Angolan Government's Peace Plan

Country/entity
Angola
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Angolan Government's Peace Plan
Date
13/03/2002
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Angolan Civil War (1975 - 2002)
The conflict has involved political divisions, and agreements emanate from two dyads. Unita-dyad. Immediately following Angola’s independence in 1975, a civil war broke out between the two main armed independence movements, the (then government) Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). The UN-mediated Lusaka Protocol in November 1994 did not end fighting and another attempt in 1998 failed due to continuous ceasefire violations. After internal splits and the killing of their founder Jonas Savimbi, UNITA was defeated by MPLA forces in 2002.

Cabinda dyad. Additionally, in the Cabinda enclave, the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC) fought a low intensity guerrilla warfare against the MPLA government since independence, but by the early 2000s, FLEC had lost significant operational power and in 2006 the group eventually declared a ceasefire.
Angolan Civil War (1975 - 2002) )
Stage
Implementation/renegotiation (Other: Peace plan of the Government of National Unity established under the Bicesse Accords)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
4: Angola: UNITA process
Parties
Note: The agreement does not have any signatories, however the preamble states that the peace plan is the product of the Government of Unity and National Reconciliation of the Republic of Angola.
Third parties
Description
Unilateral declaration by the government committing to the ceasefire and to implement outstanding provisions of the Lusaka Protocol

Agreement document
AO_020313_Government's Unilateral Peace Plan_tr.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
Substantive
Page 2,
... The consolidation of peace requires timely and effective action in tackling the immediate effects of war on the most affected strata of the population, working to make humanitarian assistance reach all needy people, without discrimination. Within this context, the government is preparing an Emergency Programme to support the social reintegration and resettlement of four million displaced persons, the integration in society of 150,000 demobilized soldiers from the various wars in Angola as well as ex-servicemen, the reintegration of 100,000 disabled people and provision of shelter for 50,000 war orphans.
Disabled persons
Substantive
Page 2,
... The consolidation of peace requires timely and effective action in tackling the immediate effects of war on the most affected strata of the population, working to make humanitarian assistance reach all needy people, without discrimination. Within this context, the government is preparing an Emergency Programme to support the social reintegration and resettlement of four million displaced persons, the integration in society of 150,000 demobilized soldiers from the various wars in Angola as well as ex-servicemen, the reintegration of 100,000 disabled people and provision of shelter for 50,000 war orphans.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
Substantive
Page 2,
... Within the framework of implementing the outstanding administrative tasks of the Lusaka Protocol, extending the establishment of state administration to the whole national territory and the appointment of UNITA personnel to the posts provided for should be completed. At the same time, safe conditions should be created for displaced persons to return to their home areas, so as to permit the gradual revival of the economy everywhere in the country. To this end, the government, with the support of the international community, will promote a largescale mine clearance programme to make the free movement of people and goods possible throughout the national territory.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
Page 2,
... The government considers it necessary to find a political and legal solution to the electoral process not completed in 1992, and declares that it will implement the relevant political, legal and administrative measures for the holding of the next elections. To this end, in addition to completing the process of approving a new constitution, the government will engage in amending the electoral legislation, resettling displaced persons and electoral registration and census operations.
Elections
Page 2,
... The government considers it necessary to find a political and legal solution to the electoral process not completed in 1992, and declares that it will implement the relevant political, legal and administrative measures for the holding of the next elections. To this end, in addition to completing the process of approving a new constitution, the government will engage in amending the electoral legislation, resettling displaced persons and electoral registration and census operations.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
Page 2,
... The government will work with all of society, especially the churches, political parties, civic associations and social and professional associations, in this whole process, continuing to hold regular consultations with these bodies, with the aim of securing their valuable contribution to action to be undertaken to consolidate peace and democracy in the country and, especially, to calm people’s minds, ensuring tolerance and mutual respect and the mobilization of resources and wills for the rapid resolution of the problems affecting war victims.

Page 3,
The government recognizes the effort that has been made by the international community in respect of humanitarian aid and reaffirms its appeal to national and international donors to muster resources to support the said programme, the implementation of which should be with the effective participation of churches, non-governmental organizations and others in civil society, who will make their experience available to ensure transparency and the rational use of available resources.

Page 3,
... The government appeals to all political forces and civil society as a whole, in this crucial period in which the nation’s destiny is once again being decided, for every citizen to maintain a high sense of responsibility in his or her acts and words. The government encourages the propagation and consolidation everywhere in the country of a climate of mutual tolerance in which debate and the confrontation of ideas are possible without recourse to physical or verbal violence, insults or slander.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
Page 3,
... Within the framework of its commitment to the rapid reconstruction of the country, the government will fulfil the immediate outstanding tasks in its Programme to Overcome the Crisis, an integral and essential part of which is the Public Investment programme, PIP. The implementation of the PIP will make it possible to rehabilitate economic and social facilities making possible economic activity, the provision of medical assistance to the population, raising schooling levels, the movement of people and goods and better links between provinces, municipalities and communes, and the installation, organization and capacity building of local administration. With the aim of mobilising additional resources for the great task of rebuilding Angola in peacetime, the government has taken the initiative, with the assistance of friendly countries, to hold an international donors’ conference on a date to be determined.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 1,
The Government of Unity and National Reconciliation of the Republic of Angola considers that the country is experiencing a unique moment in its history to take joint action leading definitively to the end of the current armed conflict, in which the issues of peace and national reconciliation should be seen in a legal and political framework, respecting the constitution, the legal order and state institutions, and unequivocally accepting the validity of the peace accords and United Nations Security Council resolutions on Angola.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
Freedom of movement
Page 1
... This step opens the way to dialogue and cooperation between the military commands, in order to achieve a general ceasefire as soon as possible and the consequent ending of all movements of forces aimed at reinforcing or occupying new military positions, acts of violence against the civilian population, the destruction of public or private property and the obstruction of the free movement of people and their belongings.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 1
... This step opens the way to dialogue and cooperation between the military commands, in order to achieve a general ceasefire as soon as possible and the consequent ending of all movements of forces aimed at reinforcing or occupying new military positions, acts of violence against the civilian population, the destruction of public or private property and the obstruction of the free movement of people and their belongings.

Page 2,
... Within the framework of implementing the outstanding administrative tasks of the Lusaka Protocol, extending the establishment of state administration to the whole national territory and the appointment of UNITA personnel to the posts provided for should be completed. At the same time, safe conditions should be created for displaced persons to return to their home areas, so as to permit the gradual revival of the economy everywhere in the country. To this end, the government, with the support of the international community, will promote a largescale mine clearance programme to make the free movement of people and goods possible throughout the national territory.

Page 3,
... Within the framework of its commitment to the rapid reconstruction of the country, the government will fulfil the immediate outstanding tasks in its Programme to Overcome the Crisis, an integral and essential part of which is the Public Investment programme, PIP. The implementation of the PIP will make it possible to rehabilitate economic and social facilities making possible economic activity, the provision of medical assistance to the population, raising schooling levels, the movement of people and goods and better links between provinces, municipalities and communes, and the installation, organization and capacity building of local administration. With the aim of mobilising additional resources for the great task of rebuilding Angola in peacetime, the government has taken the initiative, with the assistance of friendly countries, to hold an international donors’ conference on a date to be determined.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
Citizen, general
Page 3,
... The government appeals to all political forces and civil society as a whole, in this crucial period in which the nation’s destiny is once again being decided, for every citizen to maintain a high sense of responsibility in his or her acts and words. The government encourages the propagation and consolidation everywhere in the country of a climate of mutual tolerance in which debate and the confrontation of ideas are possible without recourse to physical or verbal violence, insults or slander.

Page 3,
... The government urges all Angolans to unite, so that we may together turn an important page in our history. This is a time for reconciliation, mutual forgiveness and unity. Let us bid a final farewell to arms and war and dedicate ourselves fraternally to the reconstruction of a prosperous and modern Angola, capable of guaranteeing the physical, material and spiritual well-being of all its citizens and of occupying its rightful place in the concert of nations.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Socio-economic development
Page 3,
... Within the framework of its commitment to the rapid reconstruction of the country, the government will fulfil the immediate outstanding tasks in its Programme to Overcome the Crisis, an integral and essential part of which is the Public Investment programme, PIP. The implementation of the PIP will make it possible to rehabilitate economic and social facilities making possible economic activity, the provision of medical assistance to the population, raising schooling levels, the movement of people and goods and better links between provinces, municipalities and communes, and the installation, organization and capacity building of local administration. With the aim of mobilising additional resources for the great task of rebuilding Angola in peacetime, the government has taken the initiative, with the assistance of friendly countries, to hold an international donors’ conference on a date to be determined.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
Page 2,
... Within the framework of implementing the outstanding administrative tasks of the Lusaka Protocol, extending the establishment of state administration to the whole national territory and the appointment of UNITA personnel to the posts provided for should be completed. At the same time, safe conditions should be created for displaced persons to return to their home areas, so as to permit the gradual revival of the economy everywhere in the country. To this end, the government, with the support of the international community, will promote a largescale mine clearance programme to make the free movement of people and goods possible throughout the national territory.

Page 3,
The government recognizes the effort that has been made by the international community in respect of humanitarian aid and reaffirms its appeal to national and
international donors to muster resources to support the said programme, the implementation of which should be with the effective participation of churches, non-governmental organizations and others in civil society, who will make their experience available to ensure transparency and the rational use of available resources.

Page 3,
... Within the framework of its commitment to the rapid reconstruction of the country, the government will fulfil the immediate outstanding tasks in its Programme to Overcome the Crisis, an integral and essential part of which is the Public Investment programme, PIP. The implementation of the PIP will make it possible to rehabilitate economic and social facilities making possible economic activity, the provision of medical assistance to the population, raising schooling levels, the movement of people and goods and better links between provinces, municipalities and communes, and the installation, organization and capacity building of local administration. With the aim of mobilising additional resources for the great task of rebuilding Angola in peacetime, the government has taken the initiative, with the assistance of friendly countries, to hold an international donors’ conference on a date to be determined.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
Page 1,
... In order to achieve peace, the government has set out an agenda that necessarily involves the solution of all military issues resulting from the armed conflict that started after the formation of the Angolan Armed Forces, in accordance with the Bicesse Accords and the Lusaka Protocol.
Ceasefire
General commitments
Page 1,
... With the aim of encouraging and promoting the confidence of the entire Angolan nation in this opportunity for peace that must not be wasted, the government has instructed General Staff headquarters of the Angolan Armed Forces, FAA, to cease all offensive movements as from midnight on 13 March 2002, so as to permit the establishment of on the-spot contacts between the military commands of FAA and UNITA’s military forces.

Page 1,
... This step opens the way to dialogue and cooperation between the military commands, in order to achieve a general ceasefire as soon as possible and the consequent ending of all movements of forces aimed at reinforcing or occupying new military positions, acts of violence against the civilian population, the destruction of public or private property and the obstruction of the free movement of people and their belongings.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
DDR programmes
Page 1,
... The government considers the demilitarization of UNITA, in accordance with the law, to be fundamental and decisive. In the interests of national reconciliation, the government will present a programme for the integration in national life of generals, officers and privates from UNITA’s military forces.

Page 2-3,
... The consolidation of peace requires timely and effective action in tackling the immediate effects of war on the most affected strata of the population, working to make humanitarian assistance reach all needy people, without discrimination. Within this context, the government is preparing an Emergency Programme to support the social reintegration and resettlement of four million displaced persons, the integration in society of 150,000 demobilized soldiers from the various wars in Angola as well as ex-servicemen, the reintegration of 100,000 disabled people and provision of shelter for 50,000 war orphans.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 1-2,
... With regard to issues related to the full integration of UNITA into national political life, as a political party whose action is important to the consolidation of the democratic process, the government intends, within the framework of its public responsibilities, to help to create conditions in the country to permit UNITA members, internally and freely, to solve the problem of the leadership of their party and its reorganisation and functioning in accordance with the law.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
Amnesty/pardon proper
Page 2,
... The government will propose to the National Assembly the approval of an amnesty for all crimes committed within the framework of the armed conflict, the aim of this measure being to ensure the requisite legal and political guarantees for promoting and achieving the process of national reconciliation.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
Page 2,
... The government will work with all of society, especially the churches, political parties, civic associations and social and professional associations, in this whole process, continuing to hold regular consultations with these bodies, with the aim of securing their valuable contribution to action to be undertaken to consolidate peace and democracy in the country and, especially, to calm people’s minds, ensuring tolerance and mutual respect and the mobilization of resources and wills for the rapid resolution of the problems affecting war victims. The consolidation of peace requires timely and effective action in tackling the immediate effects of war on the most affected strata of the population, working to make humanitarian assistance reach all needy people, without discrimination. Within this context, the government is preparing an Emergency Programme to support the social reintegration and resettlement of four million displaced persons, the integration in society of 150,000 demobilized soldiers from the various wars in Angola as well as ex-servicemen, the reintegration of 100,000 disabled people and provision of shelter for 50,000 war orphans.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
Page 1,
The Government of Unity and National Reconciliation of the Republic of Angola considers that the country is experiencing a unique moment in its history to take joint action leading definitively to the end of the current armed conflict, in which the issues of peace and national reconciliation should be seen in a legal and political framework, respecting the constitution, the legal order and state institutions, and unequivocally accepting the validity of the peace accords and United Nations Security Council resolutions on Angola.

Page 3,
... The government urges all Angolans to unite, so that we may together turn an important page in our history. This is a time for reconciliation, mutual forgiveness and unity. Let us bid a final farewell to arms and war and dedicate ourselves fraternally to the reconstruction of a prosperous and modern Angola, capable of guaranteeing the physical, material and spiritual well-being of all its citizens and of occupying its rightful place in the concert of nations.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
No specific mention.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh