Good neighborliness and Community Reconciliation Agreement between the Communities of Castors, Yakite, Sara, Yalowa, Camerounais Douala, and Sanga-Bibale

Country/entity
Central African Republic
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Good neighborliness and Community Reconciliation Agreement between the Communities of Castors, Yakite, Sara, Yalowa, Camerounais Douala, and Sanga-Bibale
Date
23/03/2019
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/local conflict (Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - )
The Central African Republic conflict is one of a set of regionally connected conflicts addressed by the African Great Lakes process. After the country gained independence from France in 1960 it has been ruled by a sequence of autocratic leaders that principally gained power through coups. Since the mid-1990s several waves of internal conflict took place in the Central African Republic, primarily along tribal, and later-on increasingly sectarian, lines. In 1996 and 1997, French troops and soldiers from neighbouring countries intervened to end a mutiny in the capital, Bangui, by factions of the army. The fighting was predominantly along tribal lines, with southern tribes in revolt against the ‘northern’ government. A UN mission was installed in 1998 to secure the truce.
After General Bozizé took control of the country after several coup attempts in 2003, a ‘bush war’ began led by armed opposition forces. From late 2006 onward, government troops with French military support severely weakened the rebels. Following this, a number of agreements were signed during 2007-2008, but not all factions have accepted them. In 2011, Bozizé was re-elected in supposedly fraudulent elections, which resulted in a new wave of uprisings. Séléka, an alliance of northern rebel groups, took over parts of the country and forced Bozizé to agree to a power-sharing deal. However, after this agreement broke down, Séléka took control of Bangui and Bozizé had to flee the country in 2013. Leader of Séléka, Michel Djotodia, took office and officially disbanded Séléka. However, continual violence between ex-Séléka groups and opposing militias, collectively known as ‘anti-balaka’, persisted and Djotodia was forced to resign less than a year later. Catherine Samba-Panza was installed as interim president until Faustin Archange Touadéra was elected in January 2016. In February 2019 an agreement was signed between the government and fourteen armed groups, including ex-Seleka groups, committed to disarmament. However, violence between ex-Seleka groups and anti-balaka continues.
Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Inter-group
Peace process
155: CAR: Local Processes
Various local processes.
Parties
MAIN ACTOR FOR PEACE. YAKITE BRIDGE Moussa Danda

MAIN ACTOR FOR PEACE. CASTORS Nathael Wandessere

YAKITE YOUTH REPRESENTATIVE Abdrahman Ibrahim

CASTOR YOUTH REPRESENTATIVE Fabrice Dekoua

YAKITE WOMEN REPRESENTATIVE Oumoul Hair Abdouahman

CASTOR WOMEN REPRESENTATIVE Alphonsine Lakoue

YAKITE RELIGIOUS LEADER Imam Oumar Sarako

CASTOR RELIGIOUS LEADER Abbe Julien Mokasse
Third parties
WITNESSES

TOWN HALL 3rd ARRONDISSEMENT Yakite Sosthene

MINUSCA Kenny Gluck

MINISTRY OF HUMANITARIAN ACTION AND NATIONAL RECONCILIATION Balkoua Virginie

LOCAL PEACE AND RECONCILIATION COMMITTEE 3rd DISTRICT OF BANGUI [illegible]
Description
This is a local agreement, covering the communities of Castors, Yakite, Sara, Yalowa, Camerounais Douala, and Sanga-Bibale, in which the communities' representatives, alongside women's groups, youth groups, and religious leaders, all supported by MINUSCA and the central government, commit to to peaceful reconciliation, focusing on the resumption of markets and trading activities, demilitarization, and mobility in the area.,

Agreement document
CF_190323_Yakite Castors agreement_tr.pdf []

Agreement document (original language)
CF_190323_Yakite Castors agreement.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
Substantive
Page 1:
The communities of said neighborhoods (Muslims and Christians) commit to:
[...]
5. Working with international and national organizations to improve the living conditions of all communities concerned, in particular: rehabilitation of the Castor Youth Center, rehabilitation of the Common Room and its sewing materials for training young girls, as well as equipment for training young people of both genders in different fields (agriculture, breeding, entrepreneurship, etc.), particularly unemployed young people.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
Substantive
Page 1:
The communities of said neighborhoods (Muslims and Christians) commit to:
[...]
6. Facilitating the safe return of displaced people from the sectors affected by the latest crises, as well as assisting them in rebuilding their destroyed homes. The Monitoring Committee of this agreement will take responsibility for managing disputes that may arise between returnees and illegal occupants of their homes.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
Page 1:
The communities of said neighborhoods (Muslims and Christians) commit to:
[...]
5. Working with international and national organizations to improve the living conditions of all communities concerned, in particular: rehabilitation of the Castor Youth Center, rehabilitation of the Common Room and its sewing materials for training young girls, as well as equipment for training young people of both genders in different fields (agriculture, breeding, entrepreneurship, etc.), particularly unemployed young people.

Page 3:
Signatories
[...]
YAKITE WOMEN REPRESENTATIVE Oumoul Hair Abdouahman
CASTOR WOMEN REPRESENTATIVE Alphonsine Lakoue
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 1:
The communities of said neighborhoods (Muslims and Christians) commit to:
[...]
3.Facilitating the free movement of people and goods. Free movement is beneficial to the entire population, it helps to rebuild relationships and trade between communities. Free movement also makes it possible to guarantee free access to health establishments, schools, and State institutions.

Page 2:
From the date of signature of the Agreement, the communities are required to respect the end of hostilities and aggression, the carrying and use of arms, and embracing the free movement of people and goods.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
General commitments
Page 2,
From the date of signature of the Agreement, the communities are required to respect the end of hostilities and aggression, the carrying and use of arms, and embracing the free movement of people and goods.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
Demilitarisation provisions
Page 1,
The communities of said neighborhoods (Muslims and Christians) commit to:
...
2. Prohibiting the carrying and use of weapons in neighborhoods by the civilian population. The carrying and use of weapons of all categories by civilians constitutes a threat to the population and a contributing factor to violence. It harms security and increases fear and tensions.

Page 2,
From the date of signature of the Agreement, the communities are required to respect the end of hostilities and aggression, the carrying and use of arms, and embracing the free movement of people and goods.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
Page 1:
The communities of said neighborhoods (Muslims and Christians) commit to:

1. Facilitating the end of hostilities between the communities of said neighborhoods. The communities undertake to renounce violence and to be part of a dynamic of peace. Conflict resolution will be done peacefully, through dialogue, conviviality, and good neighborliness.

[...]
4. Deploying awareness campaigns within the two communities on the importance of peace and cohabitation.

Implementation

UN signatory
Page 2:
WITNESSES

MINUSCA Kenny Gluck
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 2:
After the signing of the Agreement, a Monitoring Committee will be set up to ensure the proper functioning and respect of the commitments made by the communities. This Committee will work in close collaboration with the Government of the CAR, MINUSCA, and the relevant international and national organizations. The Committee may set up, if necessary, an Agreement Implementation Mechanism, including a Guiding and Coordination Committee.

The communities concerned ask MINUSCA to support them with the facilitation of the community reconciliation process that has already begun, to support this process of cohabitation, and to support the Monitoring Committee.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh