the necessary measures
Reference/Article: 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7

Page 187, TITLE 9, 7. Darfur Track: Land and Hawakeer Implementation Matrix
Activity: Evacuate those residing illegally in the lands of others in Darfur since 2002
Timing: After issuing the decision establishing the DLHC
Implementing Party: Competent authorities in cooperation with the civil administrations
Source of Funding: DLHC
Composition:
Procedures: Issue the evacuation decisions
Reference/Article: 8.8

Page 187, TITLE 9, 7. Darfur Track: Land and Hawakeer Implementation Matrix
Activity: Establish the Darfur Lands and Hawakeer Commission (DLHC)
Timing: Within 60 days of the date of signing the Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: The Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision to establish the DLHC
Reference/Article: 9.1

Page 188, TITLE 9, 7. Darfur Track: Land and Hawakeer Implementation Matrix
Activity: Make DLHC’s procedures available for the public
Timing: Within 6 months of the date of signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: DLHC
Source of Funding: DLHC
Composition:
Procedures: Inform the public about the commencement of DLHC operations
Reference/Article: 9.2

Page 188, TITLE 9, 7. Darfur Track: Land and Hawakeer Implementation Matrix
Activity: Agree on the organizational and functional structure of the DLHC
Timing: After establishment of the DLHC
Implementing Party: The Parties
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Institute the organizational and functional structure of the DLHC
Reference/Article: 9.3

Page 188, TITLE 9, 7. Darfur Track: Land and Hawakeer Implementation Matrix
Activity: Institute the regulations and rules of procedures of DLHC
Timing: Immediately after the establishment of the DLHC
Implementing Party: DLHC
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Institute the regulations and rules of procedures
Reference/Article: 9.4

Page 188, TITLE 9, 7. Darfur Track: Land and Hawakeer Implementation Matrix
Activity: Establish a special court for the DLHC
Timing: Immediately after the establishment of the DLHC
Implementing Party: The Judiciary
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision to establish the court
Reference/Article: 9.5

Page 188, TITLE 9, 7. Darfur Track: Land and Hawakeer Implementation Matrix
Activity: Form local committees for claims that include local, traditional, and community leaders.
Timing: Immediately after the establishment of the DLHC
Implementing Party: DLHC
Source of Funding:
Composition: Local, traditional and community leaders, and representatives of IDPs, refugees and women’s organizations
Procedures: Issue decisions to form the committees
Reference/Article: 9.6

Page 188, TITLE 9, 7. Darfur Track: Land and Hawakeer Implementation Matrix
Activity: Form a mechanism for evaluating claims
Timing: After establishment of the DLHC
Implementing Party: DLHC
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision of establishing the mechanism
Reference/Article: 9.7

Page 188, TITLE 9, 7. Darfur Track: Land and Hawakeer Implementation Matrix
Activity: Fund the DLHC
Timing: After establishment of the DLHC and for a period of 10 years
Implementing Party: The Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures:
Reference/Article: 11.1

Page 189, TITLE 9, 7. Darfur Track: Land and Hawakeer Implementation Matrix
Activity: Request assistance of the international community for funding
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: The Parties
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures:
Reference/Article: 11.2

Page 200, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish the land commission in the state / region
Timing: after establishing the National Land Commission
Implementing Party: The state / regional government
Source of Funding: The state / regional government
Composition: The state / regional government
Location: state / region
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 84

Page 222, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Issues of lands, dams and displaced personsTiming: After ratifying the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party:
Funding:
Composition: the Parties
Procedures: -Address border issues with Ethiopia and conclude the issue of Halayeb
- Issue a decision creating a regional land commission
- Issue a decision to review land settlement and registration laws
- Issue a decision creating an investigation committee regarding displaced persons
- Issue a decision to revise investment contracts
- Issue a decision to form a committee to revise the contracts of Upper Atbara and Setit
- Issue a decision to address the situation of displaced persons
Reference / article: 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62 and 63
Property return and restitution
Page 12, TITLE 1, 17. General Amnesty:
17.2.The Government shall commit to returning the property of organizations and individuals that has been confiscated because of the war, provided that ownership of the property is proven by any acceptable means.

Page 36, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, General Principles
9. Neither the award nor the initiation of proceedings for compensation or restitution shall limit or prejudice other means of restitution for property or other damages.

Page 37, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 11. Rights Related to Compensation, Restitution and Reparations
11.4.Communities have a collective right to pursue property restitution or compensation for claims regarding communal property, villages, farms and Hawakeer [traditional land].
...
11.6.Individuals and communities have the right to restitution of lands lost resulting from the conflict in Darfur.
11.7.Individuals and communities have the right to pursue compensation for environmental damages, land degradation, or the damage of property resulting from the conflict, including environmental damages or deterioration resulting from displacement and neglect.
11.8.All persons affected by the conflict in Darfur have the right to have restored to them any housing, land, and/or property of which they were arbitrarily or unlawfully deprived, or to be compensated adequately for the loss of their housing, land, and/or property, in accordance with international principles, the Peace Agreement provisions and traditional norms. Accordingly:
11.8.1.Assets and property confiscated and looted from individuals, institutions and communities in Darfur shall be returned or restituted to their rightful owners, and in cases where the return of such property is impossible, a just compensation shall be provided.
11.8.2.Displaced persons and refugees who were displaced because of the conflict in Darfur shall enjoy this right whether they choose to return to their places of origin or not.
11.9.No individual or group may be stripped of the traditional and historic right in land ownership or access to water, unless consulted or provided with fair compensation.

Page 38, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 12. Compensation and Reparations Fund
12.15.The Fund shall cooperate and coordinate with other commissions established pursuant to this Agreement, especially the Commission for the Return of IDPs and Refugees, the Development and Reconstruction Commission, the Lands and Hawakeer Commission, the Truth and Reconciliation Committee, the Darfur Special Court for War Crimes, and the mechanisms of traditional justice.

Page 39, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 2. General Principles
2.7. The Parties shall adhere to the following principles and rights of return:
2.7.1.All IDPs and refugees shall have the right to make an informed decision for the voluntary return to their place of origin, homes, or to places or areas of their habitual residence; they shall also have the right to resettle to other places of their choosing, in accordance with the terms of the Agreement, especially those related to the necessary conditions of return;
...
2.7.4.The Parties and the international community shall endeavor to ensure the right of safe return for IDPs and refugees and to be free from violence, harassment, intimidation, coercion, confiscation of property, or forced resettlement;
...
2.7.8.The Government of Sudan shall provide IDPs and refugees with all documents necessary for the exercise of their legal rights, including passports, birth certificates, and title deeds;

Page 40, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 3. Property, Housing, and Compensation Rights
3.1. All IDPs and refugees shall enjoy the right to voluntary return to their homes, lands, and property, provided that they be fairly compensated for their losses of homes, lands, or property;
3.2. IDPs and refugees shall enjoy all rights to property, ownership of housing, the freedom of movement and residence, and compensation and reparations, as stipulated in this Agreement;
3.3. If the return of IDPs, refugees, and displaced persons to their homes or lands, or the restoration of their property is impossible, they shall have the right to receive fair compensation for their loss and the psychological damages resulting from forced displacement. The compensation shall be paid by the Compensations and Reparations Fund in accordance with international principles and the right of voluntary return for all IDPs and refugees.

Page 40-41, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 4. Suitable Conditions for Return
4.1. With the assistance of the concerned international and domestic institutions, the Parties agree to create the political, economic, social, and security conditions conducive to the voluntary return and acceptable reintegration of IDPs and refugees, without giving preference to any particular group. These conditions shall include, but not be limited to:
...
4.1.4.Restituting property lost due the war to IDPs and refugees, in accordance with the agreed provisions;
4.1.6.Rehabilitating damaged property, public facilities, farms, pastures, and agrarian lands, etc;
4.1.7.Evacuating illegal occupants of others’ homes, lands, and property in areas of return;
...
4.1.10.The Parties shall work with the international community to provide all possible assistance to IDPs, refugees and war-affected persons to enable the returning families and individuals to reestablish their lives and livelihoods in local communities. This assistance shall include, but not be limited to, short-term repatriation funding, ensuring the continuity of humanitarian aid throughout the return and resettlement period, rebuilding damaged or destroyed infrastructure, building new roads and infrastructure in rural areas, rehabilitating local agrarian lands, and providing education and job training programs;

Page 46, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, General Principles
6. All IDPs and refugees, as well as all other persons, shall have their rights restored in the lands that were arbitrarily and illegitimately taken away from them. Stripping any individual or group of individuals from their traditional and historic right to ownership of lands and access to water shall only be permissible after conducting consultations or offering compensation to them on a just basis.

Page 46, TITLE 2: CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 8. The Right to Restitution:
8.1. The Parties agree to review and revoke the registration of lands which are proven to have been expropriated or forcibly taken after June 1989.
8.2. The Parties agree to the right of communities and individuals to the restitution of lands taken away due to the conflict in Darfur.
8.3. The right to restitution shall be an individual and collective right. Individuals or communities shall have the right to apply for restoration of their land.
8.4. Local communities shall have an independent right in the claims of restituting lands, in regards to collective property (villages, farms and Hawakeer).
8.5. Claims of restituting individual property and collective property shall not be mutually exclusive according to law.
8.6. Male and female IDPs and refugees, affected by the conflict, shall have the right to restore any houses, lands, or farms that they have been arbitrarily or illegally deprived of, irrespective of their choice to return to their original homes.

Page 47, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 9. Darfur Lands and Hawakeer Commission
9.1. The Parties agree to establish the Darfur Lands and Hawakeer Commission (DLHC) within 60 (sixty days) of the date of signing this agreement to hear and mediate claims of property restitution filed by individuals and communities who lost their lands because of the conflict in Darfur.
9.2. The DLHC’s procedures shall be made available for the public within 6 (six months) from the date of signing this Agreement.
9.3. The Parties shall agree on the organizational and functional structure of the DLHC in accordance with the parameters provided for in the Agreement.
9.4. The DLHC shall develop its own regulations, rules of procedures, and decision-making methods.
9.5. The judicial authority shall establish a special court for the DLHC with the exclusive power to hear appeals of decisions of the DLHC and to register the ownership of lands as decided by the DLHC to any party to the conflict.
9.6. The DLHC shall form local committees for claims, which include local, traditional, and community leaders, including representatives of IDPs, refugees and women, to investigate claims related to compensations and other means of reparations. The committees submit their reports to the DLHC.
9.7. The DLHC shall form a mechanism for fair evaluation for purposes of receiving claims from victims to receive compensation and other means of reparations for harm inflicted due to the conflict.
9.8. Without prejudice to the right to appeal, the decisions and awards of DLHC shall be binding.

Page 47-48, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 10. DLHC Powers and Competencies
10.1.The DLHC shall have the following powers and competencies:
10.1.1.To arbitrate and adjudicate conflicts over rights related to land disputed between the parties to the conflict.
10.1.2.To identify the legitimate owner of disputed land and its value upon submission of a claim. If restitution is not possible for these lands due to their use for the public interest, the claimant shall receive fair compensation for losses or damages.
10.1.3.To undertake all appropriate arrangements to ensure the full and effective participation of IDPs, refugees, local and traditional leaders, women, and all affected individuals of local communities in its procedures, including the investigation of disputed land claims.
10.1.4.To locate and identify sites and establish registers of present and historical uses of land and preserving it.
10.1.5.To assist in registering and issuing land property deeds.
10.1.6.To conduct research regarding land tenure and usage in the geographical area subject to its authority.
10.1.7.The DLHC shall launch and manage a general awareness-raising campaign to inform all individuals, who have property restitution claims arising from the conflicts, of their right to submit claims.
10.1.8.The DLHC shall undertake a regular assessment of the process of implementing land restitution programs and submit publicly-accessible periodic reports.
10.1.9.The DLHC shall address the issue of Sudanese illegally residing on the lands of others in the event of evacuating them, provided that this is conducted in cooperation with relevant parties.
10.1.7.The DLHC shall launch and manage a general awareness-raising campaign to inform all individuals, who have property restitution claims arising from the conflicts, of their right to submit claims.
10.1.8.The DLHC shall undertake a regular assessment of the process of implementing land restitution programs and submit publicly-accessible periodic reports.
10.1.9.The DLHC shall address the issue of Sudanese illegally residing on the lands of others in the event of evacuating them, provided that this is conducted in cooperation with relevant parties.
10.2.The National Lands Commission and DLHC shall cooperate and coordinate their work in terms of:
10.2.1.Sharing information and decisions made by either entity;
10.2.2.Some tasks of the National Lands Commission, including data collection and research, may be assigned to the DLHC;
10.2.3.Settlement of any issues contradictory to the findings or recommendations of either commission.

Page 48, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 11. Funding
11.1.The DLHC shall be funded by the Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund for a period of 10 (ten years) from the date of this Agreement.
11.2.The Parties shall work together to receive assistance from the international community in funding the operations of the DLHC.
11.3.The period during which the Government of Sudan shall provide funding to the DLHC shall not be an indication or identification of the mandated term of DLHC.

Page 92, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 2. FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT FOR THE TWO AREAS OF BLUE NILE AND SOUTH KORDOFAN / NUBA MOUNTAINS, ISSUES OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE FOR THE TWO AREAS, BLUE NILE, Confidence-building measures for implementation
57.3.Establishing a Land Commission for the Two Areas within the National Commission to oversee, monitor, and guarantee the restitution of land that was expropriated without justification to its owners or the awarding of just compensation for it.

Page 93, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 2. FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT FOR THE TWO AREAS OF BLUE NILE AND SOUTH KORDOFAN / NUBA MOUNTAINS, ISSUES OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE FOR THE TWO AREAS, BLUE NILE, Implementation of the framework agreement
65. The Transitional Government shall commit to restore all the confiscated assets of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement in all parts of Sudan in accordance with the provisions of the Juba Declaration signed on 11 September 2019 and renewed until 15 February 2020 (Annex 4).

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:…
10.12.Review the contracts and decisions to award lands and mining projects and [provide] compensations in the Two Areas.

Page 104, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 64. A joint committee shall be established to restitute or compensate, in case of depreciation or damage, private and public property confiscated from SPLM-N-SRF, provided that it starts its work immediately upon signing the Final Peace Agreement and completes its work within a period of no more than three months. The committee shall ensure the restitution of property which is proven to be owned by the SPLM-N-SRF and members thereof, in accordance with law and good faith, without prejudice to this Agreement.

Page 110, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, NATIONAL PROJECTS IN THE STATE/REGION, 98. The population of the Blue Nile shall be compensated for the environmental damage induced by constructing the Roseires Dam and compensation to those afflicted thereof shall be reviewed to redress them with the appropriate compensation.

Page 110, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, NATIONAL PROJECTS IN THE STATE/REGION, 99. Land owners and those afflicted by the building of al-Fulah power plant must be reviewed and compensated.

Page 144, TITLE 5. ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK (POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC) ISSUES, 3. The Government shall commit to creating a mechanism for addressing the issue of lands legally expropriated by virtue of Decision 206 of 2005, Decision 217 of 2006 and allotment Decisions (64 – 65 – 66) as follows:
a. Lands expropriated, but not allotted, shall be subject to a restitution decision to be issued.
b. Lands expropriated and allotted but not reformed or invested shall be subject to a decision to be issued revoking their allotment.
c. Lands that have been expropriated, allotted, and partly invested shall be subject to a decision to be issued to restitute the uninvested parts.
d. Lands that have been expropriated, allotted, and completely or partly invested shall be addressed by engaging local communities to reach solutions.
e. The Government shall commit to engaging local communities in defining the protection zones of villages with maps and clear coordinates. The Government shall also commit to removing investments present within the villages’ protection zones to be determined.
f. Reviewing all decisions of awarding agrarian lands (to individuals, companies, local or foreign legal persons, local or foreign political actors - parties or governments – or local or foreign commissions or institutions) by any federal or state authority since the year 1989.
g. The state/regional law shall determine the timeframe of agricultural investment projects by no more than twenty years renewable to another period based on feasibility studies.

Page 167, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Return the property of organizations and individuals which had been confiscated because of the war, upon proving ownership thereof
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision on property restitution
Reference article: 17.2

Page 199, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: The joint committee to restitute property of SPLM-N-SRF
Timing: Immediately upon signing the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition: The Parties
Location: All over Sudan
Procedures, Method & Criteria:
Reference article: Article 64

Page 201, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Compensate the individuals affected by the Roseires Dam
Timing: After signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan and the state / regional government
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan and the state / regional government
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 98

Page 201, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Compensate the individuals affected by the building of al-Fulah power plant
Timing: In accordance with the provisions of the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan and the state / regional government
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 99

Page 209, TITLE 9, 12. Northern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish specialised organs and commissions that ensure remedying grievances and restitution
Timing: After ratifying the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Sources of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition: Create the specialized organs
Procedures: Issue decisions
Reference / article: Article 14 General Principles
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
Page 12, TITLE 1, 14. National Issues of Particularity: The Parties agree on the importance of addressing the following national issues of particularity:
14.5.Herders, Nomads, and Farmers:
14.5.1.The Parties agree to establish a National Commission for Herders, Nomads, and Farmers within (3) three months of the date of signing the peace agreement by the signatory parties.

Page 23, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, General Principles
3. The Parties agree to develop and improve the nomadic sector by following policies for their development, through opening tracks to solve the issues of conflict between herders and farmers, providing all services, encouraging the animal products manufacturing industry, and opening markets inside and outside Sudan.

Page 23, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, General Principles
9. Environmental conservation policies shall include promoting the production and development of alternative sources of energy, developing the quality and quantity of the pastoral sector, and developing policies that ensure the optimal utilization of lands and water resources and improving research capacities in these fields.

Page 39, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 2. General Principles
2.7. The Parties shall adhere to the following principles and rights of return:
...
2.7.5.The Parties agree that nomadic routes shall be open and secure, in particular during the return of IDPs and refugees to their homes of origin. The Parties shall review the changes of such routes and find alternatives if necessary;

Page 44, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPMENT OF THE NOMADS AND HERDEERS SECTOR IN THE DARFUR REGION PROTOCOL, General Principles
1. Endeavoring to realize a just and comprehensive peace to end the war and address the Sudanese issue and its impact, taking into consideration provisional preferential measures for war-affected and least developed areas as well as most afflicted groups including nomads and shepherds.

Page 44, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPMENT OF THE NOMADS AND HERDEERS SECTOR IN THE DARFUR REGION PROTOCOL, General Principles
2. Safeguarding the rights of nomads, herders, and farmers to use the land and determine routes to prevent tribal friction, achieve stability, preserve agricultural soil and preserving the sustainability and development of natural rangelands.

Page 44, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPMENT OF THE NOMADS AND HERDEERS SECTOR IN THE DARFUR REGION PROTOCOL, General Principles
3. Introducing alternative policies, legislation, institutions, and mechanisms which meet the needs of herders and nomads in the exercise of their right to use land and natural resources.

Page 44, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPMENT OF THE NOMADS AND HERDEERS SECTOR IN THE DARFUR REGION PROTOCOL, General Principles
4. Recognizing the role of community-based management as a long-standing management legacy that played a significant role in the maintenance of civil peace, local dispute resolution, environment conservation, and addressing issues of relations between land owners and beneficiaries thereof.

Page 44, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPMENT OF THE NOMADS AND HERDEERS SECTOR IN THE DARFUR REGION PROTOCOL, General Principles
5. The activity of nomads and herders extends beyond the administrative borders of localities and regions/states, as well as neighboring countries, and as such requires coordination with them and the enactment of flexible laws, legislation, protocols, and administrative systems to accommodate this type of activity.

Page 44, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPMENT OF THE NOMADS AND HERDEERS SECTOR IN THE DARFUR REGION PROTOCOL, General Principles
6. Facilitating and simplifying identification documents for nomads and herders.

Page 44-45, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPMENT OF THE NOMADS AND HERDEERS SECTOR IN THE DARFUR REGION PROTOCOL, 7. The Commission for the Development of the Nomads and Herders Sector
7.1. The Parties agreed to establish a commission for the development of the nomads and herders sector in Darfur region/states within 60 (sixty days) of the date of signing this Agreement to develop and improve the nomad and herders sector, work with local authorities and civil administrations to organize the movement of nomads, open routes and regulate relations between farmers and herders.
7.2. The procedures of the Commission for the Development of the Nomads and Herders Sector in Darfur shall be available for the public within 6 (six months) of the date of signing this Agreement.
7.3. The Parties shall agree on the organizational and functional structure of the Commission for the Development of the Nomads and Herders Sector in Darfur in accordance with the parameters provided for in the Agreement.
7.4. The Commission shall develop its regulations, rules of procedures, and decision-making methods.
7.5. The Commission shall be mandated to develop a strategy for the development and improvement of the nomads and herders sector in Darfur Region/States.
7.6. The Commission may seek the assistance of experts to review, introduce corrective measures, and evaluate projects.
7.7. The Commission shall endeavor to coordinate with other relevant commissions and institutions.
7.8. The assets of all existing commissions and mechanisms in the Darfur Region/States specialized in the nomads and herders sector shall be transferred to the Commission for the Development of the Nomads and Herders Sector in Darfur in accordance with the applicable administrative and legal procedures.

Page 45, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPMENT OF THE NOMADS AND HERDEERS SECTOR IN THE DARFUR REGION PROTOCOL, 8. The Commission shall develop strategies to address the following issues:
8.1. Organization of nomad movement and opening routes to achieve complementarity between agricultural and pastoral activities and organize the relation between farmers and herders in coordination with local authorities and community-based administration.
8.2. Development of livestock by applying technical packages, importing animal breeds to improve species, and adopting quality over quantity standards to save efforts spent on managing large unproductive herds that ruin pastures and destroy the natural environment.
8.3. Establishment of service and production centers along nomad routes (Dumur and Sawani) and paving the way for gradual voluntary settlement.
8.4. Promotion and development of the processing of animal products by building the capacity of producers in dairy and leather industries to develop production and ensure competition in the market.
8.5. Raising awareness of environmental issues in the herder community to curb overgrazing in furtherance of the conservation of the natural environment.
8.6. Spread seeds of grassy vegetation along nomad routes to rebuild the natural environment and provide pastures.
8.7. Provision of veterinary services via mobile units.
8.8. Advancement of the nomad community through education, establishing schools, introducing boarding school systems, and literacy units.
8.9. Development of traditional skills in handcrafting fields such as the wool industry and others.
8.10.Development of positive values in nomad communities by promoting the spirit of solidarity and collecting popular heritage and literature.
8.11.Participation of the nomad community in public affairs by representing them in legislative and executive institutions at all levels of governance.
8.12.Building reservoirs, wells, dams, water stations, and groundwater wells along the routes.
8.13.These strategies shall be implemented during a 10 (ten year) period divided into two extendable phases as follows:
8.13.1.Phase one between 2020-2025
8.13.2.Phase two between 2026-2030
8.14.Projects meetings the objectives of the Commission’s strategies shall be prepared and implemented during the two phases according to priority.
8.15.The Commission for the Development of the Nomads and Herders Sector in Darfur shall be funded by the the Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund for a period of 10 (ten years).

Page 46, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, General Principles
1. Recognizing the traditional rights to the ownership of tribal lands (known as Hawakeer) and the historic rights related to lands and the traditional and customary livestock routes and opportunities to access water.
2. The competent authorities in Darfur (region/ states), in coordination with the federal government and the neighboring regions/states, shall organize the opening of routes across the borders of the Sudanese states, for nomadic shepherds, in order to limit the likelihood of the occurrence of disputes with farmers.

Page 68, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 29. Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.Functions of the Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.12.Preparing the environment for promoting the values of dialogue and peaceful coexistence among tribes and open tracks in areas in which farmers and herders clash;

Page 91-92, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 2: FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT FOR THE TWO AREAS OF BLUE NILE AND SOUTH KORDOFAN / NUBA MOUNTAINS, ISSUES OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE FOR THE TWO AREAS, BLUE NILE, 53. The Parties commit to prioritizing issues of land ownership and land usage in the Blue Nile region / state by:
53.1.Reviewing all contracts, decrees of concessions and allocation of land in the region / state. 53.2.Reviewing customary routes of transhumance, services and homesteading for nomads. 53.3.Securing transhumance routes for nomads and working for their settlement in accordance
with customary laws and norms.

Page 108, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, DEVELOPMENT AND RECONSTRUCTION COMMISSION AND MECHANISM, 87. The Commission for the Development of the Nomad, Herders, and Farmers Sector: sub-commissions of the National Commission for the Development of the Nomads, Herders, and Farmers Commission shall be established with the participation of their respective organizations and relevant governance bodies. The Commission shall assume the duties of reviewing the traditional tracks of shepherds and nomads, inn services, securing the routes of herders and nomads, and seeking to settle them in accordance with the norms, among other duties.

Page 145, TITLE 5, ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK (POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC) ISSUES, 16. The Government shall commit to carrying out the necessary feasibility studies and reviewing past ones to establish economic and service projects in order to achieve balanced development and endeavoring to find the necessary funding to achieve the following:
...
16.7.Endeavoring to repatriate the nomads in the states of the Nile River and the Northern State by providing all basic services and granting them with the ownership of agrarian and residential lands.

Page 166, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish a National Commission for Herders, Nomads, and Farmers
Timing: Within 3 months of signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision establishing the commission
Reference article: 14.5

Page 185, TITLE 9, 6. Darfur Track: Development of Nomads and Herders Sector Implementation Matrix
Activity: Establish a Commission for the Development of Nomads and Herders Sector in Darfur Region/states
Timing: Within 60 days of the date of signing the Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: The Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision to form the commission
Reference/Article: 7.1

Page 186, TITLE 9, 6. Darfur Track: Development of Nomads and Herders Sector Implementation Matrix
Activity: Make the procedures of the Commission for the Development of Nomads and Herders Sector available for the public
Timing: Within 6 months of the date of signing the Agreement and for 10 years
Implementing Party: The Parties
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Inform the public about the commencement the Commission’s operations
Reference/Article: 7.2

Page 186, TITLE 9, 6. Darfur Track: Development of Nomads and Herders Sector Implementation Matrix
Activity: Agree on the organizational and functional structure of the Commission for the Development of Nomads and Herders Sector
Timing: Immediately after the establishment of the Commission
Implementing Party: The Parties
Source of Funding:
Composition: The Parties
Procedures: Develop the organizational and functional structure of the Fund
Reference/Article: 7.3

Page 186, TITLE 9, 6. Darfur Track: Development of Nomads and Herders Sector Implementation Matrix
Activity: Develop the regulations and rules of procedures of the Commission
Timing: Immediately after the establishment of the Commission
Implementing Party: The Federal Government of Sudan and Darfur regional/ states government
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Develop and adopt the regulations and rules of procedures
Reference/Article: 7.4

Page 186, TITLE 9, 6. Darfur Track: Development of Nomads and Herders Sector Implementation Matrix
Activity: Transfer assets of all relevant commissions and mechanisms to the Commission for the Development of Nomads and Herders Sector in Darfur
Timing: Immediately after the establishment of the Commission
Implementing Party: The Federal Government of Sudan and Darfur regional/ states government
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision to transfer assets to the Commission
Reference/Article: 7.8

Page 186, TITLE 9, 6. Darfur Track: Development of Nomads and Herders Sector Implementation Matrix
Activity: Engage the nomad community in public affairs
Timing: After establishing the Commission
Implementing Party: Commission for the Development of Nomads and Herders Sector
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Institute strategies
Reference/Article: 8.11

Page 186, TITLE 9, 6. Darfur Track: Development of Nomads and Herders Sector Implementation Matrix
Activity: Fund the Commission for the Development of Nomads and Herders Sector in Darfur
Timing: After the establishment of the Commission and for a period of 10 years
Implementing Party: Commission for the Development of Nomads and Herders Sector
Source of Funding: The Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund
Composition:
Procedures: Allocate budget
Reference/Article: 8.15

Page 187, TITLE 9, 6. Darfur Track: Development of Nomads and Herders Sector Implementation Matrix
Activity: Coordinate with localities, states/regions and neighboring countries on the activities of herders and nomads
Timing: After establishing the Commission
Implementing Party: The Commission and relevant parties
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Develop laws, regulations, protocols and administrative systems
Reference/Article: 5

Page 200, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish the Commission for the Development of the Nomads, Herders, and Farmers Sector in the state / region
Timing: After establishing of the national commission
Implementing Party: the state / regional government
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan and donors
Composition: the state / regional government
Location: state / region
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 87
Cultural heritage
Tangible
Page 20, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 30. Powers of the Regional Government of Darfur
30.1.The Parties agree that Darfur Region shall have exclusive executive and legislative powers to enable it to implement the Peace Agreement as follows:
...
30.1.25.[To manage/maintain] public libraries, museums, cultural and heritage sites, and other historical sites in the region;

Page 46, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, General Principles
3. The competent authorities shall study, develop, and amend relevant laws to integrate international norms and practices to protect the cultural heritage in Darfur, especially those related to lands and property.

Page 23, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, General Principles
11. Those foundations shall include the sustainable use of non-renewable resources, such as oil, natural gas, and other fossil fuels, in accordance with the interest of the afflicted regions/states and locals in those areas, while taking into consideration best practices for the environment, including the Guidelines for the Conservation of Bio-Diversity and the Principles of Safeguarding Cultural Heritage.

Page 96, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.36.Cultural and heritage sites, museums, libraries, and heritage.
...
9.39.To maintain ancient documents and antiquities and create monuments.

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 11. National Powers: the national government shall assume the following exclusive executive and legislative powers:
11.28.National museums, archeological sites, and national heritage.

Page 142, ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK, (POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC) ISSUES, 14. The protection of antiquities, investigating the crimes of looting and destroying them and restoring the artifacts that have been looted or offered as presents and encouraging tourism.

Page 211, TITLE 9, 12. Northern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Protect antiquities, investigate the crimes of looting and destroying them and restore the artifacts that have been looted or offered as presents and encourage tourism
Timing: Immediately upon ratifying the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Sources of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Issue decisions to form committees
Reference / article: Article 14 (Northern Track Issues)
Intangible
Page 6, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.11.The racial, ethnic, religious, linguistic, and cultural diversity of the Sudanese people is a source of richness for the Sudanese people and, therefore, shall be strengthened, developed, and managed in accordance with the standards that reflect national unity.

Page 7, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.22.Justice, accountability, reconciliation, and transitional justice are critical for ensuring durable peace and security in Sudan. Justice shall be founded on upholding the rule of law, the ratified international human rights conventions, and international humanitarian law, including through mechanisms based on the customs, cultures, and heritage of the Sudanese peoples.
...
1.25.All Sudanese languages shall be considered national languages that should be equally respected, developed, and celebrated.

Page 8-9, TITLE 1, 7. The National Capital:
7.1. The national capital with its three cities shall constitute a symbol of national unity with the rich cultural and social diversity and numerous faiths and traditions they encompass. This requires taking into account the participation of all people of Sudan to manage this great diversity. Therefore, an administration for the national capital shall be established, taking into consideration the fair representation of Sudanese people, provided that the agreed upon Governance Conference shall decide upon it.
7.2. The national capital is a reflection of the Sudanese nation, and as such shall reflect the national character of Sudan with its diversity and values of citizenship without discrimination. It shall also effectively uphold the interests of all Sudanese, especially citizens who have been residing in it before it became a national capital of Sudan.
7.3. To strike a balance between Khartoum’s status as the capital and as a region/state large parts of which suffer from marginalization, the impact of war, displacement, and environmental and service defaults; an economic, social and cultural plan must be developed to promote coexistence, solve the crises of services, infrastructure, the environment, lands, and the organic linkage between the urban and rural areas of the national capital under a development framework that can restore the productive character of the countryside, that does not turn the capital city into an incubator for displacement without resolution of the issues of the countryside, with development and ending the causes of wars and displacement.
7.4. The Parties agree on the importance of effective participation of the residents of Khartoum State in the state-level government agencies, in ministerial and other executive and legislative positions, and in commissions and high administrative positions in institutions of the state of Khartoum.
7.5. To ensure that the administration of the national capital reflects the diversity of Sudan, the Parties agree that the peace process parties shall participate in the institutions of the national capital administration after deciding on its status in the Governance Conference.

Page 95, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.7. To establish and rehabilitate institutes for teaching indigenous languages, culture, heritage, folklore, and antiquities which reflect diversity and work to develop and promote local cultures and provide them with opportunities at the national, regional, and international levels as an integral part of Sudanese cultures that must be celebrated for all their differences and diversity.

Page 104-105, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, DELEGATION OF POWERS, 65. The Parties agreed that when delegating powers, the state/regional government shall observe the following:
65.1.Creation of management principles and standards at the level of the Two Areas which stress the rights of citizenship without discrimination; reflect diversity, the multiple cultures, and respect for all languages; and promote national unity.

Page 135, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, Education and Human Development Issues
18. The Federal Government shall endeavor to promote and celebrate local languages. Competent national institutions shall consider methods to integrate them into national curricula in the framework of the overall policy for other national languages;

Page 145, TITLE 5. ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK (POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC) ISSUES, 15. Recognizing, encouraging and celebrating the Nubian language as one of the national languages, provided that competent national institutions consider ways to integrate the language in the national curricula within the framework of the overall policy of other national languages. The Government shall support the establishment of private educational institutes and institutions to teach the Nubian language.

Page 211, TITLE 9, 12. Northern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Consider ways to integrate the Nubian language in the curricula and establish educational institutes and institutions to teach the Nubian language.
Timing: Immediately upon ratifying the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Sources of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition: Government of Sudan
Procedures: Issue decisions to form a committee to conduct the study
Reference / article: Article 15 (Northern Track Issues)

Page 220, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Cultural diversity
Timing: After ratifying the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan and the state/region government
Composition:
Procedures: 1. Undertake measures and policies for implementation
Reference / article: 30, 31, 32 & 33
Promotion
Page 6, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.11.The racial, ethnic, religious, linguistic, and cultural diversity of the Sudanese people is a source of richness for the Sudanese people and, therefore, shall be strengthened, developed, and managed in accordance with the standards that reflect national unity.

Page 20, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 30. Powers of the Regional Government of Darfur
30.1.The Parties agree that Darfur Region shall have exclusive executive and legislative powers to enable it to implement the Peace Agreement as follows:
...
30.1.26.To develop and promote local languages and cultures;

Page 95, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.8. To establish a mechanism, council, or commission to promote the languages of the Two Areas in particular.
...
9.10. The government of the Two Areas shall have the right to name facilities and institutions in order to celebrate and promote the cultural and historic heritage of the peoples of the Two Areas in a way that promotes national unity and removes all legacies that have led to national discord, and to objectively study our common history, including the era of slave trade in order to remove the cultural and moral effects thereof, to strengthen the bonds of citizenship without discrimination, and to promote national unity.

Page 135, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, Education and Human Development Issues
18. The Federal Government shall endeavor to promote and celebrate local languages. Competent national institutions shall consider methods to integrate them into national curricula in the framework of the overall policy for other national languages;

Page 136, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, Cultural Diversity
30. The Federal Government and the state/region government shall commit to promoting cultural diversity in all of the country’s media institutions and organs;
31. The Parties reaffirm that the diversity of languages, cultures and faiths of the people of Sudan is a source of moral strength and inspiration for the Sudanese people, so it should be protected, respected and developed;
32. The Federal Government shall work in coordination with the state/regional government on holding conferences on the issues of culture, cultural diversity and local heritage;
33. The Federal and state/regional government shall work on developing the capacity and upgrading the skills of the youth;

Page 137, TITLE 4. CHAPTER TWO: THE SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUE, General Principles
39. Wealth of the country includes natural and human resources, historic and cultural heritage and financial and non-financial assets;

Page 145, TITLE 5. ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK (POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC) ISSUES, 14. The protection of antiquities, investigating the crimes of looting and destroying them and restoring the artifacts that have been looted or offered as presents and encouraging tourism.
Other
Page 20, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 30. Powers of the Regional Government of Darfur
30.1.The Parties agree that Darfur Region shall have exclusive executive and legislative powers to enable it to implement the Peace Agreement as follows:
...
30.1.18.[To regulate] cultural affairs within the Region;

Page 21, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 31. Concurrent Powers
31.1.The national federal government and the regional government of Darfur shall have the following executive and legislative powers:
...
31.1.16.Proposing and negotiating international and regional agreements on culture, sports, trade, investments, loans, grants, and technical assistance without prejudice to federal and regional legal systems;

Page 96, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.25.Cultural affairs within the state/region.
Environment
Page 8-9, TITLE 1, 7. The National Capital:
7.1. The national capital with its three cities shall constitute a symbol of national unity with the rich cultural and social diversity and numerous faiths and traditions they encompass. This requires taking into account the participation of all people of Sudan to manage this great diversity. Therefore, an administration for the national capital shall be established, taking into consideration the fair representation of Sudanese people, provided that the agreed upon Governance Conference shall decide upon it.
7.2. The national capital is a reflection of the Sudanese nation, and as such shall reflect the national character of Sudan with its diversity and values of citizenship without discrimination. It shall also effectively uphold the interests of all Sudanese, especially citizens who have been residing in it before it became a national capital of Sudan.
7.3. To strike a balance between Khartoum’s status as the capital and as a region/state large parts of which suffer from marginalization, the impact of war, displacement, and environmental and service defaults; an economic, social and cultural plan must be developed to promote coexistence, solve the crises of services, infrastructure, the environment, lands, and the organic linkage between the urban and rural areas of the national capital under a development framework that can restore the productive character of the countryside, that does not turn the capital city into an incubator for displacement without resolution of the issues of the countryside, with development and ending the causes of wars and displacement.

Page 11, TITLE 1, 14. National Issues of Particularity: The Parties agree on the importance of addressing the following national issues of particularity:
14.2.The Environment:
14.2.1.The Parties agree that the government shall commit to establishing the necessary foundations, policies, laws, and implementation mechanisms for addressing and coordinating the environmental sector in order to protect the environment and preserve its overall sustainable balance; to end environmental degradation; to mitigate conflict over resources; and to seek to address the socioeconomic impacts of environmental degradation, climate change, and all environmental causes of conflict as a key and necessary requirement for peacebuilding, maintaining natural resources, and achieving the sustainable development goals. This requires establishing the principle of sustainable institutional and legal reform and professional reform.

Page 20, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 30. Powers of the Regional Government of Darfur
30.1.The Parties agree that Darfur Region shall have exclusive executive and legislative powers to enable it to implement the Peace Agreement as follows:
...
31.1.3.Police, prisons, wild life, and civil defense;
...
31.1.14.Environmental management, protection, and preservation;

Page 23, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, General Principles
8. Development of enforcement structures and institutions for land management that are legally supported by legislation enacted to promote sustainable development and address environmental degradation.
9. Environmental conservation policies shall include promoting the production and development of alternative sources of energy, developing the quality and quantity of the pastoral sector, and developing policies that ensure the optimal utilization of lands and water resources and improving research capacities in these fields.
10. Development of sound foundations for sharing wealth generated from oil, natural gas, and other natural resources in Sudan and directing them to meet the needs of development and the reconstruction of Sudan’s regions/states in general, while prioritizing the marginalized and war-affected regions/states, and paying special attention to the environment.
11. Those foundations shall include the sustainable use of non-renewable resources, such as oil, natural gas, and other fossil fuels, in accordance with the interest of the afflicted regions/states and locals in those areas, while taking into consideration best practices for the environment, including the Guidelines for the Conservation of Bio-Diversity and the Principles of Safeguarding Cultural Heritage.

Page 27, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, 23. Management of Natural Resources
23.1.The regions/states shall be a genuine partner with the federal government in managing natural resources extracted from their lands throughout all the phases of allotment, awarding, contracting, production, and marketing. The regions/states shall hold primary responsibility for the preservation of their environment and shall be entitled to impose conditions to ensure its environmental integrity and that extraction processes do not encroach on the health of citizens.
...
23.4.The federal government and governments of the regions/states shall identify natural resources, the manner and timing of their utilization, issuance of excavation and extraction licenses, negotiation of sales contracts and revenue-sharing with the investing firms, withdrawal of licenses and revocation of contracts, planning of the overall resource development, ensuring workers’ health and safety, and environment protection.

Page 37, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 11. Rights Related to Compensation, Restitution and Reparations
11.7.Individuals and communities have the right to pursue compensation for environmental damages, land degradation, or the damage of property resulting from the conflict, including environmental damages or deterioration resulting from displacement and neglect.

Page 44, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPMENT OF THE NOMADS AND HERDEERS SECTOR IN THE DARFUR REGION PROTOCOL, General Principles
4. Recognizing the role of community-based management as a long-standing management legacy that played a significant role in the maintenance of civil peace, local dispute resolution, environment conservation, and addressing issues of relations between land owners and beneficiaries thereof.

Page 45, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPMENT OF THE NOMADS AND HERDEERS SECTOR IN THE DARFUR REGION PROTOCOL, 8. The Commission shall develop strategies to address the following issues:
8.2. Development of livestock by applying technical packages, importing animal breeds to improve species, and adopting quality over quantity standards to save efforts spent on managing large unproductive herds that ruin pastures and destroy the natural environment.
...
8.5. Raising awareness of environmental issues in the herder community to curb overgrazing in furtherance of the conservation of the natural environment.
8.6. Spread seeds of grassy vegetation along nomad routes to rebuild the natural environment and provide pastures.

Page 91-92, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 2: FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT FOR THE TWO AREAS OF BLUE NILE AND SOUTH KORDOFAN / NUBA MOUNTAINS, ISSUES OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE FOR THE TWO AREAS, BLUE NILE, 50. The Parties commit to ensuring that the administration and management of the natural resources of Blue Nile shall be under the authority of the federal government and the Blue Nile regional / state government and all the revenues generated from natural resources should be distributed between the regional / state government and the central government in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement and with the following requirements:
50.1.A certain percentage of the revenues from the Roseires Dam and other revenues from natural resources present in the area shall be allocated for the development of the region / state.
50.2.The Parties agree that the transitional government of Sudan shall return all the lands that were taken away from the administrative authority of the Blue Nile region / state, in particular the Northwest triangle of Eastern Agadi and the Dinder National Park in a way that protects the interests of humans, fauna and flora, and biodiversity, natural resources of the park once it is proven it belongs to the Blue Nile region / state.
51. The Parties commit to prioritizing the reconstruction and rehabilitation of the Blue Nile region / state economically and developmentally by:
51.1.Building irrigation schemes using water of the Roseires dam for agricultural projects in the region / state.
51.2.Providing access to electricity for the local population of Blue Nile region/state at low prices.
51.3.Providing compensation for those who were negatively affected by the construction and heightening of the Roseires Dam in the Blue Nile region / state.
52. The Parties need to rectify the historic lack of representation of the residents of the Blue Nile region / state in the governance structure of Sudan through positive discrimination in the federal government and national civil service.
53. The Parties commit to prioritizing issues of land ownership and land usage in the Blue Nile region / state by:
53.1.Reviewing all contracts, decrees of concessions and allocation of land in the region / state. 53.2.Reviewing customary routes of transhumance, services and homesteading for nomads. 53.3.Securing transhumance routes for nomads and working for their settlement in accordance with customary laws and norms.
53.4.Reviewing contracts and mining concessions in the Blue Nile region / state, particularly those for chrome, gold and asbestos, and remedying the shortcomings in contracts, their environmental impact, the compensation and rights of the region / state, as stipulated in the provisions of resource-sharing for the Two Areas.

Page 96, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.34.To develop and maintain an environmental policy that is appropriate for the state/region, while observing international standards, in coordination with the competent national bodies and the department of environment and environmental conservation.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:
10.1.Powers and competencies of police, prisons, wildlife, civil defense, and customs at the level of the Two Areas.

Page 108, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, DEVELOPMENT AND RECONSTRUCTION COMMISSION AND MECHANISM, 84. Land Commission:
84.2.9.Review investment projects in the state/region by conducting technical, economic and environmental feasibility studies.
84.2.10.Review mining contracts and projects in the state/region and address the shortcomings in contracts, environmental impacts, compensation, and the rights of the state/region as provided for in the Two Areas’ resource-sharing provisions.

Page 109, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, DEVELOPMENT AND RECONSTRUCTION COMMISSION AND MECHANISM, 92. The Parties agree to establish a joint committee to regulate, oversee, and monitor the activities of mining, petroleum, and the use of underground resources in the Two Areas and address the environmental and social impacts of such activities, in accordance with national policies and the wealth sharing provisions of this Agreement, while observing the principles of transparency, inclusivity, and participation.
93. Policies and implementation mechanisms shall be established to care for the environment, stop environmental degradation, minimize conflicts over resources, and remedy the impact of policies of past governments that led to environmental degradation and climate change in Sudan.
94. Infrastructure and developmental structures shall be improved and the necessary funding and modern technology shall be secured to enable farmers and herders to overcome the impacts of climate change and secure decent livelihoods.
95. The Parties commit to taking environment and climate change issues into consideration in all policies, plans, programs, and projects necessary for implementation in the final peace process and building sustainable peace.

Page 110, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, NATIONAL PROJECTS IN THE STATE/REGION, 98. The population of the Blue Nile shall be compensated for the environmental damage induced by constructing the Roseires Dam and compensation to those afflicted thereof shall be reviewed to redress them with the appropriate compensation.

Page 135, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, Health Issues
27. The Government shall commit to conducting an integrated study on the environmental and health impacts resulting from the use of asbestos in houses’ roofs and water networks in New Halfa area and introducing the necessary remedies;

Page 137, TITLE 4. CHAPTER TWO: THE SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUE, 45. The Parties shall commit to working together to maintain a clean and healthy natural environment;

Page 145, TITLE 5. ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK (POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC) ISSUES, 8. Creating a specialized technical committee for investigating and verifying the burial of atomic and electronic waste, with technical support from the International Atomic Energy Agency and the guidance and help of local communities in the two states/northern region.

Page 146, TITLE 5. ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK (POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC) ISSUES, 17. Regulating and controlling mining and addressing its issues and adverse impacts. Enacting a law preventing the use of materials harmful to the environment such as cyanide and mercury.
18. Studying and addressing the negative impacts of the Merowe Dam, including:
18.1.Creating a specialized technical committee to study the problem of flooded areas at a long radius around the lake of the dam, where dangerous marine phenomena started to emerge, such as a rise in the level of underground water to be found at depths that range from 60 centimeters to 3 meters at most in those areas which led to the collapse of over 2000 houses and declaring the area a disaster-stricken area, such as al-Suwikat area.
18.2.Creating a specialized technical committee to review the technical feasibility of Merowe Dam, risks resulting therefrom and risks anticipated due to the rising level of underground water and earthquakes to reach a decision about keeping the dam.
18.3.Creating a committee from both Parties to estimate damages and estimate and pay compensations for the afflicted people, to avoid the anticipated adverse effects and prepare early precautions for the anticipated catastrophic consequences and defining places for future displacement within the state.

Page 146, TITLE 5. ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK (POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC) ISSUES, 20. Addressing the problems of desertification and the environment and their impact on agrarian and residential lands and the Nile riverbed.
21. Creating an independent and specialized committee to investigate the incidents of burning palm trees, bringing perpetrators to justice and endeavoring to preserve the country’s wealth of palm trees.
...
23. Evaluating cement factories and ensuring their conformity to international specifications, observance of environmental safety requirements and obliging them to undertake their duty of social responsibility

Page 150, TITLE 6. 3. Development, Services, and Revenues
The Government of Sudan shall commit to the following:
3.2. Establish specialized centers to combat epidemics and endemic diseases in hot areas, as well as maternity and children’s centers.

Page 166, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Introduce the necessary policies and laws and establish implementation mechanisms for protecting the environment and preserving its balance
Timing: Continues after signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue decisions to establish mechanisms and adopt policies to protect the environment
Reference article: 14.2.1

Page 201, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Introduce policies and establish implementation mechanisms to care for environmental issues
Timing: After signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan and the state / regional government
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition: Government of Sudan and the state / regional government
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Articles 93 to 95

Page 204, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Address adverse side effects of oil excavation and gold mining activities
Timing: After forming the state / regional government
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan and the state / regional government
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan and the State / Regional Government
Composition:
Location: the Two Areas
Procedures, Method & Criteria:
Reference article: Article 48.3

Page 209, TITLE 9, 12. Northern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Address land, dams and environmental issues and provide reparations
Timing: Immediately upon ratifying the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan and local communities
Sources of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition: The mechanisms
Procedures: Issue decisions and establish mechanisms
Reference / article: Article 17 General Principles , Article 3 and sub-paragraphs (Northern Track Issues)

Page 210, TITLE 9, 12. Northern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Form a specialized technical committee to investigate and verify the burial of atomic and electronic waste
Timing: Immediately upon ratifying the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Sources of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition: With the help of International Atomic Energy Agency and local communities
Procedures: Issue the decision to form the technical committee
Reference / article: Article 8 (Northern Track Issues)

Page 211, TITLE 9, 12. Northern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Regulate and control mining and address its adverse impacts
Timing: After ratifying the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Sources of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition: Government of Sudan
Procedures: Enact the necessary laws
Reference / article: Article 17 and its subparagraphs (Northern Track Issues)

Page 212, TITLE 9, 12. Northern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Address the negative impacts of Merowe Dam
Timing: After ratifying the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Sources of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition: Government of Sudan and the Parties
Procedures: Issue decisions to form the committees
Reference / article: Article 18 and its subparagraphs (Northern Track Issues)
Water or riparian rights or access
Page 21, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 31. Concurrent Powers
31.1.The national federal government and the regional government of Darfur shall have the following executive and legislative powers:
...
31.1.11.Electricity generation and water and waste management;
...
31.1.23.Water resources except those belonging jointly to regions;

Page 23, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 2: WEALTH SHARING PROTOCOL, General Principles
9. Environmental conservation policies shall include promoting the production and development of alternative sources of energy, developing the quality and quantity of the pastoral sector, and developing policies that ensure the optimal utilization of lands and water resources and improving research capacities in these fields.

Page 37, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 11. Rights Related to Compensation, Restitution and Reparations
11.9.No individual or group may be stripped of the traditional and historic right in land ownership or access to water, unless consulted or provided with fair compensation.

Page 41, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL
4. Suitable Conditions for Return
4.1. With the assistance of the concerned international and domestic institutions, the Parties agree to create the political, economic, social, and security conditions conducive to the voluntary return and acceptable reintegration of IDPs and refugees, without giving preference to any particular group. These conditions shall include, but not be limited to:
...
4.1.8.Guaranteed subsistence for all returnees, especially food, potable water, and health supplies;

Page 46, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, General Principles
1. Recognizing the traditional rights to the ownership of tribal lands (known as Hawakeer) and the historic rights related to lands and the traditional and customary livestock routes and opportunities to access water.

Page 75, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 33. Reform, Development, and Modernization of the Military Establishment and Other Security Services
33.5.The Parties agree on the following:
33.5.10.To undertake logistic preparation of operation fields including constructing roads, airports, heliports, marine bases, defense sites, command and control centers, and water and power sources among other things;

Page 91-92, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 2: FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT FOR THE TWO AREAS OF BLUE NILE AND SOUTH KORDOFAN / NUBA MOUNTAINS, ISSUES OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE FOR THE TWO AREAS, BLUE NILE, 50. The Parties commit to ensuring that the administration and management of the natural resources of Blue Nile shall be under the authority of the federal government and the Blue Nile regional / state government and all the revenues generated from natural resources should be distributed between the regional / state government and the central government in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement and with the following requirements:
50.1.A certain percentage of the revenues from the Roseires Dam and other revenues from natural resources present in the area shall be allocated for the development of the region / state.
50.2.The Parties agree that the transitional government of Sudan shall return all the lands that were taken away from the administrative authority of the Blue Nile region / state, in particular the Northwest triangle of Eastern Agadi and the Dinder National Park in a way that protects the interests of humans, fauna and flora, and biodiversity, natural resources of the park once it is proven it belongs to the Blue Nile region / state.
51. The Parties commit to prioritizing the reconstruction and rehabilitation of the Blue Nile region / state economically and developmentally by:
51.1.Building irrigation schemes using water of the Roseires dam for agricultural projects in the region / state.
51.2.Providing access to electricity for the local population of Blue Nile region/state at low prices.
51.3.Providing compensation for those who were negatively affected by the construction and heightening of the Roseires Dam in the Blue Nile region / state.
52. The Parties need to rectify the historic lack of representation of the residents of the Blue Nile region / state in the governance structure of Sudan through positive discrimination in the federal government and national civil service.
53. The Parties commit to prioritizing issues of land ownership and land usage in the Blue Nile region / state by:
53.1.Reviewing all contracts, decrees of concessions and allocation of land in the region / state. 53.2.Reviewing customary routes of transhumance, services and homesteading for nomads.
53.3.Securing transhumance routes for nomads and working for their settlement in accordance with customary laws and norms.
53.4.Reviewing contracts and mining concessions in the Blue Nile region / state, particularly those for chrome, gold and asbestos, and remedying the shortcomings in contracts, their environmental impact, the compensation and rights of the region / state, as stipulated in the provisions of resource-sharing for the Two Areas.

Page 96, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.38.[To manage] irrigation and establish water harvesting projects for the state/region.

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:…
10.17.Transboundary water resources of the state/region.

Page 99, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 11. National Powers: the national government shall assume the following exclusive executive and legislative powers:
11.30.Managing the Nile waters and cross-border waters.

Page 110, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, NATIONAL PROJECTS IN THE STATE/REGION, 98. The population of the Blue Nile shall be compensated for the environmental damage induced by constructing the Roseires Dam and compensation to those afflicted thereof shall be reviewed to redress them with the appropriate compensation.

Page 138, TITLE 4, CHAPTER TWO: THE SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUE, Developing and Managing Natural Resources and Infrastructure
50. The Federal Government shall work on achieving the balanced, integrated and sustainable development goals in coastal areas of historic, economic and national importance and the fisheries and marine resources thereof and ensuring their protection and development;
51. The government shall work on reviewing financing policies for specialized banks, especially in the domain of agriculture;
52. In the context of positive discrimination, the government shall build internal paved roads which constitute an important piece of infrastructure for the desired development in Port Sudan, Kassala and Al-Qadarif, in addition to airports and heliports;
53. Paying attention to tourism in the region as an important resource for the economy by improving the necessary infrastructure and reviewing investment laws;
54. Addressing the problems of electricity in the state/region and improving the sources of energy by introducing sources of alternative energy and linking rural areas on the red sea, Kassala and al-Qadarif with the national grid.
55. The Government shall commit to addressing the problem of water in Port Sudan definitively from the Nile and al-Qadarif through Setit Dam and Kassala water harvesting projects;

Page 139, TITLE 4, CHAPTER TWO: THE SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUE Issues of Lands, Dams and Displaced Persons
64. Creating a committee for revising the contracts of building the dams of upper Atbara River and Setit.

Page 147, TITLE 5. ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK (POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC) ISSUES, 34. Providing communication services. The Sudanese state shall commit to providing pure drinking water for the displaced persons of Amri.

Page 227, TITLE 10. (A): JUBA DECLARATION FOR TRUST-BUILDING MEASURES AND PRE-NEGOTIATION PRINCIPLES
C- The Government delegation has agreed to implement the following:
2- Review of decisions issued in relation to dam lands and decision No. 206 on lands granted to investors in the Northern State.

Page 201, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Compensate the individuals affected by the Roseires Dam
Timing: After signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan and the state / regional government
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan and the state / regional government
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 98

Page 202, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish Irrigated agriculture projects within the state / region of Blue Nile
Timing: After signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan and the state / regional government
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition: Government of Sudan and the state / regional government
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 101

Page 209, TITLE 9, 12. Northern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Address land, dams and environmental issues and provide reparations
Timing: Immediately upon ratifying the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan and local communities
Sources of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition: The mechanisms
Procedures: Issue decisions and establish mechanisms
Reference / article: Article 17 General Principles , Article 3 and sub-paragraphs (Northern Track Issues)

Page 210, TITLE 9, 12. Northern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: form a committee to study the request to cancel the construction of (Dal, Kajbar and al-Shereyk) dams
Timing: Immediately upon ratifying the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Sources of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition: The Parties and local communities
Procedures: Issue the decision to form the committee
Reference / article: Article 4 (Northern Track Issues)

Page 210, TITLE 9, 12. Northern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Implement the unimplemented obligations of the Nile Waters and the High Dam agreements
Timing: To begin after ratifying ratifying the peace agreement and end before the end of the transitional period
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Sources of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition: Government of Sudan and Stakeholders
Procedures: Review the work of past committees and conduct the necessary studies
Reference / article: Article 9 (Northern Track Issues)

Page 211, TITLE 9, 12. Northern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Work to allocate a share of the revenue of Merowe Dam
Timing: After ratifying the peace agreement
Implementing Party: The Parties
Sources of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Issue law for sharing, allocating, and monitoring financial revenue
Reference / article: Article 12 (Northern Track Issues)

Page 212, TITLE 9, 12. Northern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Address the negative impacts of Merowe Dam
Timing: After ratifying the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Sources of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition: Government of Sudan and the Parties
Procedures: Issue decisions to form the committees
Reference / article: Article 18 and its subparagraphs (Northern Track Issues)

Page 212, TITLE 9, 12. Northern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Address the problems of desertification and the environment and their impact on agrarian and residential lands and the Nile riverbed
Timing: After ratifying the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan and local and international environmental organisations
Sources of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition: Government of Sudan and the Parties
Procedures: Issue decisions to form committees composed of the Parties
Reference / article: Article 20 (Northern Track Issues)

Page 221, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Address water problems in the states/region of Eastern Sudan
Timing: After ratifying the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan and the state/regional government
Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Institute policies and studies and make decisions
Reference / article: 54

Page 222, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Issues of lands, dams and displaced personsTiming: After ratifying the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party:
Funding:
Composition: the Parties
Procedures: -Address border issues with Ethiopia and conclude the issue of Halayeb
- Issue a decision creating a regional land commission
- Issue a decision to review land settlement and registration laws
- Issue a decision creating an investigation committee regarding displaced persons
- Issue a decision to revise investment contracts
- Issue a decision to form a committee to revise the contracts of Upper Atbara and Setit
- Issue a decision to address the situation of displaced persons
Reference / article: 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62 and 63

Security sector

Security Guarantees
Page 40, Title 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 4. Suitable Conditions for Return
4.1. With the assistance of the concerned international and domestic institutions, the Parties agree to create the political, economic, social, and security conditions conducive to the voluntary return and acceptable reintegration of IDPs and refugees, without giving preference to any particular group. These conditions shall include, but not be limited to:
4.1.1.Security and safety of IDPs and refugees and being free from the risk of harassment, intimidation, persecution or discrimination, both during and after voluntary return, local integration, or resettlement;
...
4.1.3.Demining of areas of return and access routes to markets, schools, health services, sanitation, and any other place;

Page 49, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, Preamble
MOTIVATED by our deep awareness of the urgent need for final security arrangements that address the root causes of war and build a rapid plan of action to address the humanitarian crisis in Sudan in general and in Darfur in particular and to provide for the necessary relief and aid, rehabilitate, save, protect, and voluntarily resettle IDPs and refugees.

Page 50, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 7. Purpose and Objectives.
7.1. The purpose of this agreement is to be a single comprehensive agreement for all security issues and arrangements for the Darfur Track, including the following matters:
7.1.1.Continuation of the Cessation of Hostilities for Humanitarian Purposes;
7.1.2.Permanent ceasefire;
7.1.3.DDR;
7.1.4.Final security arrangements;
7.1.5.Reform, development, and modernization of the security sector.
...
7.2.3.To reach a negotiated and comprehensive agreement on security arrangements and sector reforms that are conducive to new final security arrangements in Sudan, in furtherance of durable peace and political transition.
7.2.4.To reform, develop, and modernize the Sudanese military establishment and other security institutions, and to construct a new unified military doctrine in order to improve their capacities, effectiveness, impartiality and professionalism and ensure that their sizes and structures reflect the needs and interests of the Sudanese state and people;
7.2.5.The security arrangements agreement is closely linked with the implementation of the political agreement.

Page 50, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 9.Guiding principles for the final security arrangements, reform, development and modernization of security sector.
9.1. Continuation of the Cessation of Hostilities for Humanitarian Purposes is a necessary step for building confidence, confirming the Parties’ commitment to pursue a peaceful resolution of the conflicts in Sudan, and continuing and completing negotiations for peace and permanent security arrangements as part of Sudan’s political transition;
9.2. The Parties shall remain continuously committed to addressing the humanitarian situation in Darfur as a critical and necessary element of the effort to move forward with final security arrangements and security sector reform and development as part of the broader reforms within the Sudanese peace process;
9.3. All agreements on and arrangements for the cessation of hostilities or permanent ceasefire, or for security arrangements and all other reforms shall also serve to facilitate or ensure safe, immediate, and unhindered humanitarian access;
9.4. The Parties shall create appropriate security conditions for the unimpeded flow of humanitarian assistance and goods;
9.5. The Parties agree that achieving a permanent ceasefire through negotiations will result in final security arrangements and reforms, development, and modernization of the military institution and other security services/security sector, and achievement of a durable peace and political transition in Sudan;
9.6. Establishing security forces and a single national army trusted by the local communities across Sudan, especially in the conflict areas, is a key element to establishing peace, security, and sustainable development in Sudan;
9.7. The Parties agree to reform, develop, and modernize the military establishment and other security services/the security sector, provided that there are short and long-term reforms in furtherance of the objectives and provisions of this agreement, supporting the establishment of a permanent, professional, and independent system to improve their capacity, effectiveness, impartiality, inclusiveness, and professionalism, as well as to strengthen the rule of law in Sudan in accordance with international law and best practices and to establish armed forces that represent the diversity of Sudan and are capable of defending Sudan against foreign enemies and maintaining the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Sudan;
9.8. The comprehensive long-term security reforms shall particularly focus on ensuring that the Sudanese armed forces and other security institutions are not loyal to any single party, group, tribe, or region but instead owe allegiance to the state of Sudan.
9.9. The Parties shall engage in a transparent and internationally supervised program for the disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of forces that will eventually lead to the reintegration of combatants and fighters who have not been included in the integration program;
9.10.The Parties shall ensure representation of women in structures of the military institution and other security services/security sector and in related decision-making entities, as well as in the reform, development, and modernization of the military establishment and other security services/the security sector.
9.11.The Parties shall work together to request from the international community technical, material, and financial assistance necessary for successful implementation of the Cessation of Hostilities for Humanitarian Purposes, a permanent ceasefire, DDR, and peacebuilding;
9.12.For purposes of this agreement, the military establishment and security services/the security sector in Sudan shall mean the following:
9.12.1.“The military establishment” including the Sudanese Armed Forces and the Rapid Support Forces;
9.12.2.The unified Sudanese police forces;
9.12.3.The General Intelligence Service;
9.13.The Parties commit to promoting geographic and social diversity and employing equal opportunity policies in the membership of the Armed Forces and other security services within the security sector, while applying the principle of positive discrimination in favor of war-affected areas;
10. Phases of the Final Security Arrangements.
10.1.Phase One: continuation of the Cessation of Hostilities for Humanitarian Purposes, leading to a permanent ceasefire agreement;
10.2.Phase Two: implementation of the permanent ceasefire agreement and other comprehensive security arrangements and implementation of the program of integration in the military establishment institution and other security services;
10.3.Phase Three: implementation of the DDR program;
10.4.Phase Four: implementation of the reform, development, and modernization plan for the military establishment institution and security services (security sector).

Page 53-54, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 14. General Provisions and Principles of the Permanent Ceasefire
14.4.The permanent ceasefire agreement must ensure freedom of mobility for people, particularly civilians, commodities, and services across Sudan as well as opening border crossings with neighboring countries in accordance with the agreements signed with them and the necessary security measures;
...
14. General Provisions and Principles of the Permanent Ceasefire
14.11.To reach a credible ceasefire that promotes security and builds confidence, these processes shall be undertaken mutually, in incremental steps, and with appropriate security guarantees;
...
14.17.The Government of Sudan shall be committed to combating unregulated armed elements.

Page 54, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 17. Permissible Acts
17.1.1.Demining and elimination of military threats must be undertaken in cooperation with, and agreement between, the Parties based on agreed timetables and mechanisms and with the participation of a third party, the Mediation, the United Nations, and guarantors of this agreement;

Page 59, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 25. Command and Control Mechanisms
25.5.The Joint High Military Committee for Security Arrangements.
25.5.1.Immediately upon signing this agreement, the Parties shall create the Joint High Military Committee for Security Arrangements;
25.5.2.Functions of the Joint High Military Committee for Security Arrangements.
25.5.2.1.To supervise, monitor, and verify the implementation of the agreement. It shall serve as the main mechanism for decision-making and disputes resolution;
25.5.2.2.To urge the Parties to rise to the level of their commitments pursuant to the agreement;
25.5.2.3.To brief the Parties on the latest progress achieved in terms of the implementation of the agreement;
25.5.2.4.To coordinate with other relevant domestic and international parties;
25.5.2.5.To receive complaints from the third party, resolve disputes arising from the violations of the ceasefire based on the reports of the Ceasefire Committee, refer issues that could not be resolved to the Joint High Council for Implementing the Final Peace Agreement;
25.5.2.6.To take measures to address violations;
25.5.2.7.To encourage confidence building between the Parties and briefing the IGAD, the AU and the UN on the ceasefire implementation as necessary;
25.5.2.8.To take committee decisions by consensus;
25.5.2.9.The committee shall be headquartered in Khartoum and it shall have bylaws to regulate its actions;
25.5.2.10.To take note and make decisions on all reports provided or submitted by the Ceasefire Committee and the Humanitarian Committee;
25.5.2.11.To assist the containment and classification committees and the technical reintegration committees;
25.5.2.12.To submit a status report on the implementation of and compliance with the agreement directly to the Joint High Council.
25.5.2.13.To exercise command and control over mechanisms and security arrangements committees.
25.5.2.14.To supervise the reintegration of the forces of the armed struggle movements/ Darfur Track into the Armed Forces, the Rapid Support Forces, the unified police forces, and the General Intelligence Service in accordance with the criteria agreed upon with the benefit of past experiences.
25.5.2.15.To undertake any other relevant functions.

Page 62, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration
26.1.The Parties agree to integrate the forces of the signatory armed struggle movements in the military establishment and security services;
...
26.5.The Parties agree to keep the integrated forces of the armed struggle movements in Darfur for a period of (40) forty months from the date of the signing of this agreement, which may be extended if deemed necessary for security and humanitarian reasons in the region. After this period, the forces shall be deployed according to the strategic deployment plan of the Armed Forces.
...
26.7.The Parties agree to establish a Joint High Council chaired by the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, with the membership of the commander of Rapid Support Forces, Minister of Defense, Minister of the Interior, the Chief of Staff, the Director General of the Police, Director General of the General Intelligence Service, head of the Military Intelligence Authority and heads of the armed struggle movements for supervision, monitoring, evaluation, and follow up on the implementation of integrating the forces of the armed struggle movements and evaluating the security and humanitarian situation in Darfur. The Joint High Council shall hold periodic meetings. It shall, among other functions, form a mechanism to address the issue of war prisoners and missing persons of both Parties.

Page 63, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration
26.14.3.Military training shall take place in the training centers of the Armed Forces and security forces in accordance with the specified period (which shall not be less than four months), in accordance with the agreed upon timelines and the training centers;
26.14.4.After completing basic military training, graduates shall be integrated into the formations and units of the Sudanese Armed Forces and security forces according to the agreed upon principles, criteria, and timelines;
26.14.5.All procedures of Assembly, quartering, inventory, classification, weapons storage, training, and integration of combatants shall be implemented in accordance with the specified timetable;
26.14.6.The Parties shall agree on a schedule for the timelines of every activity to be undertaken in each phase of the Darfur Track security arrangements.

Page 65, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 27. The Police
27.9.The Joint Police Technical Committee shall submit its recommendations to the Joint High Committee for Security Arrangements for approval and adoption and submission thereof to the Joint High Council.

Page 66, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 27. The Police
27.13.3.Undertake all internal security operations, including securing strategic and vital facilities and protecting important persons;

Page 67, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 28. The General Intelligence Service
28.7.The General Intelligence Service shall have the following competencies:
28.7.1.Preserve the national security of Sudan, protect its constitution, social fabric, and the safety of its citizens from any threat, in coordination with other regular forces; 28.7.2.Collect, analyze, and evaluate information related to the security of Sudan and recommend taking the necessary precautionary measures;
28.7.3.Undertake the necessary search and investigation to reveal any conditions, facts, activities, or elements that may infringe upon the national security and safety of Sudan, in accordance with the provisions of the law;
28.7.4.Provide opinions, advice, consultation, and services in the areas of security and intelligence to the different state apparatuses, so as to ensure the safety and security of the state;
...
28.7.7.Cooperate with counterpart or friendly agencies in exchanging information and countering terrorism or acts that threaten common order and security or any matter related to foreign security;
...
29.5.Functions of the Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.1.Undertaking the constitutional, moral, and political responsibility of the Government of Sudan in protecting civilians;
29.5.2.Filling the potential security vacuum after the departure of the UNAMID forces;
29.5.3.Contribution of the armed struggle movements in maintaining security and building the trust of civilians;
29.5.4.Supporting civil defense in cases of environmental emergencies and natural disasters;
29.5.5.Collecting arms and regulating non-licensed vehicles;
29.5.6.Contributing to the combat of organized crime;
29.5.7.Protecting and helping civilians, abiding by international humanitarian law and international human rights law to end violence threatening life and individuals;
29.5.8.Deploying police forces to secure villages for voluntary return, IDP camps, confirming their civil status, working to disengage parties to tribal conflicts, securing IDP camps in coordination with the management thereof, and preventing recruitment, especially among children;
29.5.9.Creating an appropriate environment for humanitarian action in areas of return for IDPs and refugees by facilitating and protecting access to national, foreign, governmental, and non-governmental aid organizations;
29.5.10.Supporting and deploying military and police cadres capable of rapid response and deterrence;
29.5.11.Helping to secure a protective environment for civilians through the protection of general prosecution offices, branch police stations, motor and on-foot police patrols, and humanitarian aid convoys;
29.5.12.Preparing the environment for promoting the values of dialogue and peaceful coexistence among tribes and open tracks in areas in which farmers and herders clash;
29.5.13.Providing security for the return of IDPs and refugees and providing security and protection in their areas of return;
29.5.14.Maintaining security and stability in Darfur.
29.6.The security keeping force in Darfur shall operate for a renewable period of 24 months.
29.7.The security keeping force in Darfur shall be treated equally in the administrative and logistical aspects, as part of the military establishment and security services.
29.8.The command within the security keeping force in Darfur shall be based on military seniority;
29.9.The security keeping force command in Darfur shall submit its reports to the Joint High Council;
29.10.Command of the security keeping force in Darfur shall be headquartered in al-Fashir and it shall be responsible for command and control over the security keeping force in Darfur.
29.11.Tasks of the Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.11.1.Coordinating between the Security Keeping Force in Darfur, the security committees of Darfur states, and the Ceasefire Committee;
29.11.2.Command and control over the security keeping force in Darfur in a sector-based manner in the Darfur region/states;
29.11.3.Issuing orders and directions to the Force;
29.11.4.Providing the necessary technical and logistical support;
29.11.5.Any other relevant functions.

Page 89, TITLE 3, CHAPTER 2: FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT FOR THE TWO AREAS OF BLUE NILE AND SOUTH KORDOFAN / NUBA MOUNTAINS, ISSUES OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE FOR THE TWO AREAS, BLUE NILE, Confidence-building measures for implementation
57. The Parties commit to immediate implementation of confidence-building measures, including the following:
57.5. Achieving detailed political and security arrangements for the Two Areas that ensures the fair and effective representation of the Two Areas.

Page 111-12, TITLE 3, CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Permanent Ceasefire Arrangements
General Principles:
5. The Parties agree that after achieving final peace and completing the security arrangements (integration and DDR), the military institution and security services shall be restructured as part of a plan to reform and restructure state institutions in accordance with the Constitutional Charter and the Final Peace Agreement.
6. The final and sustainable peace process requires comprehensive security arrangements in Sudan and in the Two Areas to achieve peace, democracy and stability in Sudan.
...
12. The Parties agree upon the procedures required to be undertaken to support the implementation of the objectives and provisions of the security arrangements agreement.
...
14. Security arrangements are closely linked to the implementation of the political agreement.

Page 164, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 20. Prohibited Acts
20.13. Bias alignment of any member of the signatory Parties towards their respective tribes, in the event of a tribal conflict.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
Pages 111-119, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE'S LIBERATION MOVEMENT - NORTH/ THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Permanent Ceasefire Arrangements
[This section in its entirety is ceasefire provision].

Page 154, TITLE 7. Preamble
Willing to implement a comprehensive ceasefire and the processes of disarmament, demobilization, reintegration, and integration of the forces the Third Front - Tamazuj into the Sudanese military establishment.

Page 152, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, Objectives of the Agreement
7. This agreement aims to serve as a framework conducive to a permanent ceasefire and the integration of forces of the Third Front-Tamazuj into the Sudanese military establishment and other security services, to ultimately reach a just, comprehensive, and durable peace in Sudan.

Page 152, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, Entry into Force and Duration of the Agreement
12. This agreement shall enter into force and become valid and binding for the Parties as of the date of its signing.
13. This agreement shall continue to be valid until the completion of the reintegration process and the integration of Third Front-Tamazuj members who are deemed fit for service into the Sudanese military establishment. Afterwards the Third Front-Tamazuj forces shall be integral part of the military establishment and regular services pursuant to the Agreement.

Page 152, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 14. Identification of The Parties
14.1. The Parties to this agreement are:
14.2. The Transitional Government of Sudan (first party);
14.3. Third Front-Tamazuj (second party).

Page 152, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 15. Permanent Ceasefire Procedures:
15.1. The Parties shall sign this agreement and declare a permanent ceasefire that shall enter into force within 72 hours of its signing.

Page 153, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 16. Elements Required in the Permanent Ceasefire Agreement.
17. The permanent ceasefire agreement shall, among other things, stipulate the following:
17.1. Actions prohibited by the cessation of hostilities stipulated in this agreement.
17.1.1. Identification of acts, activities, or breaches that shall constitute violations to the ceasefire agreement and methods to address these violations.
17.1.2. Formation of a specialized command and control committee to undertake the assembly, training, and integration program necessary to ensure the effective implementation of a permanent ceasefire agreement, and addressing violations, if any, via the specialized committee.
17.1.3. The sequenced procedures and timetables for the implementation of a permanent ceasefire and security arrangements.
17.1.4. Any other issues necessary to support the ceasefire and security arrangements provided for in this agreement.

Page 153, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 18. The Geographic Scope of the Permanent Ceasefire
18.1. The geographic scope of the ceasefire shall be the areas where the forces of SPLA-N/3rd Front signatory to this agreement are present.

Page 153, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 19. Permissible Acts
19.1. Due to the adverse effects of war, the main principle underlying permissible acts shall be work toward mitigating the effects of war on civilians and affected areas and encourage public support for peace. Permissible acts shall include the following:
19.1.1. Demining and elimination of military threats in accordance with agreed timetables
and mechanisms and with the participation of the competent authorities.
19.1.2. Development activities such as constructing roads and restoring bridges, crossings, railroads, airports and heliports.
19.1.3. Socioeconomic activities such as assisting the freedom of movement of people, goods and services.
19.1.4. Freedom of movement for unarmed soldiers in civilian attire who are on leave, on sick leave, or are visiting their families pursuant to an authorization issued by the competent authority.
19.1.5. Supplying non-combat material, such as food, water, medicine, fuel, lubricating oils, office stationary, clothing, and all administrative needs and movements.
19.1.6. Training and retraining of the troops integrated into the military institution and other regular services.
19.1.7. Humanitarian action by facilitating the flow of relief and humanitarian assistance in accordance with the agreed regulations.
19.1.8. Medical evacuation.
19.1.9. Routine movements of the Armed Forces, to secure international borders and confront national security threats.

Page 153-154, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 20. Prohibited Acts.
20.1. Military activities, including military movements, reconnaissance, hostile reinforcements, recruitment, mandatory conscription and military exercises, except those authorized by the competent committee.
20.2. Military ground operations between the Parties to the Agreement.
20.3. Laying landmines and undertaking other acts of sabotage.
20.4. Using force and violence against civilians and subjecting them to maltreatment, including sexual violence against women, which constitute a violation of international law and relevant domestic law.
20.5. Hostile propaganda and psychological warfare from within the country or from abroad.
20.6. Occupying new positions.
20.7. Mandatory conscription or any inclination towards unauthorized mobilization.
20.8. Recruiting child soldiers.
20.9. Provocative and hostile actions that could lead to a confrontation.
20.10. Violating human rights and international humanitarian law and obstructing the freedom of movement.
20.11. Espionage, sabotage and vandalism aimed at undermining the Agreement.
20.12. Obstructing the freedom of movement of the oversight and monitoring mechanisms in implementing their mandated tasks.
20.13. Bias alignment of any member of the signatory Parties towards their respective tribes, in the event of a tribal conflict.
20.14.Acts of violence and attacks against personnel of international organizations and humanitarian aid organizations.
20.15. Individuals can only move after submitting a prior notice and shall move without arms in civilian attire.
20.16. Forces may not exercise any powers of the civilian authority.
20.17. Forces may not object to any social, humanitarian, or societal services provided by the competent authorities.
20.18. Encourage or enable the presence of foreign forces without agreements or treaties with the Government of Sudan.
20.19. All acts of hostility, harassment, or intimidation against military personnel or civilians affiliated with either party, including harassment through unjustified detention.
20.20. Any other acts that may delay the natural progress of the permanent ceasefire.

Page 194, TITLE 9, 9. Darfur Track Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements Implementation Matrix
(14) Activity: Commence arrival of the forces of the armed struggle movements to Assembly areas
Timing: D-Day + 45
Implementing Party: The Parties and competent committees
Funding: Government of Sudan
Procedures: Coordination
Reference: Article 26.17.9
...
(17) Activity: Submit lists of combatants of the armed struggle movements and begin entering Assembly areas
Timing: D-Day + 45
Implementing Party: The Ceasefire Committee
Procedures: Submit lists
Reference: Articles 23.5 & 23.6
...
(19) Activity: Submit manifests of missing names of combatants of the armed struggle movements within a percentage of 10% of the main list.
Timing: D-Day +45 until D-Day +66
Implementing Party: The Ceasefire Committee
Procedures: Submit manifests
Reference: Articles 23.7
General commitments
Page 46, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8 makes substantial provision for ceasefire arrangements. The section describes the ceasefire as permanent and in regard to the timetable, see the following provision:

Page 49, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, COMPREHENSIVE SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS AND IMPLEMENTATION OF INTEGRATION PROGRAMS IN THE MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT AND OTHER SECURITY SERVICES, 12. Permanent Ceasefire
12.1.The Parties shall sign a negotiated permanent ceasefire agreement that is consistent with all of the provisions and stipulations of this agreement. It shall go into force within 72 hours of signing this agreement.

The provisions in this section also refer to the commitment of parties to an earlier renewal agreement on the cessation of hostilities, which holds parties to a ceasefire until this ceasefire is in effect (see an entry in 'Other agreements).
Police
Page 21, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 31. Concurrent Powers
31.1.The national federal government and the regional government of Darfur shall have the following executive and legislative powers:
...
31.1.3.Police, prisons, wild life, and civil defense;

Page 52, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 9.Guiding principles for the final security arrangements, reform, development and modernization of security sector.
9.12.For purposes of this agreement, the military establishment and security services/the security sector in Sudan shall mean the following:
...
9.12.2.The unified Sudanese police forces;

Page 54, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 14. General Provisions and Principles of the Permanent Ceasefire
14.16.The Parties acknowledge that the primary responsibility for enforcing law and maintaining public safety falls with a recognized police authority that carries out its duties in accordance with the law and acceptable standards;

Page 59, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 25. Command and Control Mechanisms
25.5.2.Functions of the Joint High Military Committee for Security Arrangements.
25.5.2.14.To supervise the reintegration of the forces of the armed struggle movements/ Darfur Track into the Armed Forces, the Rapid Support Forces, the unified police forces, and the General Intelligence Service in accordance with the criteria agreed upon with the benefit of past experiences.
25.5.2.15.To undertake any other relevant functions.

Page 62, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration
26.7.The Parties agree to establish a Joint High Council chaired by the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, with the membership of the commander of Rapid Support Forces, Minister of Defense, Minister of the Interior, the Chief of Staff, the Director General of the Police, Director General of the General Intelligence Service, head of the Military Intelligence Authority and heads of the armed struggle movements for supervision, monitoring, evaluation, and follow up on the implementation of integrating the forces of the armed struggle movements and evaluating the security and humanitarian situation in Darfur. The Joint High Council shall hold periodic meetings. It shall, among other functions, form a mechanism to address the issue of war prisoners and missing persons of both Parties.

Page 64, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration
26.15.The number of former combatants who will be integrated into the Sudanese Armed Forces, the Police, and the General Intelligence Services shall be specified in accordance with the following criteria:

Page 65, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 27. The Police
27.1.The Sudanese police force shall be professional national force with no affiliation to any single party, group, faction, region, or area. It shall owe allegiance to the homeland. Joining the force shall be guaranteed for all Sudanese people;
27.2.The police force shall be professional and impartial and work in accordance with laws and regulations;
27.3.The Parties recognize the need to reform the Sudanese police force to upgrade its capabilities, enhance its professionalism, and increase its effectiveness;
27.4.The Parties recognize that the Sudanese police shall be a law-enforcement service that is composed and commanded at a national level, operating at state/regional level with the presence of federal departments that undertake their federal obligations and duties;
27.5.The Parties agree to integrate the number to be agreed upon of the forces of the armed struggle movements/ Darfur Track in the different departments of the Sudanese police.
27.6.The Parties agree to establish a Joint Police Technical Committee to integrate and accommodate commissioned and non-commissioned officers and soldiers in accordance with the agreed-upon terms and conditions;
27.7.The Parties agree that forces of the armed struggle movements shall receive the number of officers in the agreed-upon low-level and senior ranks, professional development, and education in the police force, in accordance with the agreed standards.
27.8.The Joint Police Technical Committee shall be composed of the following:
27.8.1.Representatives of the Sudanese police;
27.8.2.Representatives of forces of the signatory armed struggle movements/ Darfur Track;
27.9.The Joint Police Technical Committee shall submit its recommendations to the Joint High Committee for Security Arrangements for approval and adoption and submission thereof to the Joint High Council.
27.10.Duties of the Joint Police Technical Committee:
27.10.1.Receive the agreed list of candidates for integration and accommodation in the police force;
27.10.2.Review official identification documents and certificates and conduct the necessary checkups and medical examinations;
27.10.3.Review the terms, criteria, and plans of integration into the police force;
27.10.4.Determine the proposed ranks for the commissioned and non-commissioned officers;
27.10.5.Recommend enlisting them in police training centers and institutes.
27.11.The state shall provide the necessary logistics and budget;
27.12.The Parties agree to assemble the police forces in the Darfur states/ region to speed up the integration process.
27.13.During the permanent ceasefire and the transitional period, the police force shall undertake the following functions:
27.13.1.Prevent and combat crime;
27.13.2.Enforce the law, maintain public order, and ensure the safety of money, people, and public tranquility;
27.13.3.Undertake all internal security operations, including securing strategic and vital facilities and protecting important persons;
27.13.4.Combat organized and cross-border crime, including terrorism, human trafficking, illegal migration, drug and weapons smuggling, money laundering, and electronic crimes;
27.13.5.Combat corruption;
27.13.6.Provide police services, including the civil registry, passports, traffic policing, and civil defense;
27.13.7.Protect and help IDPs;
27.13.8.Protect families and children;
27.13.9.Ensure the rule of law and bring perpetrators to justice;
27.13.10.Undertake prison sector functions and wildlife protection.
27.14.The Parties shall seek, with the international community, ways to provide technical assistance in police training and capacity building in order to maintain peace and the rule of law.

Page 68, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 29. Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.Functions of the Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.8.Deploying police forces to secure villages for voluntary return, IDP camps, confirming their civil status, working to disengage parties to tribal conflicts, securing IDP camps in coordination with the management thereof, and preventing recruitment, especially among children;
...
29.5.10.Supporting and deploying military and police cadres capable of rapid response and deterrence;
29.5.11.Helping to secure a protective environment for civilians through the protection of general prosecution offices, branch police stations, motor and on-foot police patrols, and humanitarian aid convoys;

Page 97, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:
10.1.Powers and competencies of police, prisons, wildlife, civil defense, and customs at the level of the Two Areas.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 11. National Powers: the national government shall assume the following exclusive executive and legislative powers:
11.7.National police, including the criminal investigation department and coordinating bilateral, regional and international criminal affairs and the standards and regulations, including police training standards.

Page 127, Title 3, CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Integration
89. The Police:
89.1.The Sudanese police force shall be a professional national force with no affiliation to any party, group, faction, region, or area. It shall owe allegiance to the homeland. Joining the
force shall be guaranteed for all Sudanese people.
89.2.The Parties recognize the need to reform the Sudanese police force to upgrade its capabilities, enhance its professionalism, and increase its effectiveness.
89.3.The Parties recognize that the police force shall be a law-enforcement service that is composed and commanded at the national level, and functions at the state level with the presence of federal departments that undertake their federal obligations and duties.
89.4.The Parties agree to integrate the number to be agreed upon (including males and females) of the SPLA-N/SRF forces in the different departments of the Sudanese police.
90. The Joint Police Technical Committee shall be composed of the following: 90.1.Representatives of the Sudanese police.
90.2.Representatives of the police from SPLA-N/SRF forces.
90.3.The Joint Police Technical Committee shall submit its recommendations to the security arrangements’ higher joint military committee for approval and adoption.
91. Duties of the Joint Police Technical Committee:
91.1.Receive the agreed list of candidates for integration into the police force.
91.2.Review official identification documents and certificates and conduct the necessary checkups and medical examinations.
91.3.Review the terms, criteria, and plans for integration into the police force, taking into consideration positive discrimination for the population of the Two Areas, especially women, provided that the specified criteria is not violated.
91.4.Determine the proposed ranks for the commissioned and non-commissioned officers.
91.5.Recommend enlisting them in the police training centers.
91.6.The state shall provide the necessary logistics and budget for the integration process.
91.7.The Parties agree on the necessity of accelerating the integration process and assembling the police forces in the Two Areas in agreed locations.
91.8.The Parties agree that during the transitional period the police force shall undertake the following functions:
91.9.Prevent and combat crime.
91.10.Enforce the law, maintain public order, and ensure the safety of money, people, and public tranquility.
91.11.Undertake all internal security operations, including securing strategic and vital facilities, protecting important persons, and maintaining communal security.
91.12.Combat organized and cross-border crime, including terrorism, human trafficking, illegal migration, weapons and drugs smuggling, money laundering and electronic crimes.
91.13.Combat corruption.
91.14.Provide police services which include the civil record, passports, traffic policing and civil defense.
91.15.Undertake functions of the prison sector, protect wild life, and engage in customs functions without violating the technical jurisdiction of the Ministry of Finance.
91.16.Protect and secure IDP camps and participate in securing humanitarian assistance routes.
91.17.Protect and secure the roads and villages for voluntary return of IDPs and refugees.
91.18.Protect families and children.
91.19.Ensure the rule of law and bring perpetrators to justice.

Page 156, TITLE 7. CHAPTER TWO: Assembly, Training and Integration, 25. The Police
25.1. The Sudanese police force shall be a national professional force that has no affiliation to any single party, group, faction, region, or area. It shall owe allegiance to the homeland. Joining the force shall be guaranteed for all Sudanese people.
25.2. The police forces hall be professional and impartial and work in accordance with laws and regulations.
25.3. The Parties recognize the need to reform the Sudanese police forces to upgrade its capability, enhance its professionalism, and increase its effectiveness.
25.4. The Parties recognize that the police forces shall be a law-enforcement service that is composed and commanded at a national level, and which operates at states/regional level with the presence of federal departments that undertake their federal obligations and duties.
25.5. The Parties agree to integrate a number of the forces of the Third Front-Tamazuj to be agreed upon into the different departments of the Sudanese police.
Armed forces
Page 10, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.18.Without prejudice to the conditions of qualification and competency and the implementation of the peace agreements concluded with the signatory parties, all Sudanese citizens shall be fairly represented in the civil service, public committees, institutions, commissions, armed forces, and other regular forces at all levels.
1.19.The participation of all Sudanese people shall be guaranteed at all levels of governance, state institutions, and civil service. Fair standards for power sharing shall be developed, without prejudice to the conditions of qualification and competency.

Page 11, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.30.Without prejudice to what has been agreed to in the security arrangements documents for the tracks of Darfur and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement – North/ The Revolutionary Front, the Parties agree to reform and develop the security and military sector at the national level.

Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
18. All Sudanese citizens shall be justly and fairly represented in the civil service, public bodies, institutions, commissions, armed forces and other regular forces at all upper and middle levels.

Page 51, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 9.Guiding principles for the final security arrangements, reform, development and modernization of security sector.
9.6. Establishing security forces and a single national army trusted by the local communities across Sudan, especially in the conflict areas, is a key element to establishing peace, security, and sustainable development in Sudan;
9.7. The Parties agree to reform, develop, and modernize the military establishment and other security services/the security sector, provided that there are short and long-term reforms in furtherance of the objectives and provisions of this agreement, supporting the establishment of a permanent, professional, and independent system to improve their capacity, effectiveness, impartiality, inclusiveness, and professionalism, as well as to strengthen the rule of law in Sudan in accordance with international law and best practices and to establish armed forces that represent the diversity of Sudan and are capable of defending Sudan against foreign enemies and maintaining the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Sudan;
9.8. The comprehensive long-term security reforms shall particularly focus on ensuring that the Sudanese armed forces and other security institutions are not loyal to any single party, group, tribe, or region but instead owe allegiance to the state of Sudan.
...
9.12.For purposes of this agreement, the military establishment and security services/the security sector in Sudan shall mean the following:
9.12.1.“The military establishment” including the Sudanese Armed Forces and the Rapid Support Forces;
...
9.13.The Parties commit to promoting geographic and social diversity and employing equal opportunity policies in the membership of the Armed Forces and other security services within the security sector, while applying the principle of positive discrimination in favor of war-affected areas;

Page 52, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 10. Phases of the Final Security Arrangements.
10.2.Phase Two: implementation of the permanent ceasefire agreement and other comprehensive security arrangements and implementation of the program of integration in the military establishment institution and other security services;
...
10.4.Phase Four: implementation of the reform, development, and modernization plan for the military establishment institution and security services (security sector).

Page 54, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 14. General Provisions and Principles of the Permanent Ceasefire
14.10.This agreement shall not include stipulations that could undermine Sudan’s sovereignty, territorial integrity, national security, and the unity of its armed forces and security services;

Page 55, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 17. Permissible Acts
17.1.6.Training and retraining of troops integrated into the military establishment and other security services;
...
17.1.9.Routine movements of the Armed Forces, to secure international borders and confront national security threats, that pass through assembly areas and bases of the armed struggle movements’ forces; after informing the Military Ceasefire Committee.

Page 55, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 18. Prohibited Acts
18.19.All acts of hostility, harassment, or intimidation against military personnel or civilians affiliated with the other party, including harassment through unjustified detention;

Page 59, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 25. Command and Control Mechanisms
25.5.2.Functions of the Joint High Military Committee for Security Arrangements.
25.5.2.14.To supervise the reintegration of the forces of the armed struggle movements/ Darfur Track into the Armed Forces, the Rapid Support Forces, the unified police forces, and the General Intelligence Service in accordance with the criteria agreed upon with the benefit of past experiences.
25.5.2.15.To undertake any other relevant functions.

Page 62, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration
26.1.The Parties agree to integrate the forces of the signatory armed struggle movements in the military establishment and security services;
26.2.The ultimate purpose of the integration process is for the Sudanese Armed Forces, with its new unified military doctrine that protects citizens, the homeland, and the constitution; to be the only professional national army and to integrate all other forces present on Sudanese territory in a unified professional national army;
...
26.5.The Parties agree to keep the integrated forces of the armed struggle movements in Darfur for a period of (40) forty months from the date of the signing of this agreement, which may be extended if deemed necessary for security and humanitarian reasons in the region. After this period, the forces shall be deployed according to the strategic deployment plan of the Armed Forces.
26.6. The Parties agree that forces of the armed struggle movements shall be integrated in the military establishment and other security services in the form of full military units according to the organization of the Sudanese Armed Forces.
26.7.The Parties agree to establish a Joint High Council chaired by the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, with the membership of the commander of Rapid Support Forces, Minister of Defense, Minister of the Interior, the Chief of Staff, the Director General of the Police, Director General of the General Intelligence Service, head of the Military Intelligence Authority and heads of the armed struggle movements for supervision, monitoring, evaluation, and follow up on the implementation of integrating the forces of the armed struggle movements and evaluating the security and humanitarian situation in Darfur. The Joint High Council shall hold periodic meetings. It shall, among other functions, form a mechanism to address the issue of war prisoners and missing persons of both Parties.

Page 63, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration
26.13.3.Moving individuals fit for military service according to the principles and standards stipulated in this agreement to the training centers of the Armed Forces and other regular institutions, in accordance with the agreed timelines.
26.14.Based on the results of inventory and classification of individuals fit for military service and other regular forces, the following shall be undertaken:
26.14.1.Define the number of battalions and units that can be created in accordance with the regulations of infantry battalions and the formations of other regular forces, for the purposes of inventory and classification;
26.14.2.Define the number and ranks of commissioned and non-commissioned officers and soldiers in light of which they will be integrated into the formations and units of the Sudanese Armed Forces and other regular forces according to the agreed criteria and after receiving basic training;
26.14.3.Military training shall take place in the training centers of the Armed Forces and security forces in accordance with the specified period (which shall not be less than four months), in accordance with the agreed upon timelines and the training centers;
26.14.4.After completing basic military training, graduates shall be integrated into the formations and units of the Sudanese Armed Forces and security forces according to the agreed upon principles, criteria, and timelines;
26.14.5.All procedures of Assembly, quartering, inventory, classification, weapons storage, training, and integration of combatants shall be implemented in accordance with the specified timetable;
26.14.6.The Parties shall agree on a schedule for the timelines of every activity to be undertaken in each phase of the Darfur Track security arrangements.
26.15.The number of former combatants who will be integrated into the Sudanese Armed Forces, the Police, and the General Intelligence Services shall be specified in accordance with the following criteria:

Page 64, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration
26.18.Integration Requirements
26.18.5.Combatants who have been integrated shall receive training in accordance with the requirements of each unit, while observing the special needs of those individuals. Extensive training shall be an option given to assist former combatants, especially women, to meet such requirements;
26.18.6.Integrated individuals shall be given four months of basic training, following which, different advanced qualification and technical and specialized courses shall be provided to the units where the integrated individuals have been enlisted;

Page 67, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 29. Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.1.Creation of a security keeping force in Darfur.
29.1.1.The Parties agreed to establish a security keeping force and its command in Darfur so as to ensure the participation of forces from the armed struggle movements after receiving intensive training within 90 days of the date of the signing of this agreement.
29.2.Legal Framework.
29.2.1.The security keeping force in Darfur shall be subject to Law of the Armed Forces of 2007, amended in 2013, and the provisions of this Agreement;
29.2.2.The security keeping force shall operate pursuant to the working frameworks that apply to the Sudanese Armed Forces;
29.2.3.Rules of engagement shall be issued therefor.
29.3.The security keeping force in Darfur shall be composed of the following forces:
29.3.1.Sudanese Armed forces;
29.3.2.Rapid Support Forces;

Page 114, TITLE 3, CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Permanent Ceasefire Arrangements
General Principles:
1. The Republic of Sudan shall have one national professional army and national professional security services that work in accordance with the Constitutional Charter, including the final peace agreement to be signed by the Parties. Accountability shall be undertaken in accordance with law that is consistent with the Constitution.
2. The revolution and change occurring in Sudan provides a great opportunity to build the Sudanese state and all of its institutions, and in particular the military and security sector which plays an important role in the present and future of Sudan. Achieving civil democratic governance and building a new system of governance requires building and developing a single national professional army that reflects the diversity of Sudan and the interests of all Sudanese male and female and with a new military doctrine, that is not politicized by any party. The final goal of the new security arrangements on all tracks shall be to reach a single national professional army and a unified military and security sector.
3. Restructuring and reforming the economic sector and the political system relies heavily on reforming and modernizing the security and military sector.
4. Comprehensive security arrangements in the Two Areas and in Sudan shall be undertaken in accordance with specific timeframes and schedules for implementation, agreed upon within the framework of a single professional Sudanese army.
5. The Parties agree that after achieving final peace and completing the security arrangements (integration and DDR), the military institution and security services shall be restructured as part of a plan to reform and restructure state institutions in accordance with the Constitutional Charter and the Final Peace Agreement.
...
8. The Sudanese Armed Forces and other security institutions shall owe allegiance to the homeland and not to any specific party, group, faction, region or area. The army and security institutions shall be national, professional, independent and capable of protecting Sudan against the threats to Sudanese national security and shall operate across Sudan.
9. The Armed Forces and other security services shall reflect diversity in Sudan.
10. The Armed Forces shall commit to protecting Sudan and providing national security in all of Sudan in accordance with the Constitution.
11. The Armed Forces shall abide by the standards of national and international laws and shall have a role in maintaining international and regional peace and security.

Page 115, TITLE 3, CHAPTR 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, PERMANENT CEASEFIRE ARRANGEMENTS, General and Fundamental Provisions
22. The Parties agree to inform the officers and troops affiliated with their respective armed forces about the agreement as a means to promote the permanent ceasefire agreement and use official media to do so.
23. The Parties shall commit to observing the permanent ceasefire, provided that the forces, as well as forces allied and affiliated with either party, abide by it at all levels.

Page 116, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, PERMANENT CEASEFIRE ARRANGEMENTS, 29. Permissible Acts: Due to the wide-scale damage and adverse effects of the war, the main principle underlying the permissible acts shall be the removal of the effects of war on civilians and affected areas, and to encourage public support for peace. The permissible acts shall include:
...
29.6.Training and qualification for the troops integrated into the armed forces and the regular security services.
...
29.9.Routine movements of the armed forces related to securing international borders and confronting national security threats.

Page 117, TITLE 3, CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, PERMANENT CEASEFIRE ARRANGEMENTS, 34. The Parties agree that the phases of the final security arrangements shall include the following:
34.5.Implementation of the structuring plan which refers to the reform, development, and modernization; and the new military doctrine for the military and security institutions which shall be professional, unified, non-politicized, and reflective of the diversity of Sudan.

Page 118, TITLE 3, CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, 39. Preparatory Phase of the Ceasefire:
39.2.The Parties, upon declaring the permanent ceasefire and entry into force thereof, shall commit to immediately embark on defining the assembly areas for the SPLA-N/SRF forces through the Joint High Military Ceasefire Committee in areas to be agreed upon by the Parties.

Page 140, TITLE 4. CHAPTER TWO: THE SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUE, Addressing Other Issues
85. The Parties reaffirm that the Republic of Sudan shall have one national army and other national regular professional forces that reflect the Sudanese diversity and undertake the duty of protecting Sudan in accordance with the constitution and the law. The right to join such forces shall be guaranteed to every Sudanese person who meets the criteria and conditions of joining those institutions;

Page 151, TITLE 7. Definitions
2. Combatant: means those who arrive at the assembly areas with a personal automatic gun (rifle) or a group weapon (machine gun, mortar, DShK, etc.) from among the fighters affiliated with the movement signatory to this agreement.
2.1. Notwithstanding the aforementioned definition of a Combatant, the competent committee may exclude 3% of combatants who arrive at the Assembly areas whose names are on the primary manifests.

Page 152, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, Objectives of the Agreement
9. To examine, sort, categorize, and train combatants of Third Front-Tamazuj before being integrated into the military establishment and regular services according to agreed timelines.

Page 153, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 19. Permissible Acts
19.1.9. Routine movements of the Armed Forces, to secure international borders and confront national security threats.

Page 154, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 20. Prohibited Acts.
20.16. Forces may not exercise any powers of the civilian authority.
20.17. Forces may not object to any social, humanitarian, or societal services provided by the competent authorities.
20.18. Encourage or enable the presence of foreign forces without agreements or treaties with the Government of Sudan.

Page 156, TITLE 7. CHAPTER TWO: Assembly, Training and Integration, 24. Integration
24.1. Individuals fit for service who meet the criteria provided for in this agreement shall sever their relations with Third Front-Tamazuj after completing the necessary procedures in the assembly areas and filling the relevant forms, and thereupon shall become members affiliated with the Armed Forces and the competent security services.
...
24.4. Following the completion of basic training, integrated individuals shall be deployed all over Sudan based on the strategic deployment plan of the Armed Forces.
...
24.7. Military ranks (for officers) shall be granted according to the size of the integrated forces and the regulations and standards followed by the Sudanese Armed Forces.
...
24.10. Criteria for selecting officers:
24.10.2. Have not been dismissed from the Armed Forces and other security institutions due to incompetence or misconduct.

Page 224, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Participation of the people of eastern Sudan in the Armed Forces and regular services
Timing: After ratifying the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: government of Sudan
Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Issue instructions for applying the positive discrimination principle
Reference / article: 84.2 & 84.3
DDR
Demilitarisation provisions
Page 58, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 24. Armed and Allied Elements in Darfur
24.4.The Government of Sudan shall control and disarm armed and allied elements in Darfur;
24.5.The Government of Sudan shall control and disarm such armed foreign elements and repatriate them to their countries, if any, and shall bind them to the provisions of this agreement, in coordination with neighboring countries;

Page 64, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration
26.18.Integration Requirements
26.18.4.The Joint High Military Committee for Security Arrangements shall create a technical integration committee to supervise the integration of the former combatants of the armed struggle movements’/Darfur Track forces including undertaking planning, implementation, management, and monitoring of the process. The committee shall develop a plan for integrating former combatants. The technical integration committee shall include representatives of the Parties, a representative of the DDR Commission and a representative of a third party. Chairmanship of the committee shall be rotated between the Parties;
26.18.5.Combatants who have been integrated shall receive training in accordance with the requirements of each unit, while observing the special needs of those individuals. Extensive training shall be an option given to assist former combatants, especially women, to meet such requirements;
26.18.6.Integrated individuals shall be given four months of basic training, following which, different advanced qualification and technical and specialized courses shall be provided to the units where the integrated individuals have been enlisted;
26.18.7.The Government of Sudan shall pay heed to the special needs of former female combatants of the armed struggle movements, through training and other forms of support;
26.18.8.The Government of Sudan shall provide support, training, and rehabilitation on equal footing to all integrated combatants, males and females.

Page 113, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE'S LIBERATION MOVEMENT - NORTH/ THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Preamble
Affirming the importance of reaching an agreement on integration, disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration arrangements for the combatants of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army – North / Revolutionary Front and its other security institutions in accordance with a DDR program and security arrangements agreement that include detailed provisions on the sequencings and specified timelines for integration and completion of DDR in accordance with the timetable agreed to by the Parties.

Page 114, TITLE 3, CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, PERMANENT CEASEFIRE ARRANGEMENTS, General Principles
5. The Parties agree that after achieving final peace and completing the security arrangements (integration and DDR), the military institution and security services shall be restructured as part of a plan to reform and restructure state institutions in accordance with the Constitutional Charter and the Final Peace Agreement.

Page 148, TITLE 7. Definitions
1. Assembly: means the process of moving combatants to selected locations (in accordance with the standards of assembly areas) for the purpose of completing the necessary complementary administrative and military procedures.
3. Weapons Storage: means the post-Assembly phase wherein the collection of small arms from combatants and storage thereof occurs under the supervision of a third party in coordination with the ceasefire mechanism regarding (manner, funding, and guarding). Heavy and long-range weapons and ammunition shall be stored in areas to be agreed on before entry to the Assembly areas.

Page 154, TITLE 7. CHAPTE RONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 20. Prohibited Acts.
20.15. Individuals can only move after submitting a prior notice and shall move without arms in civilian attire.

Page 155, TITLE 7. CHAPTER TWO: Assembly, Training and Integration, 23. Assembly and Training.
23.1. Reports shall be delivered to the First Party, detailing the force size and numbers, its weapons, and equipment within 72 hours of the date of signing this agreement.
23.2. The following shall be undertaken:
23.2.1. Manifests with the names of Third Front-Tamazuj combatants shall be submitted to the First Party within (14) fourteen days of the date of signing this agreement. Third Front-Tamazuj forces shall be assembled in agreed-upon areas. The competent committee may accept 10% of the primary manifest as missing names therefrom within (7) seven days of the date of submitting the primary manifest.
23.2.2. The processes of disarmament, examination, classification, and sorting and storing weapons shall be conducted in Assembly areas, provided that forces in Assembly areas shall be completed within (60) sixty days of the date of signing this agreement.
DDR programmes
Page 51, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 9.Guiding principles for the final security arrangements, reform, development and modernization of security sector.
9.9. The Parties shall engage in a transparent and internationally supervised program for the disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of forces that will eventually lead to the reintegration of combatants and fighters who have not been included in the integration program;
...
9.11.The Parties shall work together to request from the international community technical, material, and financial assistance necessary for successful implementation of the Cessation of Hostilities for Humanitarian Purposes, a permanent ceasefire, DDR, and peacebuilding;

Page 52, TITLE 2.CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 10. Phases of the Final Security Arrangements.
10.3.Phase Three: implementation of the DDR program;

Page 55, TITLE 2.CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 18. Prohibited Acts
18.15. Movement of persons in Assembly areas without prior notice with arms, in civilian or military attire;

Page 58, TITLE 2.CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 23. Verification of Forces in the Agreed Assembly Areas.
23.7.Forces of the armed struggle movements shall be verified in Assembly areas against the manifests and data mentioned in the foregoing paragraphs;
23.8.Subsequent arrangements, especially the integration and reintegration processes, shall take place based on the lists provided by the armed struggle movements after verification;
23.9.Competent committees shall seek the help of field commanders in the process of verifying members of the forces of armed struggle movement in assembly areas.

Page 58, TITLE 2.CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 24. Armed and Allied Elements in Darfur
24.9.The Government of Sudan shall provide the Ceasefire Committee with a comprehensive plan for disarming armed troops and irregular fighters, combating persons who are illegally armed, gangs, and other outlawed groups active in Darfur. The plan shall also include arrangements for the rehabilitation of members of such groups and their social and economic reintegration;
24.10.The Military Ceasefire Committee shall monitor disarmament of armed troops and irregular fighters and verification thereof in addition to combating persons who are illegally armed, gangs, and other outlawed groups in accordance with the agreed plan.

(part of extensive DDR sub section within the chapter, see also military power-sharing category)

Page 69, Title 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, DISARMAMENT, DEMOBILIZATION AND REINTEGRATION (DDR), 30. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR)
30.2.General Principles:
30.2.1.The Parties recognize that the goal of DDR is to contribute to creating a safe environment, supporting social stability throughout Sudan in the post-Final Peace Agreement period, especially the war-ravaged areas.
30.2.2.The Parties recognize that the DDR process is complicated and involves political, military, security, humanitarian, social, and economic dimensions. The DDR process aims to address post-conflict security problems which may arise as the result of leaving former combatants without livelihoods or support networks, other than their former comrades in arms, during the transition from conflict to peace, and then to development;
30.2.3.The Parties recognize that the DDR program shall be implemented within a comprehensive nationwide process of reconciliation and healing, as part of the peacebuilding and confidence-building measures;
30.2.4.With the help of a UN third party and other UN agencies, the DDR Commission shall develop plans that include timing and sequencing of DDR phases;
30.2.5.The Parties agree to implement DDR efforts to ensure as much security and stability in Sudan as possible, as well as to provide assistance, training and job opportunities for former combatants in the short and long-terms;
30.2.6.The Parties agree that all DDR processes shall be subject to the general principles herein and all other conditions, requirements, and frameworks included in this agreement;
30.2.7.Reintegration programs shall be designed to be sustainable and include monitoring progress and measures for ongoing support based on the needs defined by DDR mechanisms;
30.2.8.The Parties recognize the necessity, during DDR processes, to meet the special needs of children, women, and disabled persons, as a priority. The Government of Sudan shall mobilize specific resources and budgets to meet such special needs of the aforementioned groups at all phases of the DDR.
30.3.Structure of DDR Mechanisms.
30.3.1.At the national level:
30.3.1.1.The DDR High Council;
30.3.1.2.The National DDR Commission.
30.3.2. At the regional level:
30.3.2.1.The Darfur Regional DDR Commission.
30.4.The Parties agree to restructure the DDR High Council and the National DDR Commission within 45 days from the date of the signing of the peace agreement, to ensure the representation of parties to the agreement in the structures of the Council and the Commission.
30.5.DDR High Council.
30.5.1.The Council shall be responsible for developing, supervising, coordinating, and evaluating DDR policies. It shall also coordinate with the DDR Commission at the national level.
30.6.[National] DDR Commission.
30.6.1.The Commission shall conduct a comprehensive assessment of needs and challenges related to DDR at the national and regional levels, including but not limited to, the reintegration of forces of the armed struggle movements and coordination with the DDR High Council;
30.6.2.The Parties shall ensure that the DDR Commission in Sudan is national, independent, and qualified to assume its duties with regard to DDR processes;
30.6.3.The Parties agree to ensure the representation of women in decision-making process related to DDR, to effectively and appropriately meet the needs and interests of women.
30.7.DDR shall be undertaken with care and the process therefor shall proceed as follows:
30.7.1.Raising awareness of and informing commanders and forces affiliated therewith about DDR and the peace process as well as their roles and responsibilities therein;
30.7.2.The Parties shall decide on eligibility criteria for disarmament of the unintegrated combatants;
30.7.3.The Parties shall decide to immediately and unconditionally dismiss and release all combatant children, if any, as well as groups with special needs and former female combatants, provided that they are handed over to the Joint DDR Committee to be reintegrated;
30.7.4.The principles of fairness, transparency, equality, and impartiality shall be observed during the social and economic reintegration of former combatants. Furthermore, former combatants shall receive equal treatment, regardless of their past affiliation with any of the movements;
30.7.5.Reintegration shall be conducted at a community-level so as to benefit the returnees and local communities;
30.7.6.The Parties agree to implement DDR efforts to ensure as much security and stability in Sudan as possible, in addition to the provision of support, training, and job opportunities for former combatants in the short- and long-terms;
30.7.7.Reintegration programs shall be designed to be sustainable and include monitoring progress and measures of ongoing support based on the needs defined by DDR mechanisms.
30.8.Darfur Regional DDR Commission.
30.8.1.The Parties agree to establish the Darfur Regional DDR Commission within (30)
thirty days of the date of restructuring the National DDR Commission;
30.8.2.The Parties shall agree upon the organizational and functional structure of the Darfur Regional DDR Commission in accordance with the principles and regulations governing the work of the National DDR Commission;
30.8.3.The Commission shall develop its own regulations, rules, procedures, and decision-making processes;
30.8.4.The Regional Commission shall work under the supervision of the National DDR Commission;
30.8.5.The National Commission and Darfur Regional DDR Commission shall cooperate and coordinate in the following:
30.8.5.1. Exchange of information and decisions made by either one.
30.8.5.2.The National DDR Commission may delegate some of its functions to the Darfur Regional DDR Commission, including collection of data and research.
30.8.6. Functions and Duties of the Darfur Regional DDR Commission:
30.8.6.1.To conduct a comprehensive assessment of needs and challenges related to DDR for conflict-affected persons in Darfur, including but not limited to, the reintegration of forces of the armed struggle movements in Darfur Track.
30.8.6.2.To exercise primary responsibility for designing, implementing, managing, and supervising DDR processes for the war-affected persons in Darfur, especially in relation to the armed struggle movements, in coordination with the National DDR Commission.
30.8.6.3.To develop and implement plans, with the help and advice of a UN third party and any other relevant organization(s), for the content, timing, and sequencing of DDR phases. The Darfur DDR Commission shall implement such plans after approval from the National DDR Commission, in accordance with this Agreement.
30.8.6.4.To receive manifests of unintegrated former combatants from the Joint High Military Committee for Security Arrangements;
30.8.6.5.To assist with planning and introducing a budget proposal for the implementation of DDR processes within the agreed timeframe.
30.8.6.6.To urge national institutions to fund DDR processes;
30.8.6.7.To address the status of those who are unfit for military services or who are unwilling to be reintegrated in accordance with the DDR programs in coordination with the National DDR Commission;
30.8.6.8.To create sub-committees in the specific areas selected to implement DDR tasks;
30.8.6.9.To supervise DDR processes in accordance with the timeline;
30.8.6.10.The Darfur Regional DDR Commission shall operate under the full supervision of the National DDR Commission.
...
30.9.Disarmament and Demobilization Requirements and Processes.
30.9.1.DDR processes shall be conducted in the agreed areas, only with former combatants who have been verified by the Ceasefire Committee to be affiliated with the forces of the armed struggle movements/ Darfur Track, in accordance with the provisions of this agreement;
30.9.2.DDR processes shall take place in the agreed Assembly areas.
30.9.3.The armed struggle movements/ Darfur Track shall be responsible for administering former combatants in the Assembly areas, as well as their discipline and internal security;
30.9.4.The Government of Sudan shall commit to providing the necessary non-military logistical support and assistance therefor. The Ceasefire Committee and a UN third party shall undertake the logistics for the disarmament and demobilization processes, including the establishment of Assembly areas.
30.10.Reintegration Requirements and Processes.
30.10.1.All former combatants of the signatory armed struggle movements, willing to return to civilian life, or those who do not meet the criteria to join security institutions shall be socially and economically reintegrated in the civilian community, as stipulated;
30.10.2.The Government of Sudan, in cooperation with the international community, shall assume primary responsibility for reintegrating former combatants into civilian life. The Government of Sudan shall fund all reintegration efforts of former combatants;
30.10.3.To ensure fairness, transparency, and equity when deciding on the eligibility of former combatants to receive the targeted assistance;
30.10.4.Throughout the reintegration processes, former combatants shall be treated equally, regardless of their past affiliations with the armed struggle movements signatory to the Final Peace Agreement.;
30.10.5.Training and information shall be provided for former combatants to enable them to choose their reintegration route voluntarily.
30.10.6.To prioritize addressing socioeconomic reintegration of groups with special needs, such as women, or other women, boys, girls who are linked to the forces of the armed struggle movements, as well as other vulnerable groups such as conflict- affected children, combatants with disabilities, and the elderly, if any;
30.10.7.Reintegration programs shall be designed to be sustainable and include monitoring progress and measures for ongoing support based on the needs defined by DDR mechanisms.

Page 140, TITLE 4. CHAPTER TWO: THE SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUE, Addressing Other Isssues,
86. The Parties recognize that the reintegration of former combatants is an important element for a peaceful and secure Sudan. This shall support them make the transition to a productive civil life; therefore, the Parties agree on the following:
86.1.The Transitional Government of Sudan shall commit, through a joint committee, to reviewing the problems, if any, of the procedures of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) stipulated in the East Agreement of 2006, and endeavoring to addressing them;
86.2.Observing the principle of positive discrimination for the engagement of the people of East Sudan in the armed forces and other regular forces and institutions;
86.3.The Government of Sudan shall endeavor to take practical steps to enable people to join the armed forces and other regular forces;
86.4.Working on demining areas affected by landmines, providing the necessary support for that purpose and addressing the impact on victims of landmines

Page 151, TITLE 7, Preamble
Willing to implement a comprehensive ceasefire and the processes of disarmament, demobilization, reintegration, and integration of the forces the Third Front - Tamazuj into the Sudanese military establishment.

Page 152, TITLE 7, Definitions
4. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR): means the process of settling the status of those unfit for military service by disarming, demobilizing, and reintegrating them into society through the DDR Commission.
5. Integration: means integrating combatants who are fit for military service according to timelines to be agreed upon after the conclusion of the training and military development period in accordance with the norms and standards stipulated in this agreement.

Page 152, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, Objectives of the Agreement
9. To examine, sort, categorize, and train combatants of Third Front-Tamazuj before being integrated into the military establishment and regular services according to agreed timelines.

Page 152, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, Entry into Force and Duration of the Agreement
13. This agreement shall continue to be valid until the completion of the reintegration process and the integration of Third Front-Tamazuj members who are deemed fit for service into the Sudanese military establishment. Afterwards the Third Front-Tamazuj forces shall be integral part of the military establishment and regular services pursuant to the Agreement.

Page 155, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 22. The Competent Committee
22.3. Functions of the High Committee
22.3.3. Supervise collection and storage of weapons and handing them over to the
competent authorities.
22.3.4. Coordinate with the DDR committee.
...
22.5. Functions of the Sub-Committee:
22.5.3. Supervise the collection and storage of weapons and handing them over to the competent authorities.
22.5.4. Coordinate with the DDR committee.

Page 155, TITLE 7. CHAPTER TWO: ASSEMBLY, TRAINING AND INTEGRATION, 23. Assembly and Training.
23.2.3. Individuals unfit for service shall be referred to the National DDR Commission to reintegrate them into society.
23.2.4. Individuals who are fit for service shall be sent to the training centers designated by the military establishment and shall remain there until the completion of the basic training.
23.2.3. Individuals unfit for service shall be referred to the National DDR Commission to reintegrate them into society.
23.2.5. After completing the basic training, officers shall be transferred to the officers’ training centers designated by the military establishment.

Page 155, TITLE 7. CHAPTER TWO: ASSEMBLY, TRAINING AND INTEGRATION, 24. Integration
24.1. Individuals fit for service who meet the criteria provided for in this agreement shall sever their relations with Third Front-Tamazuj after completing the necessary procedures in the assembly areas and filling the relevant forms, and thereupon shall become members affiliated with the Armed Forces and the competent security services.
24.2. The integration of individuals shall commence upon filling relevant forms; after examinations and sorting.
24.3. Integrated individuals shall be moved to training areas to receive basic training.
24.4. Following the completion of basic training, integrated individuals shall be deployed all over Sudan based on the strategic deployment plan of the Armed Forces.
24.5. The First Party shall commit to providing all the requirements of the assembly, training, and integration processes and shall incur the financial and administrative costs thereof.
24.6. The Parties shall abide by the letter and spirit of this Agreement.
24.7. Military ranks (for officers) shall be granted according to the size of the integrated forces and the regulations and standards followed by the Sudanese Armed Forces.
24.8. The Parties agree to complete the assembly, examination, sorting, verification, training and integration processes of the SPLA-N/Third Front forces within (12) twelve months of the date of signing this agreement.
24.9. Criteria for integrating individuals: the criteria for integrating individuals in the military establishment and security institutions shall be as follows:
24.9.1. Sudanese nationality;
24.9.2. No less than 18 years of age;
24.9.3. Mental and physical fitness;
24.9.4. Not convicted in an offense infringing upon honor and honesty, (except those who will be covered by the general amnesty under the peace agreement);
24.9.5. Voluntary consent of the individual.
24.10. Criteria for selecting officers: in addition to the agreed criteria stipulated in the foregoing paragraph, the criteria for selecting officers shall include the following:
24.10.1. Literacy;
24.10.2. Have not been dismissed from the Armed Forces and other security institutions due to incompetence or misconduct.

Page 158, TITLE 7. CHAPTER THREE: DISARMAMENT, DEMOBILIZATION and REINTEGRATION,
26.4. The Parties agree to create a joint committee to ensure the reintegration of Third Front- Tamazuj combatants who are not fit for military service into society, in accordance with the standards set by the National DDR Commission.
26.5. The Joint DDR Committee shall be created within (14) days of the date of the signing of this agreement.

Page 158, TITLE 7. CHAPTER THREE: DISARMAMENT, DEMOBILIZATION and REINTEGRATION,
27. Composition of the Committee:
27.1. The Joint DDR Committee shall be composed of the following:
27.1.1. (4) representatives of the Government of Sudan from the DDR;
27.1.2. (4) representatives of the Third Front-Tamazuj;
27.1.3. The committee shall submit its recommendations to the National DDR Commission.
27.1.4. The committee shall work in coordination with the committee responsible of implementing this agreement in the Assembly areas.
Intelligence services
Page 11, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.30.Without prejudice to what has been agreed to in the security arrangements documents for the tracks of Darfur and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement – North/ The Revolutionary Front, the Parties agree to reform and develop the security and military sector at the national level.

Page 52, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 9.Guiding principles for the final security arrangements, reform, development and modernization of security sector.
9.12.For purposes of this agreement, the military establishment and security services/the
security sector in Sudan shall mean the following:
...
9.12.3.The General Intelligence Service;

Page 59, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 25. Command and Control Mechanisms
25.5.2.Functions of the Joint High Military Committee for Security Arrangements.
25.5.2.14.To supervise the reintegration of the forces of the armed struggle movements/ Darfur Track into the Armed Forces, the Rapid Support Forces, the unified police forces, and the General Intelligence Service in accordance with the criteria agreed upon with the benefit of past experiences.
25.5.2.15.To undertake any other relevant functions.

Page 62, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration
26.7.The Parties agree to establish a Joint High Council chaired by the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, with the membership of the commander of Rapid Support Forces, Minister of Defense, Minister of the Interior, the Chief of Staff, the Director General of the Police, Director General of the General Intelligence Service, head of the Military Intelligence Authority and heads of the armed struggle movements for supervision, monitoring, evaluation, and follow up on the implementation of integrating the forces of the armed struggle movements and evaluating the security and humanitarian situation in Darfur. The Joint High Council shall hold periodic meetings. It shall, among other functions, form a mechanism to address the issue of war prisoners and missing persons of both Parties.

Page 64, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration
26.15.The number of former combatants who will be integrated into the Sudanese Armed Forces, the Police, and the General Intelligence Services shall be specified in accordance with the following criteria:

Page 66, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 28. The General Intelligence Service
28.1.The Parties recognize that the General Intelligence Service shall be a national and professional body whose members may not have any political affiliation or affiliation to a certain group, faction, region, or area. It shall owe allegiance to the homeland. Joining the General Intelligence Service shall be guaranteed for all Sudanese people in accordance with applicable criteria and standards;
28.2.The Parties agree to integrate an agreed number of members from the intelligence of the armed struggle movements/ Darfur Track into the General Intelligence Service in accordance with the agreed criteria and standards;
28.3.The Parties agree that the agreed number of officers in low-level and senior ranks from the intelligence of the armed struggle movements shall receive professional development and education in general intelligence, in accordance with the established standards.
28.4.The Parties agree to establish a Joint Intelligence Technical Committee to undertake the task of integrating the individuals of the armed struggle movements/ Darfur Trak into the General Intelligence Service in accordance with the agreed upon criteria.
28.5.The Joint Intelligence Technical Committee shall be composed of the following:
28.5.1.Representatives of the General Intelligence Service and representatives of the intelligence of the signatory armed struggle movements/ Darfur Track;
28.5.2.The integrated forces of the armed struggle movements/ Darfur Track shall be assembled in Khartoum for the purpose of training;
28.6.The Parties recognize the need to reform the General Intelligence Service with the aim to build its capacity, enhance its professionalism, and increase its effectiveness;
28.7.The General Intelligence Service shall have the following competencies:
28.7.1.Preserve the national security of Sudan, protect its constitution, social fabric, and the safety of its citizens from any threat, in coordination with other regular forces;
28.7.2.Collect, analyze, and evaluate information related to the security of Sudan and recommend taking the necessary precautionary measures;
28.7.3.Undertake the necessary search and investigation to reveal any conditions, facts, activities, or elements that may infringe upon the national security and safety of Sudan, in accordance with the provisions of the law;
28.7.4.Provide opinions, advice, consultation, and services in the areas of security and intelligence to the different state apparatuses, so as to ensure the safety and security of the state;
28.7.5.Uncover threats emanating from destructive activity in the areas of espionage, terrorism, extremism, conspiracy, and vandalism;
28.7.6.Reveal and combat subversive activities of organizations, groups, individuals, foreign countries, or Sudanese groups within Sudan and abroad;
28.7.7.Cooperate with counterpart or friendly agencies in exchanging information and countering terrorism or acts that threaten common order and security or any matter related to foreign security;
28.7.8.Protect important persons and public facilities and secure cities in coordination with other regular forces;
28.7.9.Undertake any other functions for which it is tasked, provided that such functions are not inconsistent with the Constitution.

Page 104, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 62. The state/region shall have a security committee in which the state/region governor is president and the state/region deputy governor, the district military commander, Chief of Police, head of the General Intelligence Agency, head of the legal department in the state/region, and any other relevant party are members.

Page 128, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Integration
93. The General Intelligence Service:
93.1.The Parties recognize that the General Intelligence Service shall be a national body whose members may not have any political affiliation or affiliation to a group, faction, region, or area. It shall owe allegiance to the homeland. Joining the Service shall be guaranteed for all Sudanese people in accordance with applicable criteria and standards.
93.2.The Parties agree to integrate the agreed number of officers and individuals from the SPLA-N/SRF intelligence into the General Intelligence Service in accordance with applicable criteria and standards, taking into consideration positive discrimination.
93.3.The parties agree to establish a Joint Technical Committee to undertake the task of integrating the officers and individuals of SPLA-N/SRF into the General Intelligence Service in accordance with the agreed upon criteria.
93.4.The Parties recognize the need to reform the General Intelligence Service with the aim to build its capacity, enhance its professionalism, and increase its effectiveness.
94. The General Intelligence Service shall have the following competencies:
94.1. The General Intelligence Service shall work in accordance with the competencies and functions stipulated in the Constitutional Declaration.
94.2. Preserve the national security of Sudan, protect its constitution, social fabric, and the safety of its citizens from any threat, in coordination with other regular forces.
94.3.Collect, analyze, and evaluate information related to the security of Sudan and recommend taking the necessary preventative measures.
94.4.Undertake the necessary search and investigation to reveal any conditions, facts, activities, or elements that may infringe on the national security and safety of Sudan, in accordance with the provisions of the law.
94.5.Provide opinions, advice, consultation, and services in the areas of security and intelligence to the different state services, so as to ensure the safety and security of the state.
94.6.Analyze and assess domestic and international public opinion and submit the findings to decision makers.
94.7.Reveal threats emanating from destructive activity in the areas of espionage, terrorism, extremism, conspiracy, and vandalism.
94.8. Uncover and combat subversive activities of organizations, groups, individuals, foreign countries, or Sudanese groups within Sudan and abroad.
94.9. Cooperate with counterparts or friendly agencies in exchanging information; and countering terrorism or acts that threaten common order and security or any matter related to foreign security.
94.10.Protect important persons and public facilities and secure cities in coordination with other regular forces.
94.11.Undertake any other functions for which it is tasked, provided that such functions are not inconsistent with the Constitution.

Page 153, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, Prohibited Acts.
20.1. Military activities, including military movements, reconnaissance, hostile reinforcements, recruitment, mandatory conscription and military exercises, except those authorized by the competent committee.
...
20.11. Espionage, sabotage and vandalism aimed at undermining the Agreement.

Page 157, TITLE 7. CHAPTER TWO: ASSEMBLY, TRAINING AND INTEGRATION, 26. The General Intelligence Service
26.1. The Parties recognize that the General Intelligence Service shall be a national and professional body whose members may not have any political affiliation to a certain party, group, faction, region or area. It shall owe allegiance to the homeland. Joining the General Intelligence Service shall be guaranteed for all Sudanese people in accordance with applicable criteria and parameters.
26.2. The Parties agree to integrate an agreed number of members from the Third Front- Tamazuj into the General Intelligence Service in accordance with the agreed criteria and principles.
26.3. The General Intelligence Services shall have the following competencies:
26.3.1. Preserve the national security of Sudan, protect its constitution, social fabric, and the safety of its citizens from any threat, in coordination with other regular institutions.
26.3.2. Collect, analyze, and assess information related to the security of Sudan and recommend taking the necessary precautionary measures.
26.3.3. Undertake the necessary research and investigation to reveal any conditions, facts, activities, or elements that may infringe on the national security and safety of Sudan, in accordance with the provisions of the law.
26.3.4. Provide opinions, advice, consultation, and services in the areas of security and intelligence to different state institutions, in a fashion that ensures the safety and security of the state.
26.3.5. Uncover threats emanating from destructive activity in the areas of espionage, terrorism, extremism, conspiracy, and vandalism.
26.3.6. Uncover and combat subversive activities of organizations, groups, individuals, foreign countries, or Sudanese groups within Sudan and abroad.
26.3.7. Cooperate with counterpart or friendly agencies in the exchange of information and countering terrorism or acts that threaten common order and security or any matter related to foreign security.
26.3.8. Protect important persons and public facilities and secure cities in coordination with other regular forces. It shall undertake any other functions for which it is tasked, provided that such functions are not inconsistent with the constitution.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 57, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 22. Monitoring Arms and Assets:
22.6.The Parties agree to establish a joint specialized technical committee to evaluate and assess the value of weapons and assets, provided that the Government of Sudan commits to reimbursing their value to the armed struggle movements.

Page 62, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration
26.3.The Parties agree that the assembly, examination, distribution, and vetting of the forces of the armed struggle movements/ Darfur Track shall be completed within (90 days) from the date of signing the peace agreement, in accordance with the agreed upon procedures for Assembly areas. The period may be extended by the Joint High Council;
...
26.5.The Parties agree to keep the integrated forces of the armed struggle movements in Darfur for a period of (40) forty months from the date of the signing of this agreement, which may be extended if deemed necessary for security and humanitarian reasons in the region. After this period, the forces shall be deployed according to the strategic deployment plan of the Armed Forces.

Page 62, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration
Throughout CHAPTER 8, following the Integration section, provisions extensively address the armed struggle movements' forces, in the context of integration in to the police forces and National army, with a focus on wider military power-sharing and DDR (see entries in military power-sharing and DDR categories).

Page 72, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 30. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR)
30.9.Disarmament and Demobilization Requirements and Processes
30.9.3.The armed struggle movements/ Darfur Track shall be responsible for administering former combatants in the Assembly areas, as well as their discipline and internal security;

Page 74, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 33. Reform, Development, and Modernization of the Military Establishment and Other Security Services
33.4.Areas of reform in the security sector.
33.4.2.Dismantling military and paramilitary institutions that are affiliated with the former regime;

Page 151, TITLE 7. Preamble
Willing to implement a comprehensive ceasefire and the processes of disarmament, demobilization, reintegration, and integration of the forces the Third Front - Tamazuj into the Sudanese military establishment.

Page 152, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, Objectives of the Agreement
7. This agreement aims to serve as a framework conducive to a permanent ceasefire and the integration of forces of the Third Front-Tamazuj into the Sudanese military establishment and other security services, to ultimately reach a just, comprehensive, and durable peace in Sudan.
...
9. To examine, sort, categorize, and train combatants of Third Front-Tamazuj before being integrated into the military establishment and regular services according to agreed timelines.
10. This agreement shall be deemed a bilateral agreement to address the presence of Third Front- Tamazuj, in completion of the comprehensive peace process.
...
13. This agreement shall continue to be valid until the completion of the reintegration process and the integration of Third Front-Tamazuj members who are deemed fit for service into the Sudanese military establishment. Afterwards the Third Front-Tamazuj forces shall be integral part of the military establishment and regular services pursuant to the Agreement.

Page 155, TITLE 7. CHAPTER TWO: ASSEMBLY, TRAINING AND INTEGRATION, 23. Assembly and Training
23.2.1. Manifests with the names of Third Front-Tamazuj combatants shall be submitted to the First Party within (14) fourteen days of the date of signing this agreement. Third Front-Tamazuj forces shall be assembled in agreed-upon areas. The competent committee may accept 10% of the primary manifest as missing names therefrom within (7) seven days of the date of submitting the primary manifest.

Page 156, TITLE 7. CHAPTER TWO: ASSEMBLY, TRAINING AND INTEGRATION, 24. Integration
24.1. Individuals fit for service who meet the criteria provided for in this agreement shall sever their relations with Third Front-Tamazuj after completing the necessary procedures in the assembly areas and filling the relevant forms, and thereupon shall become members affiliated with the Armed Forces and the competent security services.

Page 156, TITLE 7. CHAPTER TWO: ASSEMBLY, TRAINING AND INTEGRATION, 25. The Police
25.5. The Parties agree to integrate a number of the forces of the Third Front-Tamazuj to be agreed upon into the different departments of the Sudanese police.

Page 157, TITLE 7. CHAPTER TWO: ASSEMBLY, TRAINING AND INTEGRATION, 26. The General Intelligence Service
26.2. The Parties agree to integrate an agreed number of members from the Third Front- Tamazuj into the General Intelligence Service in accordance with the agreed criteria and principles.

Page 158, TITLE 7. CHAPTER THREE: DISARMAMENT, DEMOBILIZATION AND REINTEGRATION, 26.4. The Parties agree to create a joint committee to ensure the reintegration of Third Front- Tamazuj combatants who are not fit for military service into society, in accordance with the standards set by the National DDR Commission.

Page 158, TITLE 7. CHAPTER THREE: DISARMAMENT, DEMOBILIZATION AND REINTEGRATION, 27. Composition of the Committee:
27.1. The Joint DDR Committee shall be composed of the following:
...
27.1.2. (4) representatives of the Third Front-Tamazuj;

Page 193, TITLE 9, 9. Darfur Track Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements Implementation Matrix
(7) Activity: Designate Assembly areas and focal points of the forces of the armed struggle movements
Timing: D-Day + 14
Implementing Party: Ceasefire Committee
Funding: Government of Sudan
Procedures: Designating areas and points
Reference: Article 23.4

Page 194, TITLE 9, 9. Darfur Track Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements Implementation Matrix
(14) Activity: Commence arrival of the forces of the armed struggle movements to Assembly areas
Timing: D-Day + 45
Implementing Party: The Parties and competent committees
Funding: Government of Sudan
Procedures: Coordination
Reference: Article 26.17.9
...
(17) Activity: Submit lists of combatants of the armed struggle movements and begin entering Assembly areas
Timing: D-Day + 45
Implementing Party: The Ceasefire Committee
Procedures: Submit lists
Reference: Articles 23.5 & 23.6
...
(19) Activity: Submit manifests of missing names of combatants of the armed struggle movements within a percentage of 10% of the main list.
Timing: D-Day +45 until D-Day +66
Implementing Party: The Ceasefire Committee
Procedures: Submit manifests
Reference: Articles 23.7

Page 195, TITLE 9, 9. Darfur Track Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements Implementation Matrix
(22) Activity: Appoint officers from the armed struggle movements in the planning and policy unit
Timing: D-Day + 90
Implementing Party: The Parties
Composition: The Parties
Procedures: Decision
Reference: Article 26.9
...
(26) Activity: End of the period of keeping the integrated forces of the armed struggle movements in Darfur states for (40) extendable months
Timing: D-Day +1200
Implementing Party: The Joint High Council
Composition: The Parties
Reference: Article 26.5
(27) Activity: Integrated combatants of the forces of armed struggle movements may not go into retirement in the first 6 years of their integration
Timing: D-Day +2160
Implementing Party: The military institution and security services
Procedure: Decision
Reference: Article 26.17.3
Withdrawal of foreign forces
Page 58, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 24. Armed and Allied Elements in Darfur
24.4.The Government of Sudan shall control and disarm armed and allied elements in Darfur;
24.5.The Government of Sudan shall control and disarm such armed foreign elements and repatriate them to their countries, if any, and shall bind them to the provisions of this agreement, in coordination with neighboring countries

Page 68, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 29. Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.Functions of the Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.2.Filling the potential security vacuum after the departure of the UNAMID forces;
Corruption
Page 9, TITLE 1, 8. National Commissions, Committees, Agencies, and Institutions:
8.5. The Parties agree on the participation of signatory parties to this agreement in the Anti- Corruption Committee and other committees to be established pursuant to the conditions thereof.

Page 66, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 27. The Police
27.13.5.Combat corruption;

Page 128, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Integration
91. Duties of the Joint Police Technical Committee
...
91.13.Combat corruption.
Crime/organised crime
Page 55, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 18. Prohibited Acts
18.11.Espionage, sabotage, and vandalism aimed at undermining any party to the agreement.

Page 58, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 24. Armed and Allied Elements in Darfur
24.9.The Government of Sudan shall provide the Ceasefire Committee with a comprehensive plan for disarming armed troops and irregular fighters, combating persons who are illegally armed, gangs, and other outlawed groups active in Darfur. The plan shall also include arrangements for the rehabilitation of members of such groups and their social and economic reintegration;
24.10.The Military Ceasefire Committee shall monitor disarmament of armed troops and irregular fighters and verification thereof in addition to combating persons who are illegally armed, gangs, and other outlawed groups in accordance with the agreed plan.

Page 66, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 27. The Police
27.13.4.Combat organized and cross-border crime, including terrorism, human trafficking, illegal migration, drug and weapons smuggling, money laundering, and electronic crimes;

Page 67, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 28. The General Intelligence Service
28.7.5.Uncover threats emanating from destructive activity in the areas of espionage, terrorism, extremism, conspiracy, and vandalism;

Page 68, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 29. Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.Functions of the Security Keeping Force in Darfur.
29.5.6.Contributing to the combat of organized crime;

Page 139, TITLE 4, CHAPTER TWO: THE SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUE, Issues of Agriculture and Forestry
69. Activating the law of forestry and holding to account perpetrators of illegal logging at the cost of forestry;
Drugs
Page 66, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 27. The Police
27.13.4.Combat organized and cross-border crime, including terrorism, human trafficking, illegal migration, drug and weapons smuggling, money laundering, and electronic crimes;

Page 128, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Integration
91. Duties of the Joint Police Technical Committee
...
91.12.Combat organized and cross-border crime, including terrorism, human trafficking, illegal migration, weapons and drugs smuggling, money laundering and electronic crimes.
Terrorism
Page 66, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 27. The Police
27.13.4.Combat organized and cross-border crime, including terrorism, human trafficking, illegal migration, drug and weapons smuggling, money laundering, and electronic crimes;

Page 67, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 28. The General Intelligence Service
28.7.5.Uncover threats emanating from destructive activity in the areas of espionage, terrorism, extremism, conspiracy, and vandalism;
...
28.7.7.Cooperate with counterpart or friendly agencies in exchanging information and countering terrorism or acts that threaten common order and security or any matter related to foreign security;

Page 128, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Integration
91. Duties of the Joint Police Technical Committee
...
91.12.Combat organized and cross-border crime, including terrorism, human trafficking, illegal migration, weapons and drugs smuggling, money laundering and electronic crimes.

Page 129, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONTN, Integration
94. The General Intelligence Service shall have the following competencies:
...
94.7.Reveal threats emanating from destructive activity in the areas of espionage, terrorism, extremism, conspiracy, and vandalism.
...
94.9. Cooperate with counterparts or friendly agencies in exchanging information; and countering terrorism or acts that threaten common order and security or any matter related to foreign security.

Page 157, TITLE 7. CHAPTER TWO: ASSEMBLY, TRAINING and INTEGRATION, 26. The General Intelligence Service
26.3. The General Intelligence Services shall have the following competencies:
26.3.5. Uncover threats emanating from destructive activity in the areas of espionage, terrorism, extremism, conspiracy, and vandalism.
...
26.3.7. Cooperate with counterpart or friendly agencies in the exchange of information and countering terrorism or acts that threaten common order and security or any matter related to foreign security.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
Page 7, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.23.The Parties shall hold a conference for reconciliation and social healing, provided that the Parties agree on mechanisms and schedules therefor, with a commitment to the participation of all Sudanese people without exclusion.
1.24.Combating impunity and bringing justice for victims are necessary for building national reconciliation, healing, promoting the values of peaceful coexistence, and strengthening the social fabric.

Page 12, TITLE 1, 19. Transitional Justice
19.1.Without prejudice to what has been agreed in negotiation tracks, the Parties agree to accord the issue of transitional justice the utmost priority and to form a Transitional Justice Commission within thirty (30) days of the date of signing the peace agreement with the signatory parties to this agreement, provided that transitional justice mechanisms encompass all of Sudan, particularly the conflict areas.

Page 27, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL
General Principles
7. The importance of independent and impartial justice, accountability, and reconciliation, mechanisms, including transitional justice mechanisms, that are consistent with international norms and standards.
...
10. Recognition of the special status of women, children, and youth and their issues, as well as the important role of women and youth in the prevention and resolution of conflicts, in transitional justice processes and in peace-building, and the imperative of their equal participation, and full engagement in all efforts for the maintenance of international peace and security, including justice and reconciliation.

Page 95, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.6. The different levels of governance in the Two Areas shall have exclusive powers with regard to transitional justice, reparations, investigating crimes and violations perpetrated, reconciliation, healing the wounds of war, promoting values of peaceful coexistence, and strengthening social fabric.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:…
10.8.Transitional justice and reconciliation shall have joint mechanisms derived from the norms, cultures, and heritage of the peoples of Sudan and the Two Areas.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:...
10.9.Create mechanisms that help to end impunity for perpetrators and bring justice for victims to establish a process of national reconciliation and healing. This shall be founded on upholding the rule of law and the international conventions of human rights and the international humanitarian law.

Page 134, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, Human Rights and Transitional Justice
5. The federal government shall endeavor to promote human rights in accordance with ratified international and regional instruments and protect freedom of expression, thought, belief and political affiliation;
6. The Parties affirm their willingness to cooperate fully and without restrictions in relation to persons against whom arrest warrants have been issued including, among other things, facilitating bringing those wanted to the International Criminal Court to stand trial;
7. The Parties shall consider signing and ratifying treaties, agreements and protocols, particularly those related to the rights of women, children and families and complying with the international law and rules of human rights;
8. Codifying UNSC resolution 1325 related to Women, Peace and Security;
9. The Federal Government shall endeavor to carry out fair investigations and trials for all violations perpetrated in the region since 30 June 1989, particularly the events of 29 January 2005, the events of 27-28 Ramadan 2019 in Port Sudan, preceding events in the state of alQadarif and the rest of the region and the various events that followed in the region by forming independent investigation committees and bringing perpetrators to stand trial as soon as
possible;
10. Guaranteeing the rights of shipping and unloading workers onboard and off-board ships and reaching lasting remedies for their employment status in accordance with the law;

Page 218, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Investigate events in the region
Timing: Immediately after signing the agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition: Government of Sudan
Procedures: Create independent investigation mechanisms
Reference / article: 9
Amnesty/pardon
Amnesty/pardon proper
Page 12, TITLE 1, 17. General Amnesty:
17.1.The Government shall commit to granting a general amnesty for passed rulings and standing warrants against political leadership and members of armed movements in relation to their membership therein, following the necessary legal review by the competent bodies immediately upon signing the peace agreement.

Page 32, TITLE 2. Chapter 3: Justice, Accountability, and Reconciliation Protocol
26. Amnesty and Immunity
26.1.The Government shall commit to the issuance of general amnesty for sentences and warrants issued against political leaders and members of the armed movements due to their membership therein, after the competent bodies undertake the necessary legal review immediately upon signing the Peace Agreement.

Page 64, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration
26.16.Criteria for the integration of individuals: criteria for general eligibility for integration in military institutions and security services shall be as follows:
...
26.16.4.Not convicted of an offense infringing upon honor and honesty (except those who will be covered by the general amnesty under the peace agreement);

Page 167, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Issue the general amnesty decree
Timing: Immediately after signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue the general amnesty decreee
Reference article: 17.1

Page 191, TITLE 9, 8. Darfur Track: Justice, Accountability, and Reconciliation Implementation Matrix
(16) Activity: Issue a general amnesty
Timing: Immediately upon signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Procedures: Issue a decision for general amnesty
Reference/ Article: 26.1 and article 17.1 of the National Issues
Relief of other sanctions
Page 32, TITLE 2. Chapter 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, 26. Amnesty and Immunity
26.2.The Government shall commit to return property belonging to the organizations and individuals which have been confiscated because of the war, provided that ownership is proven by any means of proof.
Power to amnesty
Page 75, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 34. Amnesty
The Government shall commit to issuing a general amnesty for the indictments and standing warrants issued against political leaders and members of the armed movements because of their membership therein, after conducting the required legal review by the competent bodies immediately upon signing of the peace agreement.
Amnesty prohibition
Page 8, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.31.The scope of general amnesty as stipulated in this agreement shall not apply to war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide, sexual violence, the use of soldiers under the age of 18, and gross violations of human rights and international humanitarian law.

Page 27, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL
General Principles
4. Recognition that that the pursuit of justice, accountability, and reconciliation precludes the possibility of any amnesty or immunity for perpetrators of genocide, crimes against humanity, or war crimes.

Page 30, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, 22. The Truth and Reconciliation Committee (TRC)
22.5.9.The TRC shall not have the authority to grant amnesty of any kind, unless approved by victims and in a fashion that facilitates its work, promotes community reconciliations and heals the wounds caused by the conflict in Darfur;

Page 144-145, TITLE 5. ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK (POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC) ISSUES, 7. An independent committee shall be formed by the attorney general to investigate human rights violations and shooting at protestors in the events of April 2006 in al-Arkoub area and in June 2006 in Kajbar area, in observance of the principle of no-impunity for perpetrators.
Courts
National courts
Page 27, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, General Principles
9. Ensuring that all perpetrators of violations of human rights and international humanitarian law are held accountable pursuant to the jurisdiction of domestic courts, the International Criminal Court, or the Special Court for war crimes in Darfur.

Page 28, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, 20. National Courts
20.1.Except for crimes that amount to violations of international criminal law and the crimes prescribed within the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, the Special Court for Darfur, and the issues reserved for the Truth and Reconciliation Committees, Sudanese courts shall exercise their authority and jurisdiction as prescribed by law.
20.2.The domestic courts within the national judicial system of Sudan shall refer all cases outside of their jurisdiction to other competent justice mechanisms, namely: The Special Court for Darfur, traditional justice mechanisms, and the Truth and Reconciliation Committee.

Page 30, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, 23. Traditional Justice Mechanisms
23.1.Traditional justice mechanisms in Darfur shall be empowered to penalize individuals who committed offenses related to the conflict or to the perpetuation of intra-tribal and inter-tribal conflicts. The jurisdiction of traditional justice mechanisms shall include all offenses related to the conflicts that fall outside the jurisdiction of the ICC, the Special Court for Darfur Crimes, the national judiciary of Sudan, and the Truth and Reconciliation Committee.
...
23.7.Traditional justice mechanisms shall refer all cases outside of their jurisdiction to other competent justice mechanisms, including the Special Court for Darfur Crimes, the national judiciary of Sudan, and the Truth and Reconciliation Committee.

Pages 31-32, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, 25. Special Court for Darfur Crimes
25.1.The Parties agree to establish a special tribunal for crimes that took place in Darfur within 90 (ninety days) of the signing of this Agreement. The work of the tribunal shall continue for 10 (ten years) from the date of its establishment, unless it has completed its work before this specified period.
25.2.The Court shall be composed of Sudanese judges recognized for their competence and integrity and appointed by the head of the judiciary.
25.3.An independent prosecutor for the Special Court for Darfur Crimes shall be appointed by the Attorney General upon the approval of the Parties to the Agreement.
25.4.The Special Court for Darfur Crimes shall have the jurisdiction to prosecute genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and gross violations of international human rights and humanitarian law since 2002.
25.5.The Special Court shall define its headquarters and it may establish courts in any of the areas of Darfur.
25.6.A team of experts and specialists from the African Union shall monitor the court’s procedures to ensure proceedings are conducted in accordance with the rules of justice and fairness set forth in international law.
25.7.The Special Court for Darfur Crimes shall apply Sudanese criminal law and international criminal law in relation to war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide.
25.8.The Government of Sudan commits to ensuring access to witnesses, victims, and perpetrators to the Special Court, including those outside Darfur, in coordination with the competent authorities in relevant fields.

Page 191-192, TITLE 9, 8. Darfur Track: Justice, Accountability, and Reconciliation Implementation Matrix
(12) Activity: Establish the Special Court for Darfur Crimes
Timing: Within 90 days of the date of signing the Agreement and continues for 10 years
Implementing Party: The Judicial Authority
Procedures: Issue a decision establishing the court
Reference/ Article: 25.1; 25.2; and 25.5
(13) Activity: Appoint an independent prosecutor for the Special Court for Darfur Crimes
Timing: After signing the Agreement
Implementing Party: The prosecutor with consensus of the Parties
Procedures: Issue a decision appointing the public prosecutor of the Special Court for Darfur Crimes
Reference/ Article: 25.3
(14) Activity: Ensure access of witnesses, victims, and perpetrators to the Special Court, including those outside of Darfur
Timing: After establishing the Special Court for Darfur Crimes
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: The Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund
Procedures: Take the necessary arrangements to ensure access of witnesses, victims and perpetrators
Reference/ Article: 25.8
(15) Activity: Establish national courts and refer all crimes outside its jurisdictions to the Special Court, traditional justice mechanisms, and the TRC
Timing: After establishing the Special Court for Darfur Crimes
Procedures: Issue decisions to establish courts
Reference/ Article: 20.2
International courts
Page 27, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, General Principles
9. Ensuring that all perpetrators of violations of human rights and international humanitarian law are held accountable pursuant to the jurisdiction of domestic courts, the International Criminal Court, or the Special Court for war crimes in Darfur.

Page 28, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, 20. The National Judiciary
20.1.Except for crimes that amount to violations of international criminal law and the crimes prescribed within the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, the Special Court for Darfur, and the issues reserved for the Truth and Reconciliation Committees, Sudanese courts shall exercise their authority and jurisdiction as prescribed by law.

Page 30, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, 23. Traditional Justice Mechanisms
23.1.Traditional justice mechanisms in Darfur shall be empowered to penalize individuals who committed offenses related to the conflict or to the perpetuation of intra-tribal and inter-tribal conflicts. The jurisdiction of traditional justice mechanisms shall include all offenses related to the conflicts that fall outside the jurisdiction of the ICC, the Special Court for Darfur Crimes, the national judiciary of Sudan, and the Truth and Reconciliation Committee.

Page 31, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, 24. The International Criminal Court
24.1.The Parties acknowledge their preparedness for full and unlimited cooperation with the ICC concerning persons for whom arrest warrants have been issued. This includes, among other things, facilitating the appearance of those wanted before the ICC and committing to Security Council Resolution 1593 of 2005, which referred the Darfur situation to the ICC.
24.2.The Parties shall provide ICC prosecutors and investigators with easy access to victims, witnesses, and investigation sites, and shall allow ICC personnel to freely travel throughout Sudan’s roads, waterways, and airspace at all times.
24.3.The Parties shall not interfere with the investigations and trials conducted by the ICC and shall ensure the protection and safety of all prosecutors, victims, and witnesses.
24.4.The Parties pledge that all persons subject to ICC warrants, standing trial at the ICC, or convicted by the ICC shall be immediately removed from any elected or appointed government positions and shall be unable to hold any such positions until their removal from ICC warrants, the dismissal or dropping of charges against them, or their being found not-guilty by the ICC.

Page 190-191, TITLE 9, 8. Darfur Track: Justice, Accountability, and Reconciliation Implementation Matrix
(9) Activity: Cooperation with the ICC and facilitating the appearance of the wanted before the ICC and abiding by the Security Council Resolution 1593
Timing: Immediately after signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: The Parties
Procedures: Communication and the full unlimited
Reference/ Article: 24.1
(10) Activity: Facilitate access to victims, witnesses, and investigation sites, and allow ICC personnel to freely move around and ensure the protection and safety of all prosecutors, victims and witnesses
Timing: Immediately after signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Procedures: Facilitate access to victims, witnesses and investigation sites
Reference/ Article: 24.2 and 24.3
Mechanism
Pages 29-30, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, 22. The Truth and Reconciliation Committee (TRC)
22.1.The Parties agree to establish a Truth and Reconciliation Committee within 60 (sixty days) of the date of signing this Agreement, which shall:
22.1.1.Identify and assess the root causes of conflicts in Darfur.
22.1.2.Investigate violations, crimes, and human rights abuses including violations of economic, social, environmental, and cultural rights committed since June 1989.
22.1.3.Address issues of impunity and build confidence and a culture of peace and reconciliation.
22.1.4.Undertake a comprehensive analysis to determine the causes, nature, and extent of the conflicts, including the extent of international humanitarian law and human rights law violations and the motives of the perpetrators.
22.1.5.Determine whether such violations were the result of deliberate planning by the state or state actors, political organizations, the armed struggle movements, or other groups or individuals.
22.1.6.Perform any other tasks or activities related to truth and reconciliation.
22.2.The Parties agree that the TRC shall commence operations within 60 (sixty days) from the date of its establishment, and shall continue its operations for a period no less than 10 (ten years) from the date of its first day of operation, unless it completes its duties fully.
22.3.The Truth and Reconciliation Committee shall have headquarters in the capitals of the states of Darfur and Khartoum, and an office in every community affected by the conflicts, as needed.
22.4.The TRC shall be composed of the following:
22.4.1.The TRC shall be composed of 11 members;
22.4.2.Each Party shall select 5 members, in addition to one person agreed upon by the Parties to act as chairperson of the committee;
22.4.3.Each Party shall select at least one woman on the committee;
22.4.4.Individuals appointed to the TRC shall be persons of high moral and professional integrity, and regarded as impartial by the Darfur population;
22.4.5.The TRC members shall be independent and have extensive experience in human rights, and/or transitional justice and/or truth and reconciliation committees.
22.5.In addition to any further competencies determined by the Parties, the TRC shall have the following competencies:
22.5.1.Provide an opportunity for the victims and perpetrators of human rights violations as well as other people to share their experiences, establish a common understanding of the past, facilitate genuine healing within communities, promote reconciliation, and prevent future atrocities;
22.5.2.Receive statements and testimonies from victims, witnesses, local communities, interest groups, persons directly or indirectly involved in events, or any other group or individual;
22.5.3.Undertake investigations and research, including the powers to call persons to speak before the TRC, to collect relevant evidence, to conduct the necessary interviews, and undertake any other measures or inquiries it deems useful to perform its mandate;
22.5.4.Hold hearings;
22.5.5.Engage in activities it views as appropriate to advance community reconciliation;
22.5.6.Store collected evidence in an agreed-upon location provided with the necessary safety measures to protect victims and witnesses;
22.5.7.Accurate and comprehensive record and documentation of all crimes and forms of violations, as well as effective systems for managing documentation to facilitate the recovery of information;
22.5.8.In the interest of preventing further psychological or emotional harm to victims, and to encourage witnesses to give their testimonies, the TRC will ensure that victims and witnesses receive support from a professional team of psychologists. Special procedures shall be introduced to protect child witnesses and victims;
22.5.9.The TRC shall not have the authority to grant amnesty of any kind, unless approved by victims and in a fashion that facilitates its work, promotes community reconciliations and heals the wounds caused by the conflict in Darfur;
22.5.10.The Parties shall determine the full scope of the investigative semi-judicial powers of TRC; and
22.5.11.The TRC shall recommend measures towards strengthening and solidifying a comprehensive and lasting peace in Darfur and shall submit its findings and recommendations periodically to the government of Darfur region/states. The TRC shall submit its reports with recommendations to take legal, political, or administrative measures based on the findings of its investigations. The report shall remove all confidential personally-identifiable information, and shall be made public on a large-scale.
22.6.The Parties shall request the assistance of the international community in providing the necessary financial and technical support for the work of the TRC. The Government of Sudan shall ensure that the TRC receives adequate funds, appropriate facilities and appropriately qualified national and international staff to assist it in carrying out its functions. The funding necessary for the initiation of TRC shall be provided.
22.7.The Parties shall ensure the prevention of interference in the work of the TRC, intimidation or influence of its members and staff, and the infringement of its affiliates, property, assets, and facilities, and permit them to function independently. The TRC shall adopt its internal bylaws, which shall be simple, publicly accessible, and informed by best practices gathered through collaboration with international organizations and experts in international law. The TRC shall cooperate and coordinate with other mechanisms identified by this Agreement.

Page 38, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 12. Compensation and Reparations Fund
12.15.The Fund shall cooperate and coordinate with other commissions established pursuant to this Agreement, especially the Commission for the Return of IDPs and Refugees, the Development and Reconstruction Commission, the Lands and Hawakeer Commission, the Truth and Reconciliation Committee, the Darfur Special Court for War Crimes, and the mechanisms of traditional justice.

Page 108, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, DEVELOPMENT AND RECONSTRUCTION COMMISSION AND MECHANISM, 85. Transitional Justice and Reconciliation Commission: The Parties shall establish a branch of the National Transitional Justice and Reconciliation Commission in the state/region. A law shall define the powers, competencies, and method of work thereof.

Page 167, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish the Transitional Justice Commission
Timing: Within 30 days of the date of signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision establishing the Commission
Reference article: 19.1

Page 189-191, TITLE 9, 8. Darfur Track: Justice, Accountability, and Reconciliation Implementation Matrix
(1) Activity: Establish the Truth and Reconciliation Committee (TRC)
Timing: Within 60 days of the date of signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: The Parties
Source of Funding: The Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund
Composition: 11 members and each Party shall select at least one woman
Procedures: Issue a decision creating the committee
Reference/ Article: 22.1; 22.1.1; 22.1.2; 22.1.3; 22.1.4; 22.1.5; 22.1.6; 22.4; and 21.1
(2) Activity: TRC commencement of operations
Timing: Within 60 days of the date of establishing the TRC and for a period of 10 years
Implementing Party: TRC
Source of Funding: The Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund
Procedures: Take the necessary measures
Reference/ Article: 22.2
(3) Activity: Create headquarters and offices of the TRC
Timing: After establishment of the TRC
Implementing Party: TRC
Source of Funding: The Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund
Procedures: Take the necessary measures
Reference/ Article: 22.3
(4) Activity: Determine the semi-judicial powers of TRC and protect staff and witnesses
Timing: After establishment of the TRC
Implementing Party: The Parties
Reference/ Article: 22.5.10 and 22.7
(5) Activity: Present and publish reports and recommendations
Timing: Periodically after commencing its activities
Implementing Party: TRC
Procedures: Draft and submit reports to the Darfur regional/ state government and publish them.
Reference/ Article: 22.5.11
...
(7) Activity: Develop the regulations and rules of procedures of the TRC
Timing: Immediately after the establishment of the TRC
Implementing Party: TRC
Procedures: Develop and adopt the regulations and rules of procedures
Reference/ Article: 22.7
(8) Activity: Enable traditional justice mechanisms in Darfur to deal with individuals who have committed crimes related to the conflict or to the perpetuation of inter-tribal and intra-tribal conflicts
Timing: After establishment of the TRC
Implementing Party: TRC and local authorities
Source of Funding: The Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund
Procedures: Empower traditional mechanisms and provide them with the logistics
Reference/ Article: 23.1; 23.2; 23.3; and 23.6

Page 200, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish the commission for transitional justice and reconciliation in the state / region
Timing: after establishing the national commission
Implementing Party: The state / regional government
Source of Funding: government of Sudan and donors
Composition: the state / regional government
Location: state / region
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 85

Page 209, TITLE 9, 12. Northern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish specialised organs and commissions that ensure remedying grievances and restitution
Timing: After ratifying the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Sources of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition: Create the specialized organs
Procedures: Issue decisions
Reference / article: Article 14 General Principles

Page 210, TITLE 9, 12. Northern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Form an independent committee to investigate human rights violations (Kajbar / al-Arkoub)
Timing: Immediately upon ratifying the peace agreement
Implementing Party: The attorney general
Sources of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Issue the decisions to form an independent committee
Reference / article: Article 7 (Northern Track Issues)
Prisoner release
Page 53, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 14. General Provisions and Principles of the Permanent Ceasefire
14.5.The Parties shall commit to immediately releasing the remaining prisoners of war unless they are indicted in private rights cases as a sign of national reconciliation, in addition to releasing any other persons detained due to the war in furtherance of confidence building measures and searching for missing persons;
14.6.The Parties must engage judicial and legal bodies, national organizations and the ICRC in the process of releasing war prisoners and other persons detained due to the war and searching for missing persons;

Page 62, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration
26.7.The Parties agree to establish a Joint High Council chaired by the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, with the membership of the commander of Rapid Support Forces, Minister of Defense, Minister of the Interior, the Chief of Staff, the Director General of the Police, Director General of the General Intelligence Service, head of the Military Intelligence Authority and heads of the armed struggle movements for supervision, monitoring, evaluation, and follow up on the implementation of integrating the forces of the armed struggle movements and evaluating the security and humanitarian situation in Darfur. The Joint High Council shall hold periodic meetings. It shall, among other functions, form a mechanism to address the issue of war prisoners and missing persons of both Parties.
26.8.The Parties agree to establish a joint high committee with equal membership of the Parties to address the issue of prisoners and missing persons of both parties within (30) days from the date of the signing of this agreement. The committee shall submit its final report to the Joint High Council within three months of the date of its establishment;

Page 112, TITLE 3, CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, General and Fundamental Provisions
20. The Parties shall commit to engaging judicial and legal bodies, national organizations, and the International Committee of the Red Cross in the process of releasing all prisoners of war and other people detained or convicted as a result of the war as well as looking for missing persons in a fashion that promotes reconciliation and heals the wounds of war.

Page 194, TITLE 9, 9. Darfur Track Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements Implementation Matrix
(12) Activity: The Joint High Council shall establish a joint high committee to address the issue of prisoners and missing persons of both parties
Timing: D-Day + 30
Implementing Party: The Joint High Council
Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition: The Parties
Procedures: Decision by the Council
Reference: Articles 26.8

Page 195, TITLE 9, 9. Darfur Track Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements Implementation Matrix
(23) Activity: The Joint High Committee for addressing the issue of war prisoners and missing persons submits its final report to the Joint High Council
Timing: D-Day + 120
Implementing Party: The High Committee for addressing the issues of war prisoners and missing persons
Funding: Government of Sudan
Procedures: Submit reports
Reference: Articles 26.8
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
Page 27, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, General Principles
2. Adopting transitional justice mechanisms to provide remedies for victims and legal accountability for perpetrators of acts of violence related to the conflicts in Darfur.
...
5. The right of victims to have unhindered access to effective justice and redress mechanisms, in particular the right to an adequate, effective, and prompt remedy or reparations for violations of international human rights law and international humanitarian law.
6. The right of victims to have access to education about their rights as victims of domestic violations, human rights violations, and other violations of international humanitarian law.

Pages 29, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, 21. Truth and Reconciliation
21.2.5 Providing formal and informal apologies, individually and collectively, to the victims of war.

PageS 29-30, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, 22. The Truth and Reconciliation Committee (TRC)
22.5.In addition to any further competencies determined by the Parties, the TRC shall have the following competencies:
22.5.1.Provide an opportunity for the victims and perpetrators of human rights violations as well as other people to share their experiences, establish a common understanding of the past, facilitate genuine healing within communities, promote reconciliation, and prevent future atrocities;
22.5.2.Receive statements and testimonies from victims, witnesses, local communities, interest groups, persons directly or indirectly involved in events, or any other group or individual;
...
22.5.8.In the interest of preventing further psychological or emotional harm to victims, and to encourage witnesses to give their testimonies, the TRC will ensure that victims and witnesses receive support from a professional team of psychologists. Special procedures shall be introduced to protect child witnesses and victims;
22.5.9.The TRC shall not have the authority to grant amnesty of any kind, unless approved by victims and in a fashion that facilitates its work, promotes community reconciliations and heals the wounds caused by the conflict in Darfur;

Page 31, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, 23. Traditional Justice Mechanisms
23.9.Respecting the due process rights of the accused and providing timely justice to victims shall be a constant consideration at all stages of proceedings within the traditional justice mechanisms.
...
23.11.Free legal aid shall be provided to the victims and to the defendant for an effective defense in all cases brought before traditional justice mechanisms.

Page 31, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, 24. The International Criminal Court
24.2.The Parties shall provide ICC prosecutors and investigators with easy access to victims, witnesses, and investigation sites, and shall allow ICC personnel to freely travel throughout Sudan’s roads, waterways, and airspace at all times.

Page 32, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, 25. Special Court for Darfur Crimes
25.8.The Government of Sudan commits to ensuring access to witnesses, victims, and perpetrators to the Special Court, including those outside Darfur, in coordination with the competent authorities in relevant fields.

Page 32, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, 27. Memorialization
27.1.The Parties agree to establish memorials honoring the victims of the conflicts in Darfur. The memorialization will help provide closure for those who experienced the conflict, and education and awareness-raising for those who did not. Memorialization for victims of the conflict in Darfur may take many forms, including but not limited to annual public ceremonies, museums, documentation centers, or monuments.
27.2.The memorials for victims of the conflict in Darfur shall be designed to promote reconciliation, and to demonstrate commitment of the people of Darfur and the Government of Sudan to protecting human rights and preventing the recurrence of violence. The memorial spaces for victims of the conflict in Darfur will also be used as places to engage in civic affairs and education programs related to the conflict and its aftermath.

Page 36, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, General Principles
1. Victims of the conflict in Darfur shall have the right to have unimpeded access to effective justice and redress mechanisms, including the right to an adequate, effective, and prompt remedy or reparation for damages arising from the conflict in Darfur and for violations of international human rights law and international humanitarian law.
2. Victims of the conflict in Darfur shall have the right to reparations in the form of compensation, restitution, rehabilitation, and/or satisfaction, and commemoration.
3. All individuals and communities in Darfur who suffered direct or indirect damage as a result of the conflict in Darfur or other grave human rights violations during the conflict in Darfur shall have a right to reparations.
4. Victims of the conflict in Darfur shall have guaranteed access to the necessary knowledge and information related to their rights as victims of violations of human rights, international humanitarian law, and other relevant international laws, including their right to reparations.
5. Reparations awarded to victims of the conflict in Darfur shall be designed to acknowledge their suffering, repair their losses, and restore the dignity, security, and stability of victims and their communities.

Page 36-37, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, General Principles
10. For purposes of the Peace Agreement, the term “victims of the conflict in Darfur” shall mean:
10.1.Individuals and groups affected by the conflict in Darfur, including male and female survivors of rape, victims of physical, mental, and psychological injuries or those who lost their property or whose basic rights were violated.
10.2.Parentless children.
10.3.Unaccompanied children.
10.4.Separated children.
10.5.Immediate family or dependents of persons who suffered harm as defined in Paragraph (10.1).
10.6.Non-combatants who suffered harm while intervening to assist persons in distress or to prevent victimization.

Page 38, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 12. Compensation and Reparations Fund
12.11.[The Fund shall] develop a table for awarding the timely compensation payments on the basis of financial principles that require awarding financial compensation proportionate to the damage and loss suffered by the victim. Women, men, children and persons with special needs shall be treated equally when implementing the payments.
...
12.16.Regular revision shall be undertaken to ensure the optimal use and distribution of funds allocated to compensate victims, in accordance with the financial procedures applicable in such cases, including the principles of equality of gender and age.
...
12.18.The Parties agree to establish a fund to care for the affairs of martyrs and the wounded in Darfur within ninety (90) days of the date of signing this Agreement, provided that the federal government contributes to its financing and seeks to solicit money from inside and outside Sudan.

Page 43, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 8. Internally Displaced Persons and Refugees Commission
8.6.4.The IDPRC shall establish a fair valuation mechanism for the purpose of receiving claims from victims to receive compensation and other means of reparations for harm resulting from the conflict in Darfur.
...
8.6.17.The IDPRC may submit recommendations to relevant parties to provide urgent assistance to victims and those in need among IDPs and refugees, provided that such assistance does not adversely impact their rights to due compensations from IDPRC.

Page 47, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 9. Darfur Lands and Hawakeer Commission
9.7. The DLHC shall form a mechanism for fair evaluation for purposes of receiving claims from victims to receive compensation and other means of reparations for harm inflicted due to the conflict.

Page 49, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, Preamble
ACKNOWLEDGING the major role played by the martyrs of the Armed Forces, the Rapid Support Forces, security forces, and forces of the armed struggle movements during the struggle for freedom, peace, justice and equality, and in furtherance of national reconciliation, a national day for martyrs shall be created.

Page 63, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration
26.12.The Parties agree to establish a fund to care for the affairs of martyrs and the wounded in Darfur within three months of the signing of this Agreement, provided that the Federal Government contributes to its funding and works to attract funds internally and from abroad.

Page 94, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT, General Principles
4. Ensure that the right of victims to have access to effective justice and reparation mechanisms, especially the basic rights to prompt redress for injustices and compensation.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:…
10.9.Create mechanisms that help to end impunity for perpetrators and bring justice for victims to establish a process of national reconciliation and healing. This shall be founded on upholding the rule of law and the international conventions of human rights and the international humanitarian law.

Page 109, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GENERAL PROVISIONS, 105. The Parties agree to establish a fund concerned with the affairs of martyrs and wounded persons in the Two Areas within three months from the date of signing this Agreement provided that the Federal Government contribute to its funding and solicit foreign and domestic funding for that purpose.

Page 191-192, TITLE 9, 8. Darfur Track: Justice, Accountability, and Reconciliation Implementation Matrix
(10) Activity: Facilitate access to victims, witnesses, and investigation sites, and allow ICC personnel to freely move around and ensure the protection and safety of all prosecutors, victims and witnesses
Timing: Immediately after signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Procedures: Facilitate access to victims, witnesses and investigation sites
Reference/ Article: 24.2 and 24.3
...
(14) Activity: Ensure access of witnesses, victims, and perpetrators to the Special Court, including those outside of Darfur
Timing: After establishing the Special Court for Darfur Crimes
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: The Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund
Procedures: Take the necessary arrangements to ensure access of witnesses, victims and perpetrators
Reference/ Article: 25.8
...
(18) Activity: Establish memorials to honor and commemorate the victims of the conflicts in Darfur
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: TRC & the Compensations Fund
Source of Funding: The Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund
Procedures: Design the necessary programs for commemoration
Reference/ Article: 27.1; 27.2; and 27.3

Page 202-203, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish a fund concerned with affairs of martyrs and wounded persons
Timing: Within 90 days of the date of signing the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: state / regional government
Source of Funding: Transitional government of Sudan, state / regional government and donors
Composition: state / regional government
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 105
Missing persons
Page 53, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 14. General Provisions and Principles of the Permanent Ceasefire
14.5.The Parties shall commit to immediately releasing the remaining prisoners of war unless they are indicted in private rights cases as a sign of national reconciliation, in addition to releasing any other persons detained due to the war in furtherance of confidence building measures and searching for missing persons;
14.6.The Parties must engage judicial and legal bodies, national organizations and the ICRC in the process of releasing war prisoners and other persons detained due to the war and searching for missing persons;

Page 62, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 26. Integration
26.7.The Parties agree to establish a Joint High Council chaired by the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, with the membership of the commander of Rapid Support Forces, Minister of Defense, Minister of the Interior, the Chief of Staff, the Director General of the Police, Director General of the General Intelligence Service, head of the Military Intelligence Authority and heads of the armed struggle movements for supervision, monitoring, evaluation, and follow up on the implementation of integrating the forces of the armed struggle movements and evaluating the security and humanitarian situation in Darfur. The Joint High Council shall hold periodic meetings. It shall, among other functions, form a mechanism to address the issue of war prisoners and missing persons of both Parties.
26.8.The Parties agree to establish a joint high committee with equal membership of the Parties to address the issue of prisoners and missing persons of both parties within (30) days from the date of the signing of this agreement. The committee shall submit its final report to the Joint High Council within three months of the date of its establishment;

Page 112, TITLE 3, CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, General and Fundamental Provisions
20. The Parties shall commit to engaging judicial and legal bodies, national organizations, and the International Committee of the Red Cross in the process of releasing all prisoners of war and other people detained or convicted as a result of the war as well as looking for missing persons in a fashion that promotes reconciliation and heals the wounds of war.

Page 197, TITLE 9: Implementation Matrices, 9. Darfur Track Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements Implementation Matrix
(12) Activity: The Joint High Council shall establish a joint high committee to address the issue of prisoners and missing persons of both parties
Timing: D-Day + 30
Implementing Party: The Joint High Council
Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition: The Parties
Procedures: Decision by the Council
Reference: Articles 26.8

Page 198, TITLE 9: Implementation Matrices, 9. Darfur Track Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements Implementation Matrix
(23) Activity: The Joint High Committee for addressing the issue of war prisoners and missing persons submits its final report to the Joint High Council
Timing: D-Day + 120
Implementing Party: The High Committee for addressing the issues of war prisoners and missing persons
Funding: Government of Sudan
Procedures: Submit reports
Reference: Articles 26.8
Reparations
Symbolic reparations
Page 36, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, General Principles
1. Victims of the conflict in Darfur shall have the right to have unimpeded access to effective justice and redress mechanisms, including the right to an adequate, effective, and prompt remedy or reparation for damages arising from the conflict in Darfur and for violations of international human rights law and international humanitarian law.
2. Victims of the conflict in Darfur shall have the right to reparations in the form of compensation, restitution, rehabilitation, and/or satisfaction, and commemoration.
3. All individuals and communities in Darfur who suffered direct or indirect damage as a result of the conflict in Darfur or other grave human rights violations during the conflict in Darfur shall have a right to reparations.
4. Victims of the conflict in Darfur shall have guaranteed access to the necessary knowledge and information related to their rights as victims of violations of human rights, international humanitarian law, and other relevant international laws, including their right to reparations.
5. Reparations awarded to victims of the conflict in Darfur shall be designed to acknowledge their suffering, repair their losses, and restore the dignity, security, and stability of victims and their communities.

Page 38, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 12. Compensation and Reparations Fund
12.9.Resolutions to award compensation and reparations issued by the relevant mechanisms to the Compensations and Reparations Fund shall include:
...
12.9.4.Creating public spaces, memorials, museums and other places of memorialization and commemoration; and
12.9.5.Any other traditional forms of compensation.
Material reparations
Page 12, TITLE 1. 17. General Amnesty:
17.2.The Government shall commit to returning the property of organizations and individuals...

Page 18, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 26. National Civil Service
26.6.Persons arbitrarily dismissed from civil service for reasons related to the conflict in Darfur shall have their situation remedied through the National Committee for the Reinstitution of Arbitrarily Dismissed Persons.

Page 27, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, General Principles
5. The right of victims to have unhindered access to effective justice and redress mechanisms, in particular the right to an adequate, effective, and prompt remedy or reparations for violations of international human rights law and international humanitarian law.

Page 30, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, 23. Traditional Justice Mechanisms
23.2.Traditional justice mechanisms will establish diverse and appropriate penalties that reflect the gravity of the offenses and promote reconciliation, restitution, and compensation for the victims without prejudice to the jurisdiction of the Compensation and Reparations Fund.

Page 36, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, General Principles
1. Victims of the conflict in Darfur shall have the right to have unimpeded access to effective justice and redress mechanisms, including the right to an adequate, effective, and prompt remedy or reparation for damages arising from the conflict in Darfur and for violations of international human rights law and international humanitarian law.
2. Victims of the conflict in Darfur shall have the right to reparations in the form of compensation, restitution, rehabilitation, and/or satisfaction, and commemoration.
3. All individuals and communities in Darfur who suffered direct or indirect damage as a result of the conflict in Darfur or other grave human rights violations during the conflict in Darfur shall have a right to reparations.
4. Victims of the conflict in Darfur shall have guaranteed access to the necessary knowledge and information related to their rights as victims of violations of human rights, international humanitarian law, and other relevant international laws, including their right to reparations.
5. Reparations awarded to victims of the conflict in Darfur shall be designed to acknowledge their suffering, repair their losses, and restore the dignity, security, and stability of victims and their communities.
6. The Parties shall act in accordance with international obligations and practices regarding property rights, compensation, and reparations, including all such obligations towards IDPs and refugees.
7. Without prejudice to the principle of positive discrimination as set forth in the Peace Agreement, distribution of humanitarian aid, the restitution of resources and property, and the award of compensation and reparations in accordance with this Agreement, shall take place without discrimination on the basis of gender, language, tribe, ethnicity, religion, party affiliation, geographic location, status as a displaced or formerly displaced person/refugee, or any other basis.

Page 37, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 11. Rights Related to Compensation, Restitution and Reparations
11.1.All victims of the conflict in Darfur shall have an equal right to seek compensation for the losses and damages suffered by them or their families as a result of the Darfur conflict or of other arbitrary or illegal actions that occurred during the conflict in Darfur.
11.2.Reparations shall include, but not be limited to, the right to seek compensation for lost property, lost livelihood, death in the family, personal injury, and other trauma or damages, whether psychological or physical, resulting from the conflict in Darfur.
11.3.Individuals shall have the right to seek restoration of property or compensation for their lost or seized property resulting from the conflict in Darfur.
11.4.Communities have a collective right to pursue property restitution or compensation for claims regarding communal property, villages, farms and Hawakeer [traditional land].
11.5.Individual and community property restitution or compensation claims shall not be mutually exclusive.
11.6.Individuals and communities have the right to restitution of lands lost resulting from the conflict in Darfur.
11.7.Individuals and communities have the right to pursue compensation for environmental damages, land degradation, or the damage of property resulting from the conflict, including environmental damages or deterioration resulting from displacement and neglect.
11.8.All persons affected by the conflict in Darfur have the right to have restored to them any housing, land, and/or property of which they were arbitrarily or unlawfully deprived, or to be compensated adequately for the loss of their housing, land, and/or property, in accordance with international principles, the Peace Agreement provisions and traditional norms. Accordingly:
11.8.1.Assets and property confiscated and looted from individuals, institutions and communities in Darfur shall be returned or restituted to their rightful owners, and in cases where the return of such property is impossible, a just compensation shall be provided.
11.8.2.Displaced persons and refugees who were displaced because of the conflict in Darfur shall enjoy this right whether they choose to return to their places of origin or not.
11.9.No individual or group may be stripped of the traditional and historic right in land ownership or access to water, unless consulted or provided with fair compensation.

Page 37, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 12. Compensation and Reparations Fund
12. Compensation and Reparations Fund
12.1.The Parties agree to establish the Compensation and Reparations Fund in Darfur within 90 (ninety days) of the date of signing this Agreement to receive and address compensation and reparation decisions issued by relevant bodies.
12.2.The Parties shall agree on the organizational and functional structure of the Compensations and Reparations Fund in accordance with the parameters set forth in the Agreement.
12.3.The Fund shall make its own regulations, rules, procedures, and decision-making methods.

Page 38, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 12. Compensation and Reparations Fund
12.4.Women shall comprise at least 40 percent of the functional structure of the Fund.
12.5.The Compensation and Reparations Fund in Darfur shall have the competency to implement resolutions on the dues and compensation issued by relevant parties to the benefit of beneficiaries.
12.6.The Fund’s procedures shall be simple, accessible, transparent, enforceable, free of charge, and takes into consideration age, gender and persons with disability.
12.7.The Fund’s procedures shall be made publicly available within one year of the signing of the Peace Agreement.
12.8.All forms of documents issued by competent bodies shall be admissible before the Compensations and Reparations Fund, after examining and verifying their authenticity, including but not limited to:
12.8.1.Documents;
12.8.2.Testimony by traditional and local leaders;
12.8.3.Testimony by other witnesses to prove entitlement to compensation; and
12.8.4.Any other evidentiary documents recognized by the relevant commissions and mechanisms.
12.9.Resolutions to award compensation and reparations issued by the relevant mechanisms to the Compensations and Reparations Fund shall include:
12.9.1.Monetary compensation;
12.9.2.Medical and psychological rehabilitation;
12.9.3.Legal assistance and social services;
12.9.4.Creating public spaces, memorials, museums and other places of memorialization and commemoration; and
12.9.5.Any other traditional forms of compensation.
12.10.The Fund shall have a public record.
12.11.[The Fund shall] develop a table for awarding the timely compensation payments on the basis of financial principles that require awarding financial compensation proportionate to the damage and loss suffered by the victim. Women, men, children and persons with special needs shall be treated equally when implementing the payments.
12.12.The Fund’s staff shall have relevant experience in the fields in which the Fund operates, including human rights and financial and legal issues.
12.13.The Darfur Peace Support and Sustainable Development Fund shall fund activities of the Compensations and Reparations Fund in Darfur for a period of 10 (ten years).
12.14.The Fund may receive assistance from national, regional and international organizations and NGOs in its field of work.
12.15.The Fund shall cooperate and coordinate with other commissions established pursuant to this Agreement, especially the Commission for the Return of IDPs and Refugees, the Development and Reconstruction Commission, the Lands and Hawakeer Commission, the Truth and Reconciliation Committee, the Darfur Special Court for War Crimes, and the mechanisms of traditional justice.
12.16.Regular revision shall be undertaken to ensure the optimal use and distribution of funds allocated to compensate victims, in accordance with the financial procedures applicable in such cases, including the principles of equality of gender and age.
12.17.All necessary measures to maintain the independence and integrity of the Compensation and Reparations Fund shall be taken.
12.18.The Parties agree to establish a fund to care for the affairs of martyrs and the wounded in Darfur within ninety (90) days of the date of signing this Agreement, provided that the federal government contributes to its financing and seeks to solicit money from inside and outside Sudan.

Page 40, Title 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 3. Property, Housing, and Compensation Rights
3.1. All IDPs and refugees shall enjoy the right to voluntary return to their homes, lands, and property, provided that they be fairly compensated for their losses of homes, lands, or property;
3.2. IDPs and refugees shall enjoy all rights to property, ownership of housing, the freedom of movement and residence, and compensation and reparations, as stipulated in this Agreement;
3.3. If the return of IDPs, refugees, and displaced persons to their homes or lands, or the restoration of their property is impossible, they shall have the right to receive fair compensation for their loss and the psychological damages resulting from forced displacement. The compensation shall be paid by the Compensations and Reparations Fund in accordance with international principles and the right of voluntary return for all IDPs and refugees.

Page 42-43, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 8. Internally Displaced Persons and Refugees Commission
8.6.3.The IDPRC in Darfur shall establish local committees for claims that shall be comprised of local, traditional, and community leaders, including representatives of IDPs, refugees, and women. The local committees shall investigate compensation-related claims and other means of reparations, and submit their reports to the IDPRC in Darfur;
8.6.4.The IDPRC shall establish a fair valuation mechanism for the purpose of receiving claims from victims to receive compensation and other means of reparations for harm resulting from the conflict in Darfur.
...
8.6.14.Refer returnees with property restitution claims to the relevant commissions;

Page 104, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS, 64. A joint committee shall be established to restitute or compensate, in case of depreciation or damage, private and public property confiscated from SPLM-N-SRF, provided that it starts its work immediately upon signing the Final Peace Agreement and completes its work within a period of no more than three months. The committee shall ensure the restitution of property which is proven to be owned by the SPLM-N-SRF and members thereof, in accordance with law and good faith, without prejudice to this Agreement.

Page 46, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 8. The Right to Restitution
8.1. The Parties agree to review and revoke the registration of lands which are proven to have been expropriated or forcibly taken after June 1989.
8.2. The Parties agree to the right of communities and individuals to the restitution of lands taken away due to the conflict in Darfur.
8.3. The right to restitution shall be an individual and collective right. Individuals or communities shall have the right to apply for restoration of their land.
8.4. Local communities shall have an independent right in the claims of restituting lands, in regards to collective property (villages, farms and Hawakeer).
8.5. Claims of restituting individual property and collective property shall not be mutually exclusive according to law.
8.6. Male and female IDPs and refugees, affected by the conflict, shall have the right to restore any houses, lands, or farms that they have been arbitrarily or illegally deprived of, irrespective of their choice to return to their original homes.
8.7. All individuals shall be entitled to file claims to the Darfur Lands and Hawakeer Commission within 10 (ten years) from it commencing operations.

Page 47, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 9. Darfur Lands and Hawakeer Commission
9.1. The Parties agree to establish the Darfur Lands and Hawakeer Commission (DLHC) within 60 (sixty days) of the date of signing this agreement to hear and mediate claims of property restitution filed by individuals and communities who lost their lands because of the conflict in Darfur.
9.2. The DLHC’s procedures shall be made available for the public within 6 (six months) from the date of signing this Agreement.
9.3. The Parties shall agree on the organizational and functional structure of the DLHC in accordance with the parameters provided for in the Agreement.
9.4. The DLHC shall develop its own regulations, rules of procedures, and decision-making methods.
9.5. The judicial authority shall establish a special court for the DLHC with the exclusive power to hear appeals of decisions of the DLHC and to register the ownership of lands as decided by the DLHC to any party to the conflict.
9.6. The DLHC shall form local committees for claims, which include local, traditional, and community leaders, including representatives of IDPs, refugees and women, to investigate claims related to compensations and other means of reparations. The committees submit their reports to the DLHC.
9.7. The DLHC shall form a mechanism for fair evaluation for purposes of receiving claims from victims to receive compensation and other means of reparations for harm inflicted due to the conflict.
9.8. Without prejudice to the right to appeal, the decisions and awards of DLHC shall be binding.

Page 47, TITL 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 10. DLHC Powers and Competencies
10.1.The DLHC shall have the following powers and competencies:
10.1.1.To arbitrate and adjudicate conflicts over rights related to land disputed between the parties to the conflict.
10.1.2.To identify the legitimate owner of disputed land and its value upon submission of a claim. If restitution is not possible for these lands due to their use for the public interest, the claimant shall receive fair compensation for losses or damages.

Page 94, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT, 4. Ensure that the right of victims to have access to effective justice and reparation mechanisms, especially the basic rights to prompt redress for injustices and compensation.

Page 142, TITLE 5. ISSUES OF THE NORTHERN TRACK (POLITICAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC) ISSUES, 10. The Government shall endeavor to create the appropriate conditions and build the necessary infrastructure for the return of forcibly displaced persons to their historic places in Wadi Halfa and around Nubia Lake, in addition to awarding each citizen wishing to return a piece of residential and agrarian land. The Parties shall create a joint mechanism for developing the rules and regulations to identify those concerned with voluntary return and compensation and supervising enforcement of their resettlement with their families.

Page 180, TITLE 9, 4. Darfur Track: Compensation and Reparations Impl. Matrix
1. Establish the Compensation and Reparations Fund in Darfur
2. Agree on the organizational and functional structure of the Fund
3. Develop the regulations and rules of procedure
Reconciliation
Page 7, TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.23.The Parties shall hold a conference for reconciliation and social healing, provided that the Parties agree on mechanisms and schedules therefor, with a commitment to the participation of all Sudanese people without exclusion.
1.24.Combating impunity and bringing justice for victims are necessary for building national reconciliation, healing, promoting the values of peaceful coexistence, and strengthening the social fabric.

Page 12-13, TITLE 1, 20. Peace Commission
20.1.The Parties agree to form a Peace Commission tasked with implementing the comprehensive peace agreement with the participation of signatory parties in preparing the commission law and structure.

Page 28, TITLE 2. Chapter 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, General Principles
12. Recognition of the importance of local and indigenous methods of truth-telling, justice, reconciliation, and healing in complementing formal processes of justice and reconciliation, and the inclusion of these mechanisms in the justice process following the settlement of the conflicts.
...
14. Following the example of other African and international experiences and best practices regarding the principles of accountability, reconciliation, truth and justice, and historical memorialization in response to what occurred in Darfur.
...
18. Promoting open dialogue as an appropriate means to achieve lasting reconciliation in Darfur.

Page 28-29, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, 21. Truth and Reconciliation
21.1.The Parties agree that promoting reconciliation among the peoples of Darfur represents one of the overarching objectives of this Agreement and that is to be achieved by addressing the root causes of the conflicts, promoting measures to alleviate these causes, and supporting mechanisms and processes that will facilitate forgiveness and the reestablishment of social harmony. The Parties further recognize that the marginalization of the people of Darfur is one of the key root causes of conflict that this Agreement seeks to address.
21.2.The Parties agree that there should be a comprehensive truth and reconciliation process aimed at, among other things:
21.2.1.Ensuring the provision of appropriate conditions for social and peaceful reconciliation among components of the society.
21.2.2.Rebuilding and strengthening relationships between the components of society as well as promoting coexistence, cooperation, and social solidarity in Darfur.
21.2.3.Eradicating tribal and regional polarization and preventing ethnically-motivated fighting among tribes.
21.2.4.Establishing a culture of peace in accordance with the values and the traditional cultural heritage.
21.2.5.Providing formal and informal apologies, individually and collectively, to the victims of war.

Page 32, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, 27. Memorialization
27.2.The memorials for victims of the conflict in Darfur shall be designed to promote reconciliation, and to demonstrate commitment of the people of Darfur and the Government of Sudan to protecting human rights and preventing the recurrence of violence. The memorial spaces for victims of the conflict in Darfur will also be used as places to engage in civic affairs and education programs related to the conflict and its aftermath.

Page 41-42, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 6. Resettlement and Repatriation Arrangements
6.1. The Parties shall introduce a comprehensive resettlement and repatriation strategy with the following objectives:
...
6.1.3.Fulfilling genuine reconciliation through promoting a culture of peace and peaceful coexistence in the resettlement areas, and at the national and regional/state levels, based on participation, mutual tolerance and respect.

Page 95, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.6. The different levels of governance in the Two Areas shall have exclusive powers with regard to transitional justice, reparations, investigating crimes and violations perpetrated, reconciliation, healing the wounds of war, promoting values of peaceful coexistence, and strengthening social fabric.

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 10. Concurrent powers and competencies: the concurrent powers and competencies for the state/regional government and the Transitional Government of Sudan shall be as follows:…
10.8.Transitional justice and reconciliation shall have joint mechanisms derived from the norms, cultures, and heritage of the peoples of Sudan and the Two Areas.
10.9.Create mechanisms that help to end impunity for perpetrators and bring justice for victims to establish a process of national reconciliation and healing. This shall be founded on upholding the rule of law and the international conventions of human rights and the international humanitarian law.

Page 111, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GENERAL PROVISIONS, 111. The Parties agree to form a joint high committee to work in coordination with the national peace commission, provided that this committee be concerned with monitoring the implementation of all provisions included in this agreement and working alongside relevant state institutions in accordance with the implementation charts (matrix) included in this agreement.

Page 120-121, TITLE 3, CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, DISARMAMENT, DEMOBILIZATION AND REINTEGRATION (DDR)
61. The DDR process shall be built on the Parties recognition of the following:
61.3.The DDR program shall be implemented within a comprehensive nationwide process of reconciliation and healing, as part of the peacebuilding and confidence-building measures.

Page 127, Title 3, CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT REFORM, DEVELOPMENT AND MODERNIZATION OF THE MILITARY AND SECURITY ESTABLISHMENT
Resolved to employ the peace agreement to undertake national reconciliation and recovery and to mobilize the Sudanese people to support and assist in the implementation of reform, development, and modernization of the military institutions and security bodies. This process shall take place in a conducive environment recognizing the importance of this sector in defending the overarching interests of the state, maintaining its rights, and protecting its citizens and soil as its most sacred duty.

Page 168, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish the Peace Commission
Timing: After Signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: Transitional Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Procedures: Engage the Parties in drafting the law and structure of the Commission
Reference article: 20.1

Page 169, TITLE 9, 1. National Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Hold conferences for reconciliation and social healing
Timing: After signing the Final Agreement
Implementing Party: The Parties
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Take the necessary measures
Reference article: 1.23

Page 200, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish the commission for transitional justice and reconciliation in the state / region
Timing: after establishing the national commission
Implementing Party: The state / regional government
Source of Funding: government of Sudan and donors
Composition: the state / regional government
Location: state / region
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 85

Page 203, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Hold reconciliation conferences
Timing: Within the first year of signing the Peace Agreement
Implementing Party: state / regional government
Source of Funding: state / regional government
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria:
Reference article: Article 110

Page 218, TITLE 9, 15. Eastern Track Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish the foundations of civil peace
Timing: After final signing of the Agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition: The High Committee for Implementing the Agreement
Procedures: Review laws and means of implementation thereof, make decisions, hold the necessary workshops and conferences for that purpose and activate the role of media
Reference / article: 11

Implementation

UN signatory
The United Nations
Other international signatory
The Arab Republic of Egypt

The State of Qatar

The African Union

The European Union

Representative of the Arab League
Ambassador Khalid Abdulrahim Abdalghafar
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 54, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 17. Permissible Acts
17.1.1.Demining and elimination of military threats must be undertaken in cooperation with, and agreement between, the Parties based on agreed timetables and mechanisms and with the participation of a third party, the Mediation, the United Nations, and guarantors of this agreement;

Page 60, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 25. Command and Control Mechanisms
25.6.The Permanent Ceasefire Committee:
25.6.1.Immediately upon signing the agreement, the Parties shall establish a Ceasefire Committee that serves as the main mechanism for the efforts of monitoring, verification, and implementation on the ground;
25.6.2.The Ceasefire Committee shall be accountable to the Joint High Military Committee for Security Arrangements which supervises the activities of the Ceasefire Committee;
25.6.3.The Ceasefire Committee shall be headquartered in al-Fashir with sectors formed in all Darfur states/region.
25.6.4.Functions of the Permanent Ceasefire Committee:
25.6.4.1.Plan, coordinate, manage, oversee, verify, monitor, and supervise the permanent ceasefire and implementation of decisions.
25.6.4.2.Institute a communications system and procedures for effective and trustworthy communication with the Parties and other actors and stakeholders (leaders of civil administrations, civil society, IDPs, and refugees);
25.6.4.3.Designate Assembly areas for the forces of the armed struggle movements / Darfur Track, in accordance with the timetable;
25.6.4.4.Coordinate and monitor permissible military movements, and plan of movement on the agreed upon roads;
25.6.4.5.Receive and examine violations and complaints that have not been settled and reach decisions thereon;
25.6.4.6.Monitor demining activities and deactivation of unexploded ordnances and any other military threats;
25.6.4.7.Disseminate information about this agreement and promote it;
25.6.4.8.Supervise sectoral committees;
25.6.4.9.Submit reports to the Joint High Military Committee for Security Arrangements on the findings of its work;
25.6.4.10.Have bylaws that regulate its work;
25.6.4.11.Facilitate the flow of humanitarian assistance;
25.6.4.12.The Ceasefire Committee shall work with the Parties and the Joint Humanitarian Committee to define specific methods, as necessary, to provide humanitarian assistance to specific areas in coordination with the Humanitarian Assistance Commission. Chairman of the committee shall make any final decisions on the means of the delivery of humanitarian aid in consultation with the Parties.
25.6.4.13.The Ceasefire Committee shall reach decisions by consensus of the Parties. It shall produce its own bylaws and shall be headquartered in al-Fashir.
25.6.4.14.Assist containment and classification committees and technical integration committees.
25.6.5.The Permanent Ceasefire Committee shall be composed as follows:
25.6.5.1.Third-party UN representative as chairman;
25.6.5.2.Five officers from each party;
25.6.5.3.The Republic of South Sudan and Chad shall have one representative each.
25.7.Sectoral Committee.
25.7.1.Functions of the Sectoral Committee:
25.7.1.1.Monitor and examine claims of violations and resolve disputes.
25.7.1.2.Submit periodic reports and refer unresolved complaints to the Ceasefire Committee;
25.7.1.3.Communicate and share information with the security committee in the states/region of Darfur;
25.7.1.4.To have bylaws to regulate its work;
25.7.1.5.Assist containment and classification committees and technical reintegration committees.
25.7.2.The Sectoral Committee shall be composed of the following: 2
5.7.2.1.Third-party UN representative as chairman.
25.7.2.2.Five officers from the Parties.
25.7.2.3.A representative for each of the Republic of South Sudan and Chad.
25.8.Field Teams
25.8.1.Field teams shall be established in areas of Darfur states/region.
25.8.2.Functions and duties of field teams:
25.8.2.1.Conduct regular patrols and visits to all areas concerned with monitoring the permanent ceasefire;
25.8.2.2.Undertake oversight and inspection functions and report violations to the Sectoral Committee;
25.8.2.3.Submit periodic reports to the field committee (for the area);
25.8.2.4.Facilitate the work of the Humanitarian Affairs Committee;
25.8.2.5.To have bylaws to regulate its work;
25.8.2.6.Assist containment and classification committees and technical reintegration committees;
25.8.3.Field teams shall be composed of the following:
25.8.3.1.A third party UN representative (chairperson);
25.8.3.2. (5) Officers from each party with the rank of major or captain.

Page 72, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 30. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR)
30.9.Disarmament and Demobilization Requirements and Processes
30.9.4.The Government of Sudan shall commit to providing the necessary non-military logistical support and assistance therefor. The Ceasefire Committee and a UN third party shall undertake the logistics for the disarmament and demobilization processes, including the establishment of Assembly areas
Enforcement mechanism
Page 75, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 35. The Mediator, Guarantors, and the UN Peace Mission:
35.1.The Parties agree on the necessity of guarantors and witnesses from among the international community and the United Nations to ensure the implementation of this agreement.
35.2.The mediator and guarantors shall undertake the following:
35.2.1.Observe, document, and consistently monitor the implementation of this Agreement;
35.2.2.Maintain close contact with the Parties to promote the full compliance with the all provisions of this Agreement and facilitate their efforts to achieve this end;
35.2.3.Undertake plans to provide technical assistance and support for the post-conflict activities and to oversee them, as well as to establish and operate mechanisms provided for in this agreement, including but not limited to, the provision of capacity building and training, and the provision of resources, experts and consultants;
35.2.4.Evaluate the progress of the implementation process, notify the Parties of any development that may cause delay thereto, and propose appropriate related measures;
35.2.5.Assist in mobilizing the political and material support necessary for the complete implementation of this Agreement.
35.2.6.Any other additional functions as appropriate within the letter and spirit of this Agreement.

Page 128-29, TITLE 3, CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, 98. The Mediator, Guarantors and the UN Mission for Peace
98.1.The roles undertaken by the mediator, guarantors, and the United Nations for the implementation of this agreement shall be determined without prejudice to the national sovereignty and territorial integrity of Sudan in accordance with the final political agreement.
98.2.The Mediator and guarantors shall undertake the following:
98.2.1.Monitoring and following the implementation of this agreement undertaking
consistent documentation thereof.
98.2.2.Maintaining close contact with the peripheries to promote complete commitment to the provisions of this agreement; and facilitating their efforts to this end.
98.2.3.Planning for the provision of technical assistance, support, and supervision of post-conflict activities, as well as establishing and activating the bodies stipulated in this agreement, including but not limited to provision of capacity building and training in addition to provision of resources, experts, and advisors.
98.2.4.Assessing progress in implementation, informing the Parties of any developments that may result in delays, and proposing appropriate measures in this regard.
98.2.5.Assisting the mobilization of the necessary political and material support to the full implementation of this agreement.
98.2.6.Any additional tasks as appropriate in line with the letter and spirit of this agreement.

Page 137, TITLE 3. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, The Agreement Implementation Committee
38. A high committee for the implementation of the agreement shall be created by the undersigned
parties to this agreement, including the Federal Government, the Eastern Track and other political, civil and communal forces in Eastern Sudan. The Federal Government shall assign the committee main offices and allocate the necessary budget.

Page 153-154, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENTS CEASEFIRE, 21. Measures to be taken in the event of violating the agreement:
21.1. In the event of any breach of the provisions of this agreement, the competent committee shall define the appropriate measures, which include the following:
21.1.1. Investigation of perpetrated violations.
21.1.2. Identification of the parties involved in the violation.
21.1.3. Exposing or disclosing the perpetrator, or recommending harsh penalties be imposed on the perpetrator in the event that they were involved in serious violations.
21.1.4. Recommending that the individual or parties involved be referred to a civil, criminal, or military trial, as appropriate.
21.1.5. The Parties agree to follow up on recommendations for disciplinary measures, based on the proposal of the competent committee.

Page 155, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENTS CEASEFIRE, 22. The Competent Committee
22.1. The Parties agree to establish two joint committees (high and sub-committee) within (7) seven days of the date of the signing of this agreement. The committees shall oversee the implementation of the Agreement, exercise command and control, and submit their recommendations to the leadership of the Armed Forces and regular services.
22.2. Composition of the High Committee
22.2.1. Four representatives of the First Party;
22.2.2. Four representatives of the Second Party;
22.2.3. Shall be based in Khartoum;
22.2.4. Shall be presided over by a representative of the First Party
22.3. Functions of the High Committee
22.3.1. Supervise activities of the sub-committee.
22.3.2. Oversee the implementation of all required procedures in Assembly areas with the help of experts.
22.3.3. Supervise collection and storage of weapons and handing them over to the
competent authorities.
22.3.4. Coordinate with the DDR committee.
22.4. Composition of the Sub-Committee
22.4.1. Six representatives of the First Party;
22.4.2. Six representatives of the Second Party;
22.4.3. Shall be based in Babanusa.
22.5. Functions of the Sub-Committee:
22.5.1. Assume the responsibility for exercising command and control over these forces.
22.5.2. Implement all required procedures in Assembly areas with the help of experts.
22.5.3. Supervise the collection and storage of weapons and handing them over to the competent authorities.
22.5.4. Coordinate with the DDR committee.

The University of Edinburgh