Agreement on Cessation of Hostilities between the Government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and the Government of the State of Eritrea

Country/entity
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Agreement on Cessation of Hostilities between the Government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and the Government of the State of Eritrea
Date
18/06/2000
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/interstate conflict (Eritrean Border Conflicts (1998 - 2018)
Eritrean Border Conflicts (1998 - 2019)

Eritrea - Ethiopia (1998 - 2018)

In 1991, the Eritrean People’s Liberation Front (EPLF) defeated the communist military junta (‘Derg’) in Ethiopia and proclaimed independence for Eritrea. At the same time, Derg itself was overthrown by the Ethiopian Peoples’ Revolutionary Democratic Forces (EPRDF), which established a transitional government in Ethiopia. Eritrea was granted an independence referendum, which resulted in a 99.8 per cent pro-independence vote. However, border tensions and heavy disputes, in particular on minority rights and economic issues, between EPLF and EPRDF led to new fighting between the two countries in 1998. A mediation by the US administration led to a difficult truce and in 2000 a peace agreement was signed. The agreement established two commission, Border Commission and the Claims Commission. The delimitation ruling of the Border Commission was rejected by Ethiopia. The border continued to be heavily occupied by troops on both sides and border skirmishes continue into 2016. In June 2018, after a series of summits, the state of war was declared over in a Joint Declaration of Peace and Friendship, as Ethiopia finally agreed to honour the ruling of the Border Commission. This followed by a series of steps to improve political, economic and diplomatic ties. Transport and telephone links have been re-established, and borders reopened. In July 2018, the countries have signed the ‘Agreement on Peace, Friendship and Comprehensive Cooperation’ reiterating their commitment to achieving long-lasting peace in the region.



Sudanese-Eritrean Relations (1994 - 1999)

Eritrea broke diplomatic contact with neighbouring Sudan after accusing the country of attempting to destabilize the Eritrean regime. At the time it was believed that Sudan trained and armed the Eritrean Islamic Jihad Group, which aimed to establish a caliphate in the Horn of Africa. After breaking diplomatic relations, Khartoum accused Eritrea of providing support for armed Sudanese opposition groups. Indeed, Eritrea help a conference for the Sudanese opposition in 1995 in an attempt to unite them. Relations were normalized in 1999. Sudan sent troops to its eastern border (region of Kassala) with Eritrea amid security concerns involving Egyptian troops deployed in Eritrea.
Eritrean Border Conflicts (1998 - 2018) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Ceasefire)
Conflict nature
Territory
Peace process
37: Eritrea-Ethiopia border dispute peace process
Parties
The Government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and the Government of the State of Eritrea

For the Government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: SEYOUM MESFIN Minister of Foreign Affairs
For the Government of the State of Eritrea: HAILE WELDENSAE Minister of Foreign Affairs
Third parties
Having taken part in the Proximity Talks called by the Organization of African Unity in Algiers from 29 May to 10 June 2000, under the Chairmanship of Algeria the Current Chair of the OAU and with the participation of its partners namely the United States and the European Union,
Description
This agreement provides for the cessation of hostilities and a ceasefire monitoring mechanism through the deployment of a United Nations Peacekeeping Mission.

Agreement document
EH_ER_000618_AGREEMENT ON CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
Substantive
Page 2, Paragraph 8:
Upon the signing of the present document, both Parties shall conduct demining activities as soon as possible with a view to creating the conditions necessary for the deployment of the Peacekeeping Mission, the return of civilian administration and the return of population as well as the delimitation and demarcation of their common border. The Peace-keeping Mission, in conjunction with the United Nations Mine Action Service, will assist the Parties' demining efforts by providing technical advice and coordination. The Parties shall, as necessary, seek additional demining assistance from the Peacekeeping Mission.

Page 2, Paragraph 11:
Upon verification of Ethiopian redeployment by the Peacekeeping Mission, Eritrean civilian administration, including police and local militia, will be restored to prepare for the return of the population.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
Border delimitation
Page 1, Untitled Preamble:
...
Committing themselves to the following principles:
...
- Respect for the borders existing at independence as stated in resolution AHG/ Res 16 (1) adopted by the OAU Summit in Cairo in 1964 and, in this regard, determine them on the basis of pertinent colonial treaties and applicable interna- tional law, making use, to that end, of technical means to demarcate the borders and, in case of controversy, resort to the appropriate mechanism of arbitration;

Page 2, Paragraph 5:
The Peacekeeping Mission shall terminate when the delimitation-demarcation process of the border has been completed.

Page 2, Paragraph 8:
Upon the signing of the present document, both Parties shall conduct demining activities as soon as possible with a view to creating the conditions necessary for the deployment of the Peacekeeping Mission, the return of civilian administration and the return of population as well as the delimitation and demarcation of their common border. The Peace-keeping Mission, in conjunction with the United Nations Mine Action Service, will assist the Parties' demining efforts by providing technical advice and coordination. The Parties shall, as necessary, seek additional demining assistance from the Peacekeeping Mission.

Page 2, Paragraph 10:
In accordance with the principle established in paragraph 3 of the Framework Agreement, it is understood that the redeployment of Ethiopian forces will not prejudge the final status of the contested areas, which will be determined at the end of the delimitation and demarcation of the border and, if need be, through an appropriate mechanism of arbitration.

Page 2, Paragraph 12:
In order to contribute to the reduction of tension and to the establishment of a climate of calm and confidence, as well as to create conditions conducive to a comprehensive and lasting settlement of the conflict through the delimitation and demarcation of the border, the Eritrean forces shall remain at a distance of 25 km (artillery range) from positions to which Ethiopian forces shall redeploy in accordance with paragraph 9 of this document. This zone of separation shall be referred to in this document as the "temporary security zone."

Page 3, Paragraph 14:
Ethiopia commits itself not to move its troops beyond the positions it administered before 6 May 1998. Eritrea commits itself not to move its troops beyond the positions defined in paragraph 12 above. The OAU and the United Nations commit themselves to guarantee the respect for this commitment of the two Parties until the determination of the common border on the basis of pertinent colonial treaties and applicable international law, through delimitation/demarcation and in case of controversy, through the appropriate mechanism of arbitration. This guarantee shall be comprised of:
a) measures to be taken by the international community should one or both of the Parties violate this commitment, including appropriate measures to be taken under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter by the UN Security Council ;
b) actions by the Peacekeeping Mission to monitor key and sensitive areas of the temporary security zone through liaison officers at the division and regimental levels with Ethiopian and Eritrean units deployed at key points along the temporary security zone on their respective sides ; regular patrols ; reconnaissance missions; and challenge inspections throughout the temporary security zone coordinated through the Military Coordination Commission with the participation of liaison officers of the Parties as decided by the Chairman of the Military Coordination Commission;

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
Page 2, Paragraph 8:
Upon the signing of the present document, both Parties shall conduct demining activities as soon as possible with a view to creating the conditions necessary for the deployment of the Peacekeeping Mission, the return of civilian administration and the return of population as well as the delimitation and demarcation of their common border. The Peace-keeping Mission, in conjunction with the United Nations Mine Action Service, will assist the Parties' demining efforts by providing technical advice and coordination. The Parties shall, as necessary, seek additional demining assistance from the Peacekeeping Mission.

Page 2, Paragraph 11:
Upon verification of Ethiopian redeployment by the Peacekeeping Mission, Eritrean civilian administration, including police and local militia, will be restored to prepare for the return of the population.

Page 2, Paragraph 12:
In order to contribute to the reduction of tension and to the establishment of a climate of calm and confidence, as well as to create conditions conducive to a comprehensive and lasting settlement of the conflict through the delimitation and demarcation of the border, the Eritrean forces shall remain at a distance of 25 km (artillery range) from positions to which Ethiopian forces shall redeploy in accordance with paragraph 9 of this document. This zone of separation shall be referred to in this document as the "temporary security zone."

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
Other
Page 1, Paragraph 1;
Immediate cessation of hostilities starting from the signature of this document. In particular the two Parties agree to the following:
...
1-2. guarantee of the free movement and access of the Peacekeeping Mission and its supplies as required through the territories of the Parties ;
1-3. respect and protection of the members of the Peacekeeping Mission, its installations and equipment.
Human rights framework
Treaty incorporation
Page 1, Untitled Preamble:
...
Committing themselves to the following principles:
- Resolution of the present crisis and any other dispute between them through peaceful and legal means in accordance with the principles enshrined in the charters of the OAU and the United Nations;
...
- Respect for the borders existing at independence as stated in resolution AHG/ Res 16 (1) adopted by the OAU Summit in Cairo in 1964 and, in this regard, determine them on the basis of pertinent colonial treaties and applicable international law, making use, to that end, of technical means to demarcate the borders and, in case of controversy, resort to the appropriate mechanism of arbitration;

Page 3, Paragraph 14:
Ethiopia commits itself not to move its troops beyond the positions it administered before 6 May 1998. Eritrea commits itself not to move its troops beyond the positions defined in paragraph 12 above. The OAU and the United Nations commit themselves to guarantee the respect for this commitment of the two Parties until the determination of the common border on the basis of pertinent colonial treaties and applicable international law, through delimitation/demarcation and in case of controversy, through the appropriate mechanism of arbitration. This guarantee shall be comprised of:
a) measures to be taken by the international community should one or both of the Parties violate this commitment, including appropriate measures to be taken under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter by the UN Security Council;
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 1, Paragraph 1;
Immediate cessation of hostilities starting from the signature of this document. In particular the two Parties agree to the following:
...
1-2. guarantee of the free movement and access of the Peacekeeping Mission and its supplies as required through the territories of the Parties ;
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
The agreement provides in its entirety for the a ceasefire.

Page 1-2, Paragraph 3:
3 - The mandate of the Peacekeeping Mission shall be:
...
3-2. monitor the redeployment of Ethiopian troops;

Page 2, Paragraph 6:
A Military Coordination Commission shall be established by the OAU and the United Nations with agreement of the two Parties in order to facilitate the functions of the Peacekeeping Mission. It shall be composed of representatives of the two Parties and chaired by the leader of the Peacekeeping Mission.

Page 2, Paragraph 7:
The mandate of the Military Coordination Commission shall be to coordinate and resolve issues relating to the implementation of the mandate of the Peacekeeping Mission as defined in the present document. The Commission shall deal with military issues arising during the implementation period.

Page 2, Paragraph 9:
Ethiopia shall submit redeployment plans for its troops from positions taken after 6 February 1999, and which were not under Ethiopian administration before 6 May 1998, to the Peacekeeping Mission. This redeployment shall be completed within two weeks after the deployment of the Peacekeeping Mission and verified by it.

Page 2, Paragraph 10:
In accordance with the principle established in paragraph 3 of the Framework Agreement, it is understood that the redeployment of Ethiopian forces will not prejudge the final status of the contested areas, which will be determined at the end of the delimitation and demarcation of the border and, if need be, through an appropriate mechanism of arbitration.

Page 2, Paragraph 11:
Upon verification of Ethiopian redeployment by the Peacekeeping Mission, Eritrean civilian administration, including police and local militia, will be restored to prepare for the return of the population.

Page 2, Paragraph 12:
In order to contribute to the reduction of tension and to the establishment of a climate of calm and confidence, as well as to create conditions conducive to a comprehensive and lasting settlement of the conflict through the delimitation and demarcation of the border, the Eritrean forces shall remain at a distance of 25 km (artillery range) from positions to which Ethiopian forces shall redeploy in accordance with paragraph 9 of this document. This zone of separation shall be referred to in this document as the "temporary security zone."

Page 3, Paragraph 13:
The Eritrean forces at positions defined in paragraph 12 of this document, as well as Ethiopian forces at positions defined in paragraph 9 of this document, shall be monitored by the Peacekeeping Mission.

Page 3, Paragraph 14:
Ethiopia commits itself not to move its troops beyond the positions it administered before 6 May 1998. Eritrea commits itself not to move its troops beyond the positions defined in paragraph 12 above. The OAU and the United Nations commit themselves to guarantee the respect for this commitment of the two Parties until the determination of the common border on the basis of pertinent colonial treaties and applicable international law, through delimitation/demarcation and in case of controversy, through the appropriate mechanism of arbitration. This guarantee shall be comprised of:
a) measures to be taken by the international community should one or both of the Parties violate this commitment, including appropriate measures to be taken under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter by the UN Security Council ;
b) actions by the Peacekeeping Mission to monitor key and sensitive areas of the temporary security zone through liaison officers at the division and regimental levels with Ethiopian and Eritrean units deployed at key points along the temporary security zone on their respective sides ; regular patrols ; reconnaissance missions; and challenge inspections throughout the temporary security zone coordinated through the Military Coordination Commission with the participation of liaison officers of the Parties as decided by the Chairman of the Military Coordination Commission;
c) deployment to and continuous monitoring by military units of the Peacekeeping Mission at posts in key and sensitive positions within the temporary security zone in order to monitor the implementation of the commitments made by both Parties in paragraphs 9 and 12 of this document;
d) periodic technical verification of the temporary security zone to help determine compliance with this document.
Police
Page 2, Paragraph 11:
Upon verification of Ethiopian redeployment by the Peacekeeping Mission, Eritrean civilian administration, including police and local militia, will be restored to prepare for the return of the population.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
Demilitarisation provisions
Page 2, Paragraph 8:
Upon the signing of the present document, both Parties shall conduct demining activities as soon as possible with a view to creating the conditions necessary for the deployment of the Peacekeeping Mission, the return of civilian administration and the return of population as well as the delimitation and demarcation of their common border. The Peace-keeping Mission, in conjunction with the United Nations Mine Action Service, will assist the Parties' demining efforts by providing technical advice and coordination. The Parties shall, as necessary, seek additional demining assistance from the Peacekeeping Mission.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 2, Paragraph 11:
Upon verification of Ethiopian redeployment by the Peacekeeping Mission, Eritrean civilian administration, including police and local militia, will be restored to prepare for the return of the population.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 1, Paragraph 1;
Immediate cessation of hostilities starting from the signature of this document. In particular the two Parties agree to the following:
...
1-2. guarantee of the free movement and access of the Peacekeeping Mission and its supplies as required through the territories of the Parties ;
1-3. respect and protection of the members of the Peacekeeping Mission, its installations and equipment.

Page 1, Paragraph 2:
A Peacekeeping Mission shall be deployed by the United Nations under the auspices of the OAU.

Page 1-2, Paragraph 3:
3 - The mandate of the Peacekeeping Mission shall be:
3-1. monitor the cessation of hostilities;
3-2. monitor the redeployment of Ethiopian troops;
3-3. ensure the observance of the security commitments agreed by the two Parties in this document, in particular those provided for in paragraph 14;
3-4. monitor the temporary security zone provided for in paragraph 12 of this document.

Page 2, Paragraph 4:
The size and the composition of the Peacekeeping Mission shall be adapted to the mission assigned to it and shall be determined by the Secretaries General of the United Nations and the OAU with the acceptance of the two Parties.

Page 2, Paragraph 5:
The Peacekeeping Mission shall terminate when the delimitation-demarcation process of the border has been completed.

Page 2, Paragraph 6:
A Military Coordination Commission shall be established by the OAU and the United Nations with agreement of the two Parties in order to facilitate the functions of the Peacekeeping Mission. It shall be composed of representatives of the two Parties and chaired by the leader of the Peacekeeping Mission.

Page 2, Paragraph 7:
The mandate of the Military Coordination Commission shall be to coordinate and resolve issues relating to the implementation of the mandate of the Peacekeeping Mission as defined in the present document. The Commission shall deal with military issues arising during the implementation period.

Page 2, Paragraph 8:
Upon the signing of the present document, both Parties shall conduct demining activities as soon as possible with a view to creating the conditions necessary for the deployment of the Peacekeeping Mission, the return of civilian administration and the return of population as well as the delimitation and demarcation of their common border. The Peace-keeping Mission, in conjunction with the United Nations Mine Action Service, will assist the Parties' demining efforts by providing technical advice and coordination. The Parties shall, as necessary, seek additional demining assistance from the Peacekeeping Mission.

Page 2, Paragraph 9:
Ethiopia shall submit redeployment plans for its troops from positions taken after 6 February 1999, and which were not under Ethiopian administration before 6 May 1998, to the Peacekeeping Mission. This redeployment shall be completed within two weeks after the deployment of the Peacekeeping Mission and verified by it.

Page 2, Paragraph 11:
Upon verification of Ethiopian redeployment by the Peacekeeping Mission, Eritrean civilian administration, including police and local militia, will be restored to prepare for the return of the population.

Page 3, Paragraph 13:
The Eritrean forces at positions defined in paragraph 12 of this document, as well as Ethiopian forces at positions defined in paragraph 9 of this document, shall be monitored by the Peacekeeping Mission.

Page 3, Paragraph 14:
Ethiopia commits itself not to move its troops beyond the positions it administered before 6 May 1998. Eritrea commits itself not to move its troops beyond the positions defined in paragraph 12 above. The OAU and the United Nations commit themselves to guarantee the respect for this commitment of the two Parties until the determination of the common border on the basis of pertinent colonial treaties and applicable international law, through delimitation/demarcation and in case of controversy, through the appropriate mechanism of arbitration. This guarantee shall be comprised of:
a) measures to be taken by the international community should one or both of the Parties violate this commitment, including appropriate measures to be taken under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter by the UN Security Council ;
b) actions by the Peacekeeping Mission to monitor key and sensitive areas of the temporary security zone through liaison officers at the division and regimental levels with Ethiopian and Eritrean units deployed at key points along the temporary security zone on their respective sides ; regular patrols ; reconnaissance missions; and challenge inspections throughout the temporary security zone coordinated through the Military Coordination Commission with the participation of liaison officers of the Parties as decided by the Chairman of the Military Coordination Commission;
c) deployment to and continuous monitoring by military units of the Peacekeeping Mission at posts in key and sensitive positions within the temporary security zone in order to monitor the implementation of the commitments made by both Parties in paragraphs 9 and 12 of this document;
d) periodic technical verification of the temporary security zone to help determine compliance with this document.

Page 3, Paragraph 15:
Upon the signature of the present document, the two Parties shall initiate separate requests to the Secretaries General of the OAU and the United Nations, as necessary, for assistance to implement this document.
Enforcement mechanism
Page 2, Paragraph 7:
The mandate of the Military Coordination Commission shall be to coordinate and resolve issues relating to the implementation of the mandate of the Peacekeeping Mission as defined in the present document. The Commission shall deal with military issues arising during the implementation period.

The University of Edinburgh