Gambo - Pombolo Peace and Reconciliation Agreement

Country/entity
Central African Republic
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Gambo - Pombolo Peace and Reconciliation Agreement
Date
20/03/2019
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/local conflict (Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - )
The Central African Republic conflict is one of a set of regionally connected conflicts addressed by the African Great Lakes process. After the country gained independence from France in 1960 it has been ruled by a sequence of autocratic leaders that principally gained power through coups. Since the mid-1990s several waves of internal conflict took place in the Central African Republic, primarily along tribal, and later-on increasingly sectarian, lines. In 1996 and 1997, French troops and soldiers from neighbouring countries intervened to end a mutiny in the capital, Bangui, by factions of the army. The fighting was predominantly along tribal lines, with southern tribes in revolt against the ‘northern’ government. A UN mission was installed in 1998 to secure the truce.
After General Bozizé took control of the country after several coup attempts in 2003, a ‘bush war’ began led by armed opposition forces. From late 2006 onward, government troops with French military support severely weakened the rebels. Following this, a number of agreements were signed during 2007-2008, but not all factions have accepted them. In 2011, Bozizé was re-elected in supposedly fraudulent elections, which resulted in a new wave of uprisings. Séléka, an alliance of northern rebel groups, took over parts of the country and forced Bozizé to agree to a power-sharing deal. However, after this agreement broke down, Séléka took control of Bangui and Bozizé had to flee the country in 2013. Leader of Séléka, Michel Djotodia, took office and officially disbanded Séléka. However, continual violence between ex-Séléka groups and opposing militias, collectively known as ‘anti-balaka’, persisted and Djotodia was forced to resign less than a year later. Catherine Samba-Panza was installed as interim president until Faustin Archange Touadéra was elected in January 2016. In February 2019 an agreement was signed between the government and fourteen armed groups, including ex-Seleka groups, committed to disarmament. However, violence between ex-Seleka groups and anti-balaka continues.
Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Inter-group
Peace process
155: CAR: Local Processes
Various local processes.
Parties
Page 6:
The president of Gambo

The president of Pombolo

The Mayor of GAMBO

The Mayor Municipality of Pombolo
Third parties
Not signed, but mentioned in the agreement preamble, page 2:
"Thanking MINUSCA for its mediation efforts since October 2018, as well as for its technical and logistical support in the organization of the direct and inclusive dialogue of March 20, 2019"
Description
This is an agreement made by representatives of communities of Gambo and Pombolo, with the aim of supporting the security arrangements in their area (Mbomou prefecture). The core of the agreement is in security guarantees and removal of social cover from those engaged in violence. The sides also issue a series of recommendations for other actors: armed groups, the CAR government, and MINUSCA.

Agreement document
CF_190320_Gambo Pombolo Peace and Reconciliation Agreement_tr.pdf []

Agreement document (original language)
CF_190320_Gambo Pombolo Peace and Reconciliation Agreement.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
Page 2, Untitled Preamble:
Deploring the successive and repeated displacements of population affecting all communities concerned and in particular the vulnerable, women, and children,

Underlining the essential role of women in the peace and development processes in the Gambo sub-prefecture
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
Page 3:
Humanitarian Assistance and Development

Commitments

2.1. Help to create conditions favorable to the free and secure delivery of humanitarian aid throughout the sub-prefecture.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 2:
Commitments:

1. 1. To aid throughout the entire population of the Gambo sub-prefecture the free movement of goods and people as well as the total and definitive elimination of all illegal barriers.

Page 3:
Humanitarian Assistance and Development

Commitments

2.1. Help to create conditions favorable to the free and secure delivery of humanitarian aid throughout the sub-prefecture.

2.2. Make every effort to support those returning to Gambo and Pombolo.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Humanitarian assistance
Page 3:
Humanitarian Assistance and Development

Commitments

2.1. Help to create conditions favorable to the free and secure delivery of humanitarian aid throughout the sub-prefecture.
Infrastructure and reconstruction
Page 3:
Humanitarian Assistance and Development

Commitments

2.1. Help to create conditions favorable to the free and secure delivery of humanitarian aid throughout the sub-prefecture.

2.2. Make every effort to support those returning to Gambo and Pombolo.

2.3. Help with the reconstruction of destroyed or damaged religious buildings, and engage in dialogue in this regard with the relevant NGOs.

2.4. Support the reconstruction of Muslim houses in Gambo.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
Tangible
Page 3
Humanitarian Assistance and Development

Commitments


2.3. Help with the reconstruction of destroyed or damaged religious buildings, and engage in dialogue in this regard with the relevant NGOs.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
Page 2,
Commitments:
1. 1. To aid throughout the entire population of the Gambo sub-prefecture the free movement of goods and people as well as the total and definitive elimination of all illegal barriers.

1. 2. To refrain from carrying out acts that will undermine peace and security, in particular any act of provocation, any speech, or any statement likely to fuel tensions or encourage the resumption of hostilities.

1.3. Prioritize the non-violent resolution of conflicts and ensure the competent authorities to deal with any action undermining peace and security.

1.4 While acknowledging the mistakes made by each community in the past, turning a new page and prioritizing actions leading to peace.

1.5. Keep local authorities and MINUSCA informed of all threats to security and peace in the sub-prefecture.

1.6. Support local authorities to ensure that the carrying of weapons by civilians is prohibited.

1. 7. Refer to the Mbomou Prefectural Implementation Committee for all violations of the Political Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation and make recommendations where appropriate.

1.8. As far as possible, without calling into question the sovereign functions of the State, take the necessary actions to allow for the order to be maintained. In this sense, do not protect or cover for those who commit infractions and inform the authorities.

1.9 Extend the dialogue between the Peace Committees by opening it up to the Ngandou commune, therefore supporting Ngandou in the creation of his own Peace Committee.
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
Page 3,
Commitments:
1.8. As far as possible, without calling into question the sovereign functions of the State, take the necessary actions to allow for the order to be maintained. In this sense, do not protect or cover for those who commit infractions and inform the authorities.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
DDR programmes
Page 3,
Commitments:
1.6. Support local authorities to ensure that the carrying of weapons by civilians is prohibited.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
Page 3:
Humanitarian Assistance and Development

Commitments


2.2. Make every effort to support those returning to Gambo and Pombolo.

...

2.4. Support the reconstruction of Muslim houses in Gambo.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
Page 2:
Commitments
1.4 While acknowledging the mistakes made by each community in the past, turning a new page and prioritizing actions leading to peace.

Page 3:
Humanitarian Assistance and Development

Commitments


2.2. Make every effort to support those returning to Gambo and Pombolo.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
No specific mention.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh