Doha Agreement for Peace and Involvement of Political-Military Movements in the Sovereign and Inclusive National Dialogue in Chad

Country/entity
Chad
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Doha Agreement for Peace and Involvement of Political-Military Movements in the Sovereign and Inclusive National Dialogue in Chad
Date
08/08/2022
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
Yes
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Chadian Conflicts (1966 - )
The political history of Chad has been defined by ethno-religious conflict following independence from France in 1960, particularly between the Islamic north and the Christian and animist south. Although prevalent during the colonial era, this became particularly apparent under Tombalbaye during his 15-year rule (1960-1975), which saw mass discrimination against the Muslim northern and central regions. In 1966, the Islamist National Liberation Front on Chad (FROLINAT) was formed, but the movement was defined by factionalism and in-fighting, often encouraged by Libyan government policies, until the civil war ended in 1993. In 1975 Tombalbaye was killed during a coup, and the country reverted to military rule. Constant pressure from the various FROLINAT factions, however, caused then-ruler General Felix Malloum to align himself with Hissene Habre, a rebel leader formerly-aligned with FROLINAT, but then-commander of the Forces Armées du Nord (FAN). In 1978, Libyan troops also occupied the Aouzou Strip (See Libyan-Chadian Conflict). Meanwhile, Habre’s FROLINAT competitor, Goukouni Oueddei, gathered the majority of the northern insurgent factions, and the ensuing civil war between 11 factions eroded the capabilities of the state. In 1979, the Lagos Accords created a unity government (GUNT) that briefly convened the factions, but infighting between Habre and Goukouni’s forces broke out soon after.

Habre finally gained control of N’Djamena in 1982, but faced continuing insurgent pressure from GUNT. This changed in the mid-1980s when all forces in Chad aligned themselves against the Libyan occupation and expelled them from Chad. Infighting in Habre’s regime, meanwhile, saw the defection of General Idriss Deby to Sudan, where he launched a Zaghawa campaign against the President and took the capital in December 1990 with Libyan-backing. Deby was announced President in early 1991, and to ease fighting he announced elections, which he won, in 1996. A number of short-lived peace deals were signed with several rebel factions in 1997, but fighting continued. In 2003, an influx of over 200,000 refugees from Darfur complicated the matter further, and in 2005 Chad declared war on Sudan, which was backing the Chadian rebel group, Rally for Democracy and Liberty. A series of battles ensued across Chad culminating in the Battle of N’Djamena in 2008. The latest war ended in 2010 with a peace accord signed between Sudan and Chad.

In 2021, the FACT (Front pour l’Alternance et la Concorde au Tchad: Front for Change and Concord in Chad) attacked the Chadian military on the eve of presidential elections. President Idriss Déby was killed in the attack, and the army formed a Transitional Military Council (TMC).
Chadian Conflicts (1966 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
174: Chad: Doha process
Parties
Page 10-14:
HISSEIN ERDIMI

Union of the Forces of Resistance

UFR



BACHIR TIKEZO OUSMANE

Military Council for the Good of the Republic

CMSR





OUMAR MAHAMAT ADIGUEY

Movement of the Chadians for the Liberation

MLT





BECHIR NASRI HISSEIN

National Settlement Council of Chad

CNR





ABDALLAH RAMADANE

National Movement for Settlement

MNR



HAMDANE DJIGUER

Movement for the Democratic Card in Chad

MCDT



MAHAMAT ABDELKERIM HANNO

Union of the Forces for the Republic

UFR



MAHAMAT ALI TAHIR NANAYE

National Alliance for the Restoration of the Republic

NARR


ADAM HASSANE MAHAMAT

Armed Resistance against the Anti-Democratic Forces

RAFAD



ISSA DJIMET HALIKI

Movement for the Social Justice in Chad

MJST


MAHAMAT NOURI ALLATCHI

Union of the Forces for Development of the Democracy

UFDD


NÉNÉ ÉHEMIR

Alliance of the Resistant Democrats

ADR


Dr MOUSTAPHA GOTONA

Assembly of the Forces for the Unity and Democracy

RFUTD

Represented by: Mahamat Ousman Tahir



Pr DJIBINE KADJAM

National Council for Liberation of Chad

CNLT

Represented by: Youssouf Haroun Djarma


MOUSSA YOUNOUS

Movement of Chadian Militants

MMT

Represented by: Abdelmanane Abdraman


ABDELMANANE KHATAB

Front for the Good of the Republic

FSR


AHMAT YOUNOUS SOULEYMANE

People’s Front for the Chad’s Liberty

FPLT

Represented by: ABDEL AZIZ YOUSSOUF



MAHAMAT TAHIR ALIO

Free Army for the Change

ALC

Represented by: Issa Oumar Djibril



ABDELKADER IBRAHIM OUSMAN

Union of the Forces for Change and Democracy

UFCD



ABDELWAHID ABOUD MAKAYE

Contact person



Cpt of the Air Forces JEAN-LOUS VERTU

Contact person



HASSANE ALDOUDOU

Contact person





Movement for Democracy and Justice MDJT

Saleh Aboubakar Choua



H.E. the Ambassador CHERIF MAHAMAT ZENE

Minister of Foreign affairs, Head of the governmental deputation in charge of the negotiations with the political-military movements



HISSEIN ALMAHIDJIRI DAOUD

Chadian National Amity



ISSA OUMAR DJIBRINE

National Union for Change

UNC


Dr YOUNOUS ATIM

Union of the Forces for Justice and Change

UFCJ



MAHAMAT CHAÏB MAHAMAT

National Movement for the Democratic Reform and Development

MNDRD



NADJIB MAHAMAT ABDRAHAMANE

Front of the National Convention



DJAMAL IBRAHIM NAYIR

National Movement for the Democratic Change



MAHAMAT ABO SILECK

National Alliance of the Resistance

ANR

Represented by: Mahamat Abdelkerim Hanno



MAHAMAT MAHAMAT ADAM

Movement for the Renaissance of Chad

MRT


OUMAR ALMAHDI BICHARA

Chadian Movement for the National Good

MSNT



ADOUM SOUGUI HAMID

Movement of Action and Renaissance

MAR


HISSEIN BRAHIM ACYL

People’s Army for Liberation of Chad

APLT



Dr LEY-NGARDIGAL DJIMADOUM

Chadian Action for Unity and Socialism – Popular and Ecologic Revolution Party

ACTUS_PRPE



OUMAR ABDRAHMANE ALISSEL

National Alliance for the Unity and Change

ANUC



MAHAMAT KILEL HAMAD

Union of the Forces for the Development an Fundamental Democracy

UFDD-F




Pr MOHAMED AGUID BACHAR ASSED

Democratic and Popular National Assembly

RNDP




NDOLASSEM HILAIRE TAKILAL

People’s Front for the Liberation of the South of Chad

Represented by: KABÉ BAMNGAR



OUSMANE ABDERAHIM

Political-military Coordination of Revolutionary Democratic Councils

CPM/CDR

Represented by: Mahamat Badaouy




IBRAHIM MOUSSA ADDIKER

Contact person

Represented by: Daoud Mahamat Djidda




Pr NGAGOUTOU NGON NGAOUTOU

Contact person




ME KOSSI DJOHONGONA

Contact person




KANDOH BOUTNA

Contact person
Third parties
Page 9-10:
Article 4.29. This Agreement, signed in Doha in presence of the representatives of the State of Qatar and the United Nations (UN), the representatives of African Union (UA), Lake Chad Basin Commission (CBLT), Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC), European Union (EU), International Organisation of La Francophonie (OIF), Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OCI), of France, US, Germany, Italy, Togo, countries neighbouring to Chad (Cameron, Central African Republic, Libya, Niger, Nigeria, and Sudan) enters into force as of the date of being signed.
Description
This agreement, supported by Qatar as hosts and 3rd party to the agreement, outlines the core issues to be resolved in order to commence the National Inclusive Dialogue. Importantly, while many armed groups supported the deal, the main opponent of the transitional government, the Front for Change and Concord in Chad (FACT), was not one of them

Agreement document
TD_220808_Doha Agreement for Peace and Involvement of Political-Military Movements in the Sovereign and Inclusive National Dialogue in Chad.pdf []

Agreement document (original language)
TD_220808_ Doha Agreement for Peace and Involvement of Political-Military Movements in the Sovereign and Inclusive National Dialogue in Chad.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
Rhetorical
Page 1:
Keeping on their minds that using the ethnicity as political means to block progress and prosperity of a country is a dangerous wrong which impairs the national cohesion and unity.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
Nature of state (general)
Page 1:
Taking into consideration the process initiated by the Transition Political Authorities in Chad to set the country on the pathway of peace, democracy and development, becoming a state with a stable rule of law which ensures a territorial integrity, national unity and social justice.
Taking into consideration that protection and promotion of human rights, democratic principles, rule of law and justice, as well as cessation of personal impunity, implementation of good governance practices and transparency in public administration are necessary conditions for the stability, development and prosperity of the whole society.
[...]
Taking into consideration that the current political transition constitutes a historical opportunity to reconcile Chad with its own roots and prohibit all forms of injustice and abuse inciting use of violence as means to achieve the goals.

Page 7:
II.  NATIONAL INCLUSIVE DIALOGUE of N’Djamena

[...]

2.2. On the agenda of the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena

Article 2.2.18. In order to allow it to achieve its goals, the transition government and the political-military movements agree on the agenda of the Committee for Organization of the National Inclusive Dialogue consisting of the following:
[...]
14. discussing a practical application of French and Arabic language in all administrative operations of the official and unofficial state institutions.

Page 7:
II.  NATIONAL INCLUSIVE DIALOGUE of N’Djamena

[...]

2.2. On the agenda of the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena

Article 2.2.18. In order to allow it to achieve its goals, the transition government and the political-military movements agree on the agenda of the Committee for Organization of the National Inclusive Dialogue consisting of the following:
[...]
17. form of the State, constitution, institutional reforms and electoral procedure.


Page 9:
IV. MISCELLANEOUS AND CLOSING PROVISIONS

Article 4.24. The Parties commit to implement all provisions of this Agreement with integrity and in good faith, and in compliance with the following principles:

- respect to the national unity, territorial integrity and sovereignty of Chad.
[...]
- achieving a sovereign status of the National Inclusive Dialogue and legal enforceability of its resolutions.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
General references
Page 5-6:
1.3 Measures to secure trust and security arrangements
[...]
Article 1.3.13. In order to reinforce the trust, peace and stability, the political-military movements resolutely and jointly commit specifically to:
[...]
resolutely commit to follow the pathway of the dialogue and political competition in compliance with the applicable laws of the Republic of Chad.
Temporary new institutions
Page 7:
II.  NATIONAL INCLUSIVE DIALOGUE of N’Djamena

[...]

2.2. On the agenda of the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena

Article 2.2.18. In order to allow it to achieve its goals, the transition government and the political-military movements agree on the agenda of the Committee for Organization of the National Inclusive Dialogue consisting of the following:

[...]
5. establishment of a Government of the National Reconciliation after the wrap-up of the National Inclusive Dialogue, which shall be in charge, inter alia, of the implementation of the recommendations and resolutions adopted in the course of the National Inclusive Dialogue, as well as of the Doha Agreement.
6. nominating, on a consensual basis, a prime minister to form and manage the Government of the National Reconciliation, who shall stay in function until the presidential elections, in which he/she shall not stand as a candidate.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
Page 2:
Taking into consideration the urgent necessity to restore the constitutional order through free, transparent, democratic and trustworthy elections without undue delay.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
Page 2:
Taking into consideration the urgent necessity to restore the constitutional order through free, transparent, democratic and trustworthy elections without undue delay.

Page 7:
II.  NATIONAL INCLUSIVE DIALOGUE of N’Djamena

[...]

2.2. On the agenda of the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena

Article 2.2.18. In order to allow it to achieve its goals, the transition government and the political-military movements agree on the agenda of the Committee for Organization of the National Inclusive Dialogue consisting of the following:
[...]
9. legislative and regulatory reform in order to set up general, free, democratic and transparent elections.
[...]
17. form of the State, constitution, institutional reforms and electoral procedure.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
Other political parties reform
Page 5:
1.3 Measures to secure trust and security arrangements

[...]

Article 1.3.12. Besides of the special security measures, the transition government shall ensure free movement of the members of the political-military movements. To achieve this goal, it shall take following measures:

[...]

acknowledge the freedom of all members of the political-military movements to establish a political party or civil society in compliance with the applicable law.
Civil society
Page 5:
1.3 Measures to secure trust and security arrangements

[...]

Article 1.3.12. Besides of the special security measures, the transition government shall ensure free movement of the members of the political-military movements. To achieve this goal, it shall take following measures:

[...]

acknowledge the freedom of all members of the political-military movements to establish a political party or civil society in compliance with the applicable law.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
Page 1:
Taking into consideration that protection and promotion of human rights, democratic principles, rule of law and justice, as well as cessation of personal impunity, implementation of good governance practices and transparency in public administration are necessary conditions for the stability, development and prosperity of the whole society.

Page 7:
II.  NATIONAL INCLUSIVE DIALOGUE of N’Djamena

[...]

2.2. On the agenda of the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena

Article 2.2.18. In order to allow it to achieve its goals, the transition government and the political-military movements agree on the agenda of the Committee for Organization of the National Inclusive Dialogue consisting of the following:
[...]
14. discussing a practical application of French and Arabic language in all administrative operations of the official and unofficial state institutions.
15. raising the question of the return of the authorized officials into their posts and their connection to the ranks of their peers.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
Executive coalition
Page 7:
II.  NATIONAL INCLUSIVE DIALOGUE of N’Djamena

[...]

2.2. On the agenda of the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena

Article 2.2.18. In order to allow it to achieve its goals, the transition government and the political-military movements agree on the agenda of the Committee for Organization of the National Inclusive Dialogue consisting of the following:

[...]
5. establishment of a Government of the National Reconciliation after the wrap-up of the National Inclusive Dialogue, which shall be in charge, inter alia, of the implementation of the recommendations and resolutions adopted in the course of the National Inclusive Dialogue, as well as of the Doha Agreement.
6. nominating, on a consensual basis, a prime minister to form and manage the Government of the National Reconciliation, who shall stay in function until the presidential elections, in which he/she shall not stand as a candidate.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 1:
Taking into consideration the process initiated by the Transition Political Authorities in Chad to set the country on the pathway of peace, democracy and development, becoming a state with a stable rule of law which ensures a territorial integrity, national unity and social justice.
Taking into consideration that protection and promotion of human rights, democratic principles, rule of law and justice, as well as cessation of personal impunity, implementation of good governance practices and transparency in public administration are necessary conditions for the stability, development and prosperity of the whole society.

Page 2:
Being aware that peace, security, real development and rule of law cannot be given particular shape without all sons and daughters of Chad working hard with the intention to achieve success on the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena.

Page 7:
II.  NATIONAL INCLUSIVE DIALOGUE of N’Djamena

[...]

2.2. On the agenda of the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena

Article 2.2.18. In order to allow it to achieve its goals, the transition government and the political-military movements agree on the agenda of the Committee for Organization of the National Inclusive Dialogue consisting of the following:
[...]
18. human rights and fundamental liberties.


Page 9:
IV. MISCELLANEOUS AND CLOSING PROVISIONS

Article 4.24. The Parties commit to implement all provisions of this Agreement with integrity and in good faith, and in compliance with the following principles:


-respect to the human rights, human dignity, fundamental liberties and freedom of religion.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
Page 1:
Taking into consideration the process initiated by the Transition Political Authorities in Chad to set the country on the pathway of peace, democracy and development, becoming a state with a stable rule of law which ensures a territorial integrity, national unity and social justice.
Taking into consideration that protection and promotion of human rights, democratic principles, rule of law and justice, as well as cessation of personal impunity, implementation of good governance practices and transparency in public administration are necessary conditions for the stability, development and prosperity of the whole society.
Taking into consideration the importance of a democratic governance based on consensus for promotion of a true national reconciliation which shall form a base for the lasting peace, justice and equality between Chadian citizens.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
Freedom of movement
Page 5:
1.3 Measures to secure trust and security arrangements

[...]

Article 1.3.12. Besides of the special security measures, the transition government shall ensure free movement of the members of the political-military movements. To achieve this goal, it shall take following measures:

[...]
ensure that the members of the political-military movements which are signatories to this Agreement will be able to enjoy the freedom of movement within the country as well as to leave it and return without having to face obstructions.
acknowledge the freedom of all members of the political-military movements to establish a political party or civil society in compliance with the applicable law.
Thought, opinion, conscience and religion
Page 9:
IV. MISCELLANEOUS AND CLOSING PROVISIONS

Article 4.24. The Parties commit to implement all provisions of this Agreement with integrity and in good faith, and in compliance with the following principles:


-respect to the human rights, human dignity, fundamental liberties and freedom of religion.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 5:
1.3 Measures to secure trust and security arrangements

[...]

Article 1.3.12. Besides of the special security measures, the transition government shall ensure free movement of the members of the political-military movements. To achieve this goal, it shall take following measures:

secure the convenience and the transportation links that will allow the members of the political-military movements which are signatories to this Agreement to participate in the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena under good conditions.
ensure that the members of the political-military movements which are signatories to this Agreement will be able to enjoy the freedom of movement within the country as well as to leave it and return without having to face obstructions.
acknowledge the freedom of all members of the political-military movements to establish a political party or civil society in compliance with the applicable law.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
Page 7:
II.  NATIONAL INCLUSIVE DIALOGUE of N’Djamena

[...]

2.2. On the agenda of the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena

Article 2.2.18. In order to allow it to achieve its goals, the transition government and the political-military movements agree on the agenda of the Committee for Organization of the National Inclusive Dialogue consisting of the following:
[...]
11. designing a mechanism of extradition of all persons suspected of crimes, whether civilians, military personnel or members of the political-military movements, between the competent national jurisdictions.

[...]
13. establishment of a special investigation committee of the international community consisting of the representatives of the political-military movements, representatives of the defence and security forces and two representatives of the Committee for Collaboration and Supervision over the Implementation of the Doha Agreement in order to gather all the evidence about the disappearance of the war prisoners of both the transition government and of the political-military movements, in order to bring the persons responsible for the described disappearances to the justice.
Prisons and detention
Page 3:

I. MEASURES TOWARDS RESTORATION OF CONFIDENCE, PEACE, NATIONAL COHESION AND SECURITY


1. Complete and definitive termination of acts of hostility

[...]

Article 1.1.4. The Parties commit to prohibit all acts of revenge, reprisal and harassment on the grounds of ethnicity, political affiliation or for other reasons.



The Parties further commit to refuse all forms of false imprisonment, torture, forced displacement, fast-track executions and other similar unlawful practices and to terminate all similar activities immediately after having signed this Agreement.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
Page 7:
II.  NATIONAL INCLUSIVE DIALOGUE of N’Djamena

[...]

2.2. On the agenda of the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena

Article 2.2.18. In order to allow it to achieve its goals, the transition government and the political-military movements agree on the agenda of the Committee for Organization of the National Inclusive Dialogue consisting of the following:
[...]
12. general audit of the governance of the country and in particular its profits from petrol and the process of privatisation of the national businesses.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
Page 7:
II.  NATIONAL INCLUSIVE DIALOGUE of N’Djamena

[...]

2.2. On the agenda of the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena

Article 2.2.18. In order to allow it to achieve its goals, the transition government and the political-military movements agree on the agenda of the Committee for Organization of the National Inclusive Dialogue consisting of the following:
[...]
12. general audit of the governance of the country and in particular its profits from petrol and the process of privatisation of the national businesses.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
Page 4-5:
1.3 Measures to secure trust and security arrangements

[...]

Article 1.3.11. In order to support an effective participation of all political-military movements who are signatories of Doha Agreement, the transition government shall adopt the following security and administrative measures:

measures aiming to ensure physical security of the members of political-military movements which are signatories of this Agreement, their belongings and their families during their return to Chad.
implementation of a special system of protection of delegates of the political-military movements which are signatories of this Agreement during the participation on the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena, who have expressed the need for specific security measures to protect the individuals by the means of deployment of a unit consisting of non-Chadian members, the Mixed International Force (FMM) based in N’Djamena, in cooperation with the Executive Secretariate of the Lake Chad Basin Commission (CBLT).
the size of the above mentioned FMM unit and the modalities of its deployment shall be the subject of a bipartite agreement between the Transition  Military Council and the Executive Secretariate of the CBLT.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
Page 3-4:
I. MEASURES TOWARDS RESTORATION OF CONFIDENCE, PEACE, NATIONAL COHESION AND SECURITY


1. Complete and definitive termination of acts of hostility


Article 1.1.1. By this Agreement, the Transition Government and the political-military movements declare a general ceasefire which shall commence upon a signature of this Agreement, as well as a mutual refrainment form hate and all forms of hostility of any nature.



Article 1.1.2. The Transition Government commits to refrain from any military or police operation being undertaken by the defence and security forces against the political-military movements which are signatories to this Agreement, wherever they are placed in Chad’s neighbouring countries.



Article 1.1.3. The political-military movements commit to refrain from any intrusions, armed operations or attacks of any nature against the transition government.



Article 1.1.4. The Parties commit to prohibit all acts of revenge, reprisal and harassment on the grounds of ethnicity, political affiliation or for other reasons.



The Parties further commit to refuse all forms of false imprisonment, torture, forced displacement, fast-track executions and other similar unlawful practices and to terminate all similar activities immediately after having signed this Agreement.



Article 1.1.5. The Parties take all necessary measures to remove weapons from the civilians and shall fight against illegal dissemination and holding of weapons.



In order to make the ceasefire permanent and irreversible, The Parties agree to adopt a Disarming, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) programme compliant with the recognized international norms, whose stages shall be mutually agreed.
General commitments
Page 5-6:
1.3 Measures to secure trust and security arrangements
[...]
Article 1.3.13. In order to reinforce the trust, peace and stability, the political-military movements resolutely and jointly commit specifically to:
[...]
definitively abandon armed conflicts and using of all forms of violence both at the Chadian territory and outside as means of promotion of their claims or their ideas.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
Page 7:
II.  NATIONAL INCLUSIVE DIALOGUE of N’Djamena

[...]

2.2. On the agenda of the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena

Article 2.2.18. In order to allow it to achieve its goals, the transition government and the political-military movements agree on the agenda of the Committee for Organization of the National Inclusive Dialogue consisting of the following:
[...]
1. fundamental reform of the army.
DDR
Demilitarisation provisions
Page 3:

I. MEASURES TOWARDS RESTORATION OF CONFIDENCE, PEACE, NATIONAL COHESION AND SECURITY


1. Complete and definitive termination of acts of hostility

[...]

Article 1.1.5. The Parties take all necessary measures to remove weapons from the civilians and shall fight against illegal dissemination and holding of weapons.
DDR programmes
Page 4:

I. MEASURES TOWARDS RESTORATION OF CONFIDENCE, PEACE, NATIONAL COHESION AND SECURITY


1. Complete and definitive termination of acts of hostility

[...]

In order to make the ceasefire permanent and irreversible, The Parties agree to adopt a Disarming, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) programme compliant with the recognized international norms, whose stages shall be mutually agreed.

Page 4:
1.2. On the Disarming, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) Process

Article 1.2.6. The DDR process shall proceed in two stages:

First stage: the political-military movements shall, as of the day of the signature of the Doha Agreement, commence submitting lists of their combatants including their biometric data to the Committee for Collaboration and Supervision over the Implementation of the Doha Agreement.

Second stage: Upon the issue of the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena, the political-military movements shall, in coordination with the authorities of the neighbouring countries, present the counts of their combatants, weapons and their whereabouts to the Committee for Collaboration and Supervision over the Implementation of the Doha Agreement.

Article 1.2.7. In the course of implementation of the DRR programme, the Committee for Collaboration and Supervision over the Implementation of the Doha Agreement shall supervise disarming of the units of the political-military movements in preliminary accommodations after the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena is concluded.

In this regard, they shall proceed towards a separate census of weapons, ammunition, vehicles and military equipment, which shall be placed under the control of the Committee for Collaboration and Supervision over the Implementation of the Doha Agreement.

Article 1.2.8. The Parties agreed on appointing a National Commission Responsible for the Implementation of the DDR programme (CNCMO-DDR), which shall operate under the authority of the Committee for Collaboration and Supervision over the Implementation of the Doha Agreement and shall include representatives of the political-military movements whose combatants have been identified and registered.

The composition, tasks and functioning of the above mentioned committee are provided for by a Decree of the Council of Ministers.

Article 1.2.9. The Parties shall appoint a Mixed Team of Liaisons (EML) which shall consist of ten (10) representatives of the transition government and ten (10) representatives of political-military movements to facilitate the interaction in the course of its implementation.

The commencement of the DDR process, which shall take place after the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena and shall follow the recommendations regarding the disarming and registration.


Page 5-6:
1.3 Measures to secure trust and security arrangements
[...]
Article 1.3.13. In order to reinforce the trust, peace and stability, the political-military movements resolutely and jointly commit specifically to:
[...]
Stop recruiting new combatants and disclose the numbers of the existing armed combatants or personnel in charge of handling heavy weapons which are present at the territory at the time of signature of the Doha Agreement.
allow, starting at the date of signature of this Agreement, for consolidation and stationing of the armed units, wherever they are placed, on sites dedicated to this purpose, in cooperation with the Committee for Collaboration and Supervision over the Implementation of the Doha Agreement and with the authorities of the country on whose territory the units are placed.
allow for the disarmament of the stationed units in the framework of the implementation of the DDR programme.
secure the discipline and good behaviour of their combatants in the zones of encampment and refrain from any activities which might compromise the normal implementation of the peacemaking process and DDR programme.

Page 7-9:
III. MECHANISMS OF SUPERVISION OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DOHA AGREEMENT

Article 3.19. Signatory Parties to this Agreement commit to fulfil, in good faith, the commitments taken on by this Agreement and to exert effort towards implementation of common arrangements for peace, national reconciliation, guarantees of stability and development of their country.

In this regard, the signatory Parties commit to establish a Committee for Collaboration and Supervision over the Implementation of the Doha Agreement. The Committee for Collaboration and Supervision over the Implementation of the Doha Agreement shall constitute a permanent framework of consultation and supervision over the implementation of the commitments taken on by all the Parties under this Agreement and shall implement all arrangements for peace and reconciliation, for stability and national development in Chad.

Article 3.20. The Committee for Collaboration and Supervision over the Implementation of the Doha Agreement (CCSM-AD) shall be established as of the signature of this Agreement.

It shall consist of nine (9) members: three (3) representatives of the transition government, three (3) representatives of the political-military movements, and there (3) representatives of the international community taking part in the peacemaking process in Chad. The representatives of the international community shall nominate one of themselves to act as a Chair of the committee.

The other members can be nominated by the parties based on common agreement.

The modalities of functioning and the frequency of gatherings of the Committee for Collaboration and Supervision over the Implementation of the Doha Agreement shall be finalized on its first gathering which shall take place upon a common initiative of its members.

Article 3.21. The Committee for Collaboration and Supervision over the Implementation of the Doha Agreement shall ensure the supervision over and coordination of the implementation of the DDR process, especially of the activities of the National Commission Responsible for the Implementation of the DDR programme (CNCMO-DDR), as well as of the Mixed Team of Liaisons.

Article 3.22. The Parties ask the assembly of the international community and the concerned regional and subregional organization under whose management this Agreement was signed, to contribute with a precise support and accompaniment to the fulfilment of the objectives of this Agreement.

For this purpose, all the Parties call for the International Committee for Evaluation and Supervision over the Implementation of the Doha Agreement (CIES-AD) being established. This Committee shall include the state of Qatar and the representatives of the United Nations (UN), the representatives of the African Union (UA), of the Lake Chad Basin Commission (CBLT), of the Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC), of the European Union (EU), of the International Organisation of La Francophonie (OIF), of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OCI), of France, US, Germany, Italy, Togo, countries neighbouring to Chad (Cameron, Central African Republic, Libya, Niger, Nigeria, and Sudan), as well as all the other organizations or countries which wish to accompany the process to achieve peace, stability and social and economic development.

It can hear the signatory Parties of the Doha Agreement in order to evaluate its own development and prepare its recommendations.

Article 3.23. The Parties agreed on endowing the CIES-AD with the power to hear directly the signatory Parties of the Doha Agreement in order to evaluate its own development and prepare its recommendations and to participate in the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena as an observer or facilitator under the modalities which shall be established on the basis of common agreement with the various members of the Committee for Organization of the National Inclusive Dialogue (CODNI).

The members of the CIES-AD enjoy privileges and immunities which are necessary for the independent exercise of their offices.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
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1.2. On the Disarming, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) Process

Article 1.2.6. The DDR process shall proceed in two stages:

First stage: the political-military movements shall, as of the day of the signature of the Doha Agreement, commence submitting lists of their combatants including their biometric data to the Committee for Collaboration and Supervision over the Implementation of the Doha Agreement.

Second stage: Upon the issue of the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena, the political-military movements shall, in coordination with the authorities of the neighbouring countries, present the counts of their combatants, weapons and their whereabouts to the Committee for Collaboration and Supervision over the Implementation of the Doha Agreement.

Article 1.2.7. In the course of implementation of the DRR programme, the Committee for Collaboration and Supervision over the Implementation of the Doha Agreement shall supervise disarming of the units of the political-military movements in preliminary accommodations after the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena is concluded.

In this regard, they shall proceed towards a separate census of weapons, ammunition, vehicles and military equipment, which shall be placed under the control of the Committee for Collaboration and Supervision over the Implementation of the Doha Agreement.

Article 1.2.8. The Parties agreed on appointing a National Commission Responsible for the Implementation of the DDR programme (CNCMO-DDR), which shall operate under the authority of the Committee for Collaboration and Supervision over the Implementation of the Doha Agreement and shall include representatives of the political-military movements whose combatants have been identified and registered.

The composition, tasks and functioning of the above mentioned committee are provided for by a Decree of the Council of Ministers.

Article 1.2.9. The Parties shall appoint a Mixed Team of Liaisons (EML) which shall consist of ten (10) representatives of the transition government and ten (10) representatives of political-military movements to facilitate the interaction in the course of its implementation.

The commencement of the DDR process, which shall take place after the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena and shall follow the recommendations regarding the disarming and registration.

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1.3 Measures to secure trust and security arrangements

[...]

Article 1.3.11. In order to support an effective participation of all political-military movements who are signatories of Doha Agreement, the transition government shall adopt the following security and administrative measures:

measures aiming to ensure physical security of the members of political-military movements which are signatories of this Agreement, their belongings and their families during their return to Chad.
implementation of a special system of protection of delegates of the political-military movements which are signatories of this Agreement during the participation on the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena, who have expressed the need for specific security measures to protect the individuals by the means of deployment of a unit consisting of non-Chadian members, the Mixed International Force (FMM) based in N’Djamena, in cooperation with the Executive Secretariate of the Lake Chad Basin Commission (CBLT).
the size of the above mentioned FMM unit and the modalities of its deployment shall be the subject of a bipartite agreement between the Transition  Military Council and the Executive Secretariate of the CBLT.

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1.3 Measures to secure trust and security arrangements
[...]
Article 1.3.13. In order to reinforce the trust, peace and stability, the political-military movements resolutely and jointly commit specifically to:
[...]
Stop recruiting new combatants and disclose the numbers of the existing armed combatants or personnel in charge of handling heavy weapons which are present at the territory at the time of signature of the Doha Agreement.
allow, starting at the date of signature of this Agreement, for consolidation and stationing of the armed units, wherever they are placed, on sites dedicated to this purpose, in cooperation with the Committee for Collaboration and Supervision over the Implementation of the Doha Agreement and with the authorities of the country on whose territory the units are placed.
allow for the disarmament of the stationed units in the framework of the implementation of the DDR programme.
secure the discipline and good behaviour of their combatants in the zones of encampment and refrain from any activities which might compromise the normal implementation of the peacemaking process and DDR programme.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
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I. MEASURES TOWARDS RESTORATION OF CONFIDENCE, PEACE, NATIONAL COHESION AND SECURITY


1. Complete and definitive termination of acts of hostility

[...]

Article 1.1.5. The Parties take all necessary measures to remove weapons from the civilians and shall fight against illegal dissemination and holding of weapons.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
Amnesty/pardon proper
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1.3 Measures to secure trust and security arrangements

Article 1.3.10. The Parties agreed on adopting suitable measures in order to create an atmosphere of trust supportive to a dialogue and national accord.

In this regard, the transition government commits to guarantee the following to the officials and to the members of political-military movements:

adoption and application of law providing for an amnesty for all convictions for their participation in rebellions and/or offences against the State security, without prejudice to the breaches of the general law.
Courts
National courts
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II.  NATIONAL INCLUSIVE DIALOGUE of N’Djamena

[...]

2.2. On the agenda of the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena

Article 2.2.18. In order to allow it to achieve its goals, the transition government and the political-military movements agree on the agenda of the Committee for Organization of the National Inclusive Dialogue consisting of the following:
[...]
11. designing a mechanism of extradition of all persons suspected of crimes, whether civilians, military personnel or members of the political-military movements, between the competent national jurisdictions.

[...]
13. establishment of a special investigation committee of the international community consisting of the representatives of the political-military movements, representatives of the defence and security forces and two representatives of the Committee for Collaboration and Supervision over the Implementation of the Doha Agreement in order to gather all the evidence about the disappearance of the war prisoners of both the transition government and of the political-military movements, in order to bring the persons responsible for the described disappearances to the justice.
Mechanism
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II.  NATIONAL INCLUSIVE DIALOGUE of N’Djamena

[...]

2.2. On the agenda of the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena

Article 2.2.18. In order to allow it to achieve its goals, the transition government and the political-military movements agree on the agenda of the Committee for Organization of the National Inclusive Dialogue consisting of the following:
[...]
10. appointment of a Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Committee to deal with the disputes of the past.
[...]
13. establishment of a special investigation committee of the international community consisting of the representatives of the political-military movements, representatives of the defence and security forces and two representatives of the Committee for Collaboration and Supervision over the Implementation of the Doha Agreement in order to gather all the evidence about the disappearance of the war prisoners of both the transition government and of the political-military movements, in order to bring the persons responsible for the described disappearances to the justice.
Prisoner release
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1.3 Measures to secure trust and security arrangements
[...]
Article 1.3.14. In order to consolidate the trust and promote national amity, the Parties shall, on the reciprocity basis, take steps towards a liberation of the respective units of defence and security forces and the combatants of the political-military movements captioned during various battles in compliance with the modalities and timetable which shall be agreed between the transition government and each touched political-military movement, under the supervision of the Committee for Collaboration and Supervision over the Implementation of the Doha Agreement.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
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II.  NATIONAL INCLUSIVE DIALOGUE of N’Djamena

[...]

2.2. On the agenda of the National Inclusive Dialogue of N’Djamena

Article 2.2.18. In order to allow it to achieve its goals, the transition government and the political-military movements agree on the agenda of the Committee for Organization of the National Inclusive Dialogue consisting of the following:
[...]
11. designing a mechanism of extradition of all persons suspected of crimes, whether civilians, military personnel or members of the political-military movements, between the competent national jurisdictions.

[...]
13. establishment of a special investigation committee of the international community consisting of the representatives of the political-military movements, representatives of the defence and security forces and two representatives of the Committee for Collaboration and Supervision over the Implementation of the Doha Agreement in order to gather all the evidence about the disappearance of the war prisoners of both the transition government and of the political-military movements, in order to bring the persons responsible for the described disappearances to the justice.
Reparations
Material reparations
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1.3 Measures to secure trust and security arrangements

Article 1.3.10. The Parties agreed on adopting suitable measures in order to create an atmosphere of trust supportive to a dialogue and national accord.
[...]
returning the property and belongings of the stakeholding members of the political movements which are signatories of the Doha Agreement or their authorized claimants seized or confiscated by the State upon criminal convictions mentioned above, as well as vacation of immovable property belonging to the members of the political-military movements or to political exiles. 
Reconciliation
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Being strongly committed by the signature of this Peace Agreement to provide leadership towards stability and lasting national reconciliation in Chad.

[...]

Being aware of the high urgency of the National Inclusive Dialogue taking place in order to achieve a true national reconciliation which shall result in formation of one Nation for all.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
No specific mention.
Enforcement mechanism
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IV. MISCELLANEOUS AND CLOSING PROVISIONS
[...]
Article 4.25. In case of a dispute or discrepancies in interpretation of this Agreement, any of the signatory Parties may use good offices, dialogue and negotiation to resolve the issue.

If no agreement is achieved, each Party may, after 60 days which count as of the date of the dispute, initiate an arbitration with a arbitral tribunal consisting of three arbiters nominated by the International Committee for Evaluation and Supervision over the Implementation of the Doha Agreement (CIES-AD).

The University of Edinburgh