Country/entity
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Nagorno-Karabakh
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Bishkek Protocol
Date
05/05/1994
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict (1991 - )
The territory of Nagorno-Karabakh has been a long-standing object of dispute between Armenia and Azerbaijan. During the existence of USSR, the territory was assigned to Azerbaijan, starting in 1921. After decades of disagreements over the status of Nagorno-Karabakh, and in the wake of Gorbachev’s policies of political openness, the protests by Armenians in the region escalated into violent conflict in 1990, exacerbated by the central government’s inability to control the republics as the USSR itself was on the verge of collapse. The Autonomous Region (Oblast) of Nagorno-Karabakh (NKAO) proclaimed independence from Azerbaijan in 1991, after the Parliament of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic voted to abolish the Oblast. The territory itself is populated by ethnic Armenians, but surrounded by territories with an Azeri majority. The territory proclaimed independence, with the support of Armenia, and incorporating the areas that surround it, but has never gained international recognition and remains a de jure part of Azerbaijan. The violence intensified , leading to an estimated overall death toll of 30 000 After several attempts at mediation, the opposing sides agreed to a ceasefire in May 1994, but the situation has not been resolved to date and the violence had briefly resumed in the spring of 2016. The initial ceasefire in 1994 was the outcome of the so-called “Minsk process”, overseen by OSCE, with the participation of Russia, France, and the US.
Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict (1991 - ) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Related)
Conflict nature
Territory
Peace process
8: Armenia-Azerbaijan-Nagorno Karabakh: Process 1990s
Parties
(signed by R. Guliyev, Chairman of the Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet)
K. Babourian
(Chairman of the Nagorno Karabakh Republic Supreme Soviet)
B. Ararktsian
(Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Armenia)
Third parties
V. Shumeyko
(Chairman of the Council of Federation of Russia)
M. Sherimkulov
(Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Kyrgyzstan)

V. Kazimirov
(Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation, Head of the
Russian Mediation Mission)

M. Krotov
(Head of the Secretariat of the Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Assembly of member
states)

Description
This agreement calls on the parties to sign a formal ceasefire agreement and continue negotiations to end the conflict and discusses the deployment of a CIS peacemaking force.

Agreement document
AM_AZ_940505_BishkekProtocol.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
Rhetorical
Page 1:...express determination to assist in all possible ways to the cessation of armed conflict in and around Nagorno Karabakh, which does not only cause irretrievable losses to Azerbaijani and Armenian people, but also significantly affects the interests of other countries in the region and seriously complicates the international situation;
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
Rhetorical
Page 1:...call upon the conflicting sides to come to common senses: cease to fire at the midnight of May 8 to 9, guided by the February 18, 1994 Protocol (including the part on allocating observers), and work intensively to confirm this as soon as possible by signing a reliable, legally binding agreement envisaging a mechanism, ensuring the non- resumption of military and hostile activities, withdrawal of troops from occupied territories and restoration of communication, return of refugees;
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
Other
Page 1:...call upon the conflicting sides to come to common senses: cease to fire at the midnight of May 8 to 9, guided by the February 18, 1994 Protocol (including the part on allocating observers), and work intensively to confirm this as soon as possible by signing a reliable, legally binding agreement envisaging a mechanism, ensuring the non- resumption of military and hostile activities, withdrawal of troops from occupied territories and restoration of communication, return of refugees;
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
Page 1:...express determination to assist in all possible ways to the cessation of armed conflict in and around Nagorno Karabakh, which does not only cause irretrievable losses to Azerbaijani and Armenian people, but also significantly affects the interests of other countries in the region and seriously complicates the international situation;

Page 1:...call upon the conflicting sides to come to common senses: cease to fire at the midnight of May 8 to 9, guided by the February 18, 1994 Protocol (including the part on allocating observers), and work intensively to confirm this as soon as possible by signing a reliable, legally binding agreement envisaging a mechanism, ensuring the non- resumption of military and hostile activities, withdrawal of troops from occupied territories and restoration of communication, return of refugees;
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
As parties to the agreement:
V. Shumeyko
(Chairman of the Council of Federation of Russia)
M. Sherimkulov
(Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Kyrgyzstan)
V. Kazimirov
(Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation, Head of the
Russian Mediation Mission)
M. Krotov
(Head of the Secretariat of the Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Assembly of member
states)
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 1:...agree to suggest Parliaments of the CIS member-states to discuss the initiative by Chairman of Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Assembly V. Shumeyko and Head of the Assembly’s Peacemaking Group on Nagorno Karabakh M. Sherimkulov on creating a CIS peacemaking force;
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh