Agreement with UNITA-Renovada Updating the Lusaka Protocol Concerning the Appointment of UNITA Cadres to Government Positions (Annex III to Agreement signed by the Government of the Republic of Angola and UNITA Renovada (Luanda Protocol))

Country/entity
Angola
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Agreement with UNITA-Renovada Updating the Lusaka Protocol Concerning the Appointment of UNITA Cadres to Government Positions (Annex III to Agreement signed by the Government of the Republic of Angola and UNITA Renovada (Luanda Protocol))
Date
18/02/1999
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Angolan Civil War (1975 - 2002)
The conflict has involved political divisions, and agreements emanate from two dyads. Unita-dyad. Immediately following Angola’s independence in 1975, a civil war broke out between the two main armed independence movements, the (then government) Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). The UN-mediated Lusaka Protocol in November 1994 did not end fighting and another attempt in 1998 failed due to continuous ceasefire violations. After internal splits and the killing of their founder Jonas Savimbi, UNITA was defeated by MPLA forces in 2002.

Cabinda dyad. Additionally, in the Cabinda enclave, the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC) fought a low intensity guerrilla warfare against the MPLA government since independence, but by the early 2000s, FLEC had lost significant operational power and in 2006 the group eventually declared a ceasefire.
Angolan Civil War (1975 - 2002) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Mixed)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
4: Angola: UNITA process
Parties
[Note: No individual signatories listed.]
For the Government of Angola; For UNITA;
Third parties
Description
Short agreement made after change in UNITA leadership; Parties commiting to comply with the letter and spirit of the Lusaka Protocol

Agreement document
AO_991103_Luanda_Protocol_III.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
Page 1, Annex III
d) The approval of the future constitution of the Republic of Angola
e) The amendment of the electoral law
Elections
Page 1, Annex III
The presidential elections were held on 29 and 30 September 1992.
Since the candidate that obtained the majority of the votes did not attain the percentage stipulated by the raw (50% +1), the two candidates with the highest number of votes would face each other on a second round of elections.
This second round should have taken place within 30 days of the publication of the results of the first round.
The second most voted candidate however, obstructed the process and effectively prevented the holding of the second round within the legally established time frame.
Although the electoral law established the principles for the holding of the second round in the presidential election, the Lusaka Protocol, which is the juridical and political element that regulates the Angolan Peace Process, establishes in it, Annex 7, that the elections should take place as soon as military, political, material and security conditions allow it

Page 1, Annex III
... d) The approval of the future constitution of the Republic of Angola
e) The amendment of the electoral law

Page 1-2, Annex III
... Given the objective and subjective impassibility of holding the second round of the 1992 Presidential elections, and given the time that has elapsed since then, and the significant changes among the voters that participated in the 1992 elections as well as the new outbreak of war and military instability.
Given that the United Nations has declared that it feels that it cannot continue to supervise the Peace Process, due to the lack of the necessary political and military conditions in view of the re-initiation of warfare, a fact that determines the need for the sovereign organizations of the Republic of Angola to take up the development of the tasks inherent to the conclusion of the Electoral Process, the Government and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola agree to the following:
a) Point II.5, Annex 7, of the work agenda of the Lusaka Protocol relative to the conclusion of the electoral process is considered concluded;
b) The National Assembly, through its normal legislative process, and under the Initiative of the interested parliamentary groups, shall approve the pertinent
amendments that regulate this issue, in the spirit of this agreement
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 1, Annex III
... c) The guarantee of the fundamental freedoms of the citizens over all of the national territory
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
Freedom of movement
Page 6, Annex III
... b) Guarantee of the security and free circulation of people and goods over the whole national territory
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 6, Annex III
... b) Guarantee of the security and free circulation of people and goods over the whole national territory
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
Citizens, specific rights
Page 1, Annex III
... c) The guarantee of the fundamental freedoms of the citizens over all of the national territory

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
Page 6, Annex III
... b) Guarantee of the security and free circulation of people and goods over the whole national territory

Page 1-2, Annex III
... Given the objective and subjective impassibility of holding the second round of the 1992 Presidential elections, and given the time that has elapsed since then, and the significant changes among the voters that participated in the 1992 elections as well as the new outbreak of war and military instability,
Given that the United Nations has declared that it feels that it cannot continue to supervise the Peace Process, due to the lack of the necessary political and military conditions in view of the re-initiation of warfare, a fact that determines the need for the sovereign organizations of the Republic of Angola to take up the development of the tasks inherent to the conclusion of the Electoral Process, the Government and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola agree to the following:
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 1-2, Annex III
... Given that the United Nations has declared that it feels that it cannot continue to supervise the Peace Process, due to the lack of the necessary political and military conditions in view of the re-initiation of warfare, a fact that determines the need for the sovereign organizations of the Republic of Angola to take up the development of the tasks inherent to the conclusion of the Electoral Process, the Government and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola agree to the following:
a) Point II.5, Annex 7, of the work agenda of the Lusaka Protocol relative to the conclusion of the electoral process is considered concluded;
b) The National Assembly, through its normal legislative process, and under the Initiative of the interested parliamentary groups, shall approve the pertinent amendments that regulate this issue, in the spirit of this agreement
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh