Comprehensive Ceasefire Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Burundi and the Palipehutu - FNL

Country/entity
Burundi
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Comprehensive Ceasefire Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Burundi and the Palipehutu - FNL
Date
07/09/2006
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Burundian Civil War (1993-2005)
The conflict had an ethnic base between Hutu and Tutsi populations, and is one of a set of regionally connected conflicts also addressed n the Great Lakes process. Since independence in 1972, the Burundian political landscape has been polarised and marked by ethnic-based tensions, political assassinations and large-scale violence. For the following two decades, three Tutsi military regimes associated with the Union for National Progress (UPRONA) ruled the country. During these military dictatorships, numerous waves of mass violence resulted from the attempts of various opposition rebels groups to destabilise the three regimes, and the regimes’ use of violence to repress these attempts. Despite a wave of hope in the early 1990’s, Burundi entered a decade-long civil war in 1993 following the assassination of Burundi’s first democratically elected president, Melchior Ndadaye, from the ethnically-Hutu Front for Democracy in Burundi (FRODEBU) by Tutsi opposition in the military.
In 1998 the Arusha Peace Talks commenced and in August 2000, international pressure resulted in the signing of the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi. However, the National Council for the Defense of Democracy (CNND) did not sign. Additionally, and Party for the Liberation of Hutu People (Palipehutu) did not participate in negotiations. These outsiders continued sporadic violence until 2008. In 2015, a new wave of political violence is taking place after President Nkurunziza, from the CNDD-FDD which has been in power since 2005, won a contested third-mandate.
Burundian Civil War (1993-2005) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Ceasefire)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
16: Burundi: Arusha and related peace process
Parties
The Government of Burundi and the Palipehutu - FNL
Third parties
In the presence of:
• H.E. Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, President of the Republic of Uganda.
• H.E. Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, President of the United Republic of Tanzania.
• H.E. Thabo Mbeki, President of the Republic of South Africa.
• Hon Charles Nqakula, Facilitator.
• H.E. Bernard Makuza, Prime Minister of Rwanda.
• Hon R. Tuju, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Kenya.
• H.E. P Mazimhaka, Deputy Chairperson of the African Union Commission.
• Hon Dr SG Mwaie, Special Envoy of Zambia to the Great Lakes Region.
• Amb. N Satti, UN Special Envoy to the Great Lakes Region.

Guarantors: Chairperson of the Regional Inisitate for Peace In Burundi (President Uganda), Vice Chairperson of the Regional Initiative for Peace in Burundi. Witnesses, Rep of African Union, Special Envoy to the Great Lakes Region'In the presence of' President of Republi of Uganda, President of the United Republic of Tanzania, President of South Africa, Facilitator, Prime Minister of Fwanda, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Kenyua, Deputy Chairperson of the African Union Commission, Special Envoy of Zambia to the Great Lakes Region, UN Special Envoy to the Great Lakes Region.

Description
This agreement establishes a comprehensive ceasefire. Its annexes are dealing with what the ceasefire means (I), modalities for implementation (II) transformation and modernisation of defence of security forces (III), modalities for leaders and combatants of the FNL (IV).

Agreement document
BI_060907_Comprehensive Ceasefire Agreement Government of Burundi and the Palipehutu FNL.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
Substantive
Page 3, Article II:
1. Ceasefire Agreement shall imply:
...
1.1.5 Cessation of all acts of violence against the civilian population: acts of vengeance; summary executions; torture: harassment; detention and persecution of civilians on the basis of ethnic origin; religious beliefs; and or political affiliation; arming of civilians; use of child soldiers; sexual violence; sponsoring or promotion of terrorist or genocide "Ideologies;

Page 10, Annexure I, Annexure I To the Comprehensive Cease-fire Agreement Obligations of the Parties, 4. Definitions:
...
4.2 Ceasefire
4.2.1.6 Cessation of all acts of violence against the civilian population; acts of vengeance; summary executions; torture; harassment; detention and persecution of civilians on the basis of ethnic origin; religious beliefs; and or political affiliation; arming of civilians; use of child soldiers; sexual violence; sponsoring or promotion of terrorist or genocide ideologies.

Page 9, ANNEXURE I TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT - OBLIGATIONS OF THE PALIPEHUTU-FNL:
3 Obligations of the Palipehutu-FNL:
3.1 From the time the Agreement takes effect
...
3.1.2 The Palipehutu-FNL shall hand over to-JVMM, a certified list of their combatants, weapons, military equipment and inventory. The said list must entail the particulars of all the individuals and formally indicate the number and location of children and families who shall benefit from special programmes. The list must contain the following details:
...
b. An Indication of male, female, child soldier;

Page 16, ANNEXURE III TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT THE DEFENCE AND SECURITY FORCES, 2. Integration and the Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) process:
2.1. ...
The JVMM shall supervise the successful implementation of the process in conjunction with the Executive Secretariat of the National Commission for Demobilisation, Reinsertion and Reintegration (ES/NCDRR) and all other partners' e.g, UNICEF to support demobilisation of children associated with combatants.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
Substantive
Page 3, Article II:
1. Ceasefire Agreement shall imply:
...
1.1.4 Cessation of all propaganda between the Parties, incitement of ethnic hatred both within and outside the country;
1.1.5 Cessation of all acts of violence against the civilian population: acts of vengeance; summary executions; torture: harassment; detention and persecution of civilians on the basis of ethnic origin; religious beliefs; and or political affiliation; arming of civilians; use of child soldiers; sexual violence; sponsoring or promotion of terrorist or genocide "Ideologies;

Page 10, Annexure I, Annexure I To the Comprehensive Cease-fire Agreement Obligations of the Parties, 4. Definitions:
...
4.2 Ceasefire
4.2.1.5 Cessation of of propaganda between the parties, incitement of ethnic hatred both within and outside the country;
4.2.1.6 Cessation of all acts of violence against the civilian population; acts of vengeance; summary executions; torture; harassment; detention and persecution of civilians on the basis of ethnic origin; religious beliefs; and or political affiliation; arming of civilians; use of child soldiers; sexual violence; sponsoring or promotion of terrorist or genocide ideologies.
Religious groups
Substantive
Page 3, Article II:
1. Ceasefire Agreement shall imply:
...
1.1.5 Cessation of all acts of violence against the civilian population: acts of vengeance; summary executions; torture: harassment; detention and persecution of civilians on the basis of ethnic origin; religious beliefs; and or political affiliation; arming of civilians; use of child soldiers; sexual violence; sponsoring or promotion of terrorist or genocide ideologies;

Page 10, Annexure I, Annexure I To the Comprehensive Cease-fire Agreement Obligations of the Parties, 4. Definitions:
4.1. The definitions shall serve as implementation principles of the present Ceasefire Agreement.
...
4.2.1.6 Cessation of all acts of violence against the civilian population; acts of vengeance; summary executions; torture; harassment; detention and persecution of civilians on the basis of ethnic origin; religious beliefs; and or political affiliation; arming of civilians; use of child soldiers; sexual violence; sponsoring or promotion of terrorist or genocide ideologies.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
Substantive
Page 14, ANNEXURE II TO THE COMPREHENSIVE AGREEMENT MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT, 4. Implementation Phases:
4.1 This Agreement will be implemented in the following phases:
4.1.1 Phase 1 shall include the following activities:
...
e. It shall be ensured that the dependants of the combatants will not form part of this process. They shall be referred to the UNHCR and other established mechanisms to be processed separately.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
Page 3, Article II:
1. Ceasefire Agreement shall imply:
...
1.1.5 Cessation of all acts of violence against the civilian population: acts of vengeance; summary executions; torture: harassment; detention and persecution of civilians on the basis of ethnic origin; religious beliefs; and or political affiliation; arming of civilians; use of child soldiers; sexual violence; sponsoring or promotion of terrorist or genocide "Ideologies;
...
1.1.5. Cessation of all acts of violence against the civilian population: acts of vengeance: summary executions; torture; harassment; detention and persecution of civilians on the basis of ethnic origin; religious beliefs; and or political affiliation; arming of civilians; use of child soldiers: sexual violence; sponsoring or promotion of terrorist or genocide ideologies;

Page 9, Annexure I, To the Comprehensive Cease-fire Agreement Obligations of the Parties, 3. Obligations of the Government of Burundi:
3.1.2 The Palipehutu-FNL shall hand over to JVMM a certified list of their combatants, weapons, military equipment and inventory. The said list must entail the particulars of all the individuals and formally indicate the number and location of children and families who shall benefit from special programmes. The list must contain the following details:
a. Name and military rank;
b. An Indication of male, female, child soldier;

Page 10, Annexure I, Annexure I To the Comprehensive Cease-fire Agreement Obligations of the Parties, 4. Definitions:
4.2.1.6 Cessation of all acts of violence against the civilian population; acts of vengeance: summary executions; torture; harassment; detention and persecution of civilians on the basis of ethnic origin; religious beliefs; and or political affiliation; arming of civilians; use of child soldiers; sexual violence; sponsoring or promotion of terrorist or genocide ideologies.

Page 9, ANNEXURE I TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT - OBLIGATIONS OF THE PALIPEHUTU-FNL:
3 Obligations of the Palipehutu-FNL:
3.1 From the time the Agreement takes effect
...
3.1.2 The Palipehutu-FNL shall hand over to-JVMM, a certified list of their combatants, weapons, military equipment and inventory. The said list must entail the particulars of all the individuals and formally indicate the
number and location of children and families who shall benefit from special programmes. The list must contain the following details:
...
b. An Indication of male, female, child soldier;


Page 10, Annexure I, Annexure I To the Comprehensive Cease-fire Agreement Obligations of the Parties, 4. Definitions:
4.1. The definitions shall serve as implementation principles of the present Ceasefire Agreement.
...
4.2.1.6 Cessation of all acts of violence against the civilian population; acts of vengeance; summary executions; torture; harassment; detention and persecution of civilians on the basis of ethnic origin; religious beliefs; and or political affiliation; arming of civilians; use of child soldiers; sexual violence; sponsoring or promotion of terrorist or genocide ideologies.
Men and boys
Gender neutral wording
Annexure I, Article 3
3.1.2 The Palipehutu-FNL shall hand over to JVMM a certified list of their combatants, weapons, military•equipment and inventory. The said list must entail the particulars of all the individuals and formally indicate the number and location of children and families who shall benefit from special programmes. The list must contain the following details:
a. Name and military rank:
b. An Indication of male, female, child soldier;

Annexure I, Article 4
4.2.1.6 Cessation of all acts of violence against the civilian population; acts of vengeance: summary executions; torture; harassment; detention and persecution of civilians on the basis of ethnic origin; religious beliefs; and or political affiliation; arming of civilians; use of child soldiers; sexual violence; sponsoring or promotion of terrorist or genocide ideologies.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
Page 14, ANNEXURE II TO THE COMPREHENSIVE AGREEMENT MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT, 4. Implementation Phases:
4.1 This Agreement will be implemented in the following phases:
4.1.1 Phase 1 shall include the following activities:
...
e. It shall be ensured that the dependants of the combatants will not form part of this process. They shall be referred to the UNHCR and other established mechanisms to be processed separately.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
Merger of forces
Page 9, ANNEXURE I TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT - OBLIGATIONS OF THE PARTIES:
1. Obligations of both parties:
...
1.10 The Parties shall ensure that all foreign armed elements within their ranks are declared, surrendered and do not form part of the certified list for integration purposes.

Page 9, ANNEXURE I TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT - OBLIGATIONS OF THE PALIPEHUTU-FNL:
3. Obligations of the Palipehutu-FNL:
...
3.1.2 The Palipehutu-FNL shall hand over to-JVMM, a certified list of their combatants, weapons, military equipment and inventory. The said list must entail the particulars of all the individuals and formally indicate the
number and location of children and families who shall benefit from special programmes. The list must contain the following details:
...
d. A clear indication of member's choice to select between demobilisation or integration into the defence and security forces.


Page 11, ANNEXURE I TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT - Definitions:
4. Definitions
4.5 Assembly Area
The location designated in the agreement or subsequently by the parties and international stakeholders as an area in which forces are to be assembled for the purpose of control and safety, to allow the combatants to be processed for demobilisation or integration.

Page 14, ANNEXURE II TO THE COMPREHENSIVE AGREEMENT MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT, 4. Implementation Phases:
4.1 This Agreement will be implemented in the following phases:
4.1.1 Phase 1 shall include the following activities:
...
4.1.3 Phase 3 shall include the following activities:
a. Transportation of members selected for integration into the Defence and Security Forces to the relevant training areas within 48 hours;
b. Commencement of harmonisation training.

Page 16, ANNEXURE III TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT THE DEFENCE AND SECURITY FORCES, 2. Integration and the Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) process:
2.2 The JVMM shall develop the mechanisms to address criteria for integration, strength, rank harmonisation, post allocation and career path for individuals in the Defence and Security forces. This process shall be monitored, and evaluated by the African Union working in consonance with the United Nations and other International fora.

Page 19, ANNEXURE IV TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT, MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT IN RESPECT OF THE LEADERS AND COMBATANTS OF THE PALIPEHUTU-FNL:
...
3.2 Phase 2
...
3.2.2 The phase will also see the unfolding of the DDR and Integration Processes under the direction of ONUB and other key stakeholders.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 18, ANNEXURE IV TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT, MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT IN RESPECT OF THE LEADERS AND COMBATANTS OF THE PALIPEHUTU-FNL:
...
2. The process of repatriation will be handled in keeping with the relevant international norms and schedules that have been used in the past.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
Page 16, ANNEXURE III TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT THE DEFENCE AND SECURITY FORCES, 1. Transformation and modernization:
Pursuant to the Dar es Salaam Agreement of Principles signed by the Parties on 18 June 2006, the ongoing transformation and modernisation of the Defence and Security Forces shall be:
...
d. The transformation or the ongoing reform and modernisation of the Defence and Security forces shall be subject to the ongoing national dialogue by all people of Burundi to ensure that the forces shall always be subject to the national agenda in Burundi for democracy, peace, justice, reconciliation, security, stability, development and prosperity.
Protection measures
Other
Page 4, Art III

4. The AU shall establish a Special Task Force for the protection of the leadership and combatants of Palipehutu-FNL, including their movement towards the Assembly Areas.

Page 13, ANNEXURE II TO THE COMPREHENSIVE AGREEMENT MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMPREHENSIVE
CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT, 1. Joint Verification and Monitoring Mechanism (JVMM)

1.4 The AU will be required to assist with the provision of security for combatants during their movement towards the Assembly Areas as well as the protection of the leadership.

Page 19, 3.2 Phase 2
3.2.1 Processes will be defined for this phase to enable the armed combatants to leave, under the protection of the Special Task Force, the areas where they are based to the Assembly Areas. The arrangements will include combatants:

5.1 Leadership
The Special Task Force will provide static and close protection for the Palipehutu-FNL leadership from the time they enter Burundi as part of the Reconnaissance Team.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 11, ANNEXURE I TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT - Definitions:
4. Definitions
4.6 Transit route
A route agreed and guaranteed by the parties on which a designated party may move on the open in safety.

Page 13, ANNEXURE II TO THE COMPREHENSIVE AGREEMENT MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMPREHENSIVE
CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT, 1. Joint Verification and Monitoring Mechanism (JVMM):
...
1.2 The JVMM shall establish the Joint Liaison Teams (JLTs) as its subsidiary structures.
1.3 The JVMM shall be responsible for the following:
1.3.1 Demarcation of the Assembly Areas, Disengagement Areas and Transit Routes;
1.3.2 Supervision of the movement of combatants towards the Assembly Areas;

Page 14, ANNEXURE II TO THE COMPREHENSIVE AGREEMENT MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT, 4. Implementation Phases:
4.1 This Agreement will be implemented in the following phases:
4.1.1 Phase 1 shall include the following activities:
...
d. Disarmament, first screening by the Joint Liaison Teams with the non qualifiers being disallowed, preliminary registration and transportation to the Demobilisation Centre (DC);
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
Media roles
Page 8, ANNEXURE I TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT - OBLIGATIONS OF THE PARTIES:
1. Obligations of both parties:
...
1.8 Within seventy two (72) hours after the signing of the Agreement, the Parties shall cease all acts of violence, public campaigning against each other, including the use of media or any other public forum for inflammatory purposes. Parties further undertake not to engage in any reprisals or acts of intimidation against persons who were involved in activities in support of operations of the other party.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Socio-economic development
Page 16, ANNEXURE III TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT THE DEFENCE AND SECURITY FORCES, 1. Transformation and modernization:
Pursuant to the Dar es Salaam Agreement of Principles signed by the Parties on 18 June 2006, the ongoing transformation and modernisation of the Defence and Security Forces shall be:
...
d. The transformation or the ongoing reform and modernisation of the Defence and Security forces shall be subject to the ongoing national dialogue by all people of Burundi to ensure that the forces shall always be subject to the national agenda in Burundi for democracy, peace, justice, reconciliation, security, stability, development and prosperity.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
Page 19, ANNEXURE IV TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT, MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT IN RESPECT OF THE LEADERS AND COMBATANTS OF THE PALIPEHUTU-FNL:
...
4. ROLE PLAYERS: The repatriation programme will require substantial material resources, especially funding. The Donor Community, therefore, will be a key role player. However, the African Union (AU) and the Regional Initiative on Peace in Burundi will have to be the nucleus of all efforts to give impetus to the project working together, of course, with the Government of Burundi, Palipehutu-FNL and ONUB.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
The agreement in its entirety provides for a comprehensive ceasefire.
Police
On-going transformation and modernisation of defence and security forces, to be monitored and evaluated by UN and other international forums (Ann II 1.a).

Page 8, ANNEXURE I TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT - OBLIGATIONS OF THE PARTIES:
1. Obligations of both parties:
...
1.5 The Parties remain responsible for command and control of their organisations throughout the implementation process. They shall also recognise the authority of the JVMM and act in accordance with its directives.
1.6 The Parties agree to participate in and cooperate with the Joint Liaison Teams for actions related to defence, police and security, as well as DDR programmes and also cooperate with the JVMM.

Page 9, ANNEXURE I TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT - OBLIGATIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF BURUNDI:
2.1 From the time the Agreement takes effect:
...
2.1.4 All law enforcement activities and public security operations within the Assembly Areas shall be carried out by the police in collaboration with the JVMM and JLTs;

Page 9, ANNEXURE I TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT - OBLIGATIONS OF THE PALIPEHUTU-FNL:
3. Obligations of the Palipehutu-FNL:
3.1 From the time the Agreement takes effect
...
3.1.2 The Palipehutu-FNL shall hand over to-JVMM, a certified list of their combatants, weapons, military equipment and inventory. The said list must entail the particulars of all the individuals and formally indicate the number and location of children and families who shall benefit from special programmes. The list must contain the following details:
.
d. A clear indication of member's choice to select between demobilisation or integration into the defence and security forces.

Page 16, ANNEXURE III TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT THE DEFENCE AND SECURITY FORCES, 1. Transformation and modernization:
Pursuant to the Dar es Salaam Agreement of Principles signed by the Parties on 18 June 2006, the ongoing transformation and modernisation of the Defence and Security Forces shall be:
...
b. The current mechanism for the oversight of the Defence and Security forces shall be strengthened.
c. The Palipehutu-FNL shall commit human resources to every level in the process of transformation or ongoing reform and modernisation of the Defence and Security forces.
d. The transformation or the ongoing reform and modernisation of the Defence and Security forces shall be subject to the ongoing national dialogue by all people of Burundi to ensure that the forces shall always be subject to the national agenda in Burundi for democracy, peace, justice, reconciliation, security, stability, development and prosperity.

Page 16, ANNEXURE III TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT THE DEFENCE AND SECURITY FORCES, 2. Integration and the Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) process:
...
2.2 The JVMM shall develop the mechanisms to address criteria for integration, strength, rank harmonisation, post allocation and career path for individuals in the Defence and Security forces. This process shall be monitored, and evaluated by the African Union working in consonance with the United Nations and other International fora.
Armed forces
Page 16, ANNEXURE III TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT THE DEFENCE AND SECURITY FORCES, 1. Transformation and modernization:
Pursuant to the Dar es Salaam Agreement of Principles signed by the Parties on 18 June 2006, the ongoing transformation and modernisation of the Defence and Security Forces shall be:
a. Monitored and evaluated by the African Union working in consonance with the United Nations and other International fora. The Regional initiative shall remain the guarantor of this process.
b. The current mechanism for the oversight of the Defence and Security forces shall be strengthened.
c. The Palipehutu-FNL shall commit human resources to every level in the process of transformation or ongoing reform and modernisation of the
Defence and Security forces.
d. The transformation or the ongoing reform and modernisation of the Defence and Security forces shall be subject to the ongoing national
dialogue by all people of Burundi to ensure that the forces shall always be subject to the national agenda in Burundi for democracy, peace, justice, reconciliation, security, stability, development and prosperity.

Page 16, ANNEXURE III TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT THE DEFENCE AND SECURITY FORCES, 2. Integration and the Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) process:
...
2.2 The JVMM shall develop the mechanisms to address criteria for integration, strength, rank harmonisation, post allocation and career path for individuals in the Defence and Security forces. This process shall be monitored, and evaluated by the African Union working in consonance with the United Nations and other International fora.

Page 19, ANNEXURE IV TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT, MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT IN RESPECT OF THE LEADERS AND COMBATANTS OF THE PALIPEHUTU-FNL:
...
3.2 Phase 2
...
3.2.2 The phase will also see the unfolding of the DDR and Integration Processes under the direction of ONUB and other key stakeholders.
DDR
DDR programmes
Page 8, ANNEXURE I TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT - OBLIGATIONS OF THE PARTIES:
1. Obligations of both parties:
...
1.5 The Parties remain responsible for command and control of their organisations throughout the implementation process. They shall also recognise the authority of the JVMM and act in accordance with its directives.
1.6 The Parties agree to participate in and cooperate with the Joint Liaison Teams for actions related to defence, police and security, as well as DDR programmes and also cooperate with the JVMM.

Page 9, ANNEXURE I TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT - OBLIGATIONS OF THE PALIPEHUTU-FNL:
3. Obligations of the Palipehutu-FNL:
3.1. From the time the Agreement takes effect
3.1.1. The Palipehutu-FNL combatants shall be in possession of all their weapons, ammunition and military equipment, as they move to the Assembly Areas.
3.1.2. The Palipehutu-FNL shall hand over to-JVMM, a certified list of their combatants, weapons, military equipment and inventory. The said list must entail the particulars of all the individuals and formally indicate the
number and location of children and families who shall benefit from special programmes. The list must contain the following details:
a, Name and military rank;
b. An Indication of male, female, child soldier;
c. Clear indication of number and type of weapons/ military equipment in their possession;
d. A clear indication of member's choice to select between demobilisation or integration into the defence and security forces.

Page 10, ANNEXURE I TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT - Definitions:
4. Definitions
4.5 Assembly Area
The location designated in the agreement or subsequently by the parties and international stakeholders as an area in which forces are to be assembled for the purpose of control and safety, to allow the combatants to be processed for demobilisation or integration.

Page 10-11, Annexure I, To the Comprehensive Cease-fire Agreement Obligations of the Parties, 4. Definitions:
...
4.9 Cessation of hostilities
Decision effected on a temporary basis to cease all military, military-like attacks and any other actions that can be construed to be hostile towards other party or civilian population. It does not involve disengagement of forces or disarmament. Cessation of hostilities shall come into effect immediately upon the signing of the Agreement. It is a step leading to a definite ceasefire agreement.

Page 11, Annexure I, To the Comprehensive Cease-fire Agreement Obligations of the Parties, 4. Definitions:
...
4.10 DDR programs
Programs that are based on beliefs that demobilisation and reintegration will not occur in a spontaneous manner and that if not in place may derail or affect the achievements of a peace process. They are normally divided into short, medium and long-term programs and generally focus on movement from a state of conflict to one of peace and of regular civil life.
These programs generally deal with food Issues and are aimed at substantial provisions for daily life until long-term orientated programs can reach self-sustenance.

Page 11, Annexure I, To the Comprehensive Cease-fire Agreement Obligations of the Parties, 4. Definitions:
...
4.11 integration
It is the process through which various groups and/or individuals of military units and/or armed groups are brought together to form an entity. This process must be executed at all levels of the force structure including the FDN, the National Police and the Intelligence Services.


Page 14, ANNEXURE II TO THE COMPREHENSIVE AGREEMENT MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT, 4. Implementation Phases:
4.1 This Agreement will be implemented in the following phases:
4.1.1 Phase 1 shall include the following activities:
...
d. Disarmament, first screening by the Joint Liaison Teams with the non qualifiers being disallowed, preliminary registration and transportation to the Demobilisation Centre (DC);
...
4.1.2 Phase 2 shall include the following activities:
a. Movement to the DC;
b. Registration and verification by the Joint Liaison Teams;
c. Orientation/Sensitisation on the demobilisation process;
d. Candidates for demobilisation shall follow seven days procedure and leave the DC for the purpose of Reinsertion and Reintegration into the communities according to the procedures of the Executive Secretariat of the National Commission for Demobilisation, Reinsertion and Reintegration (ES,CNDRR).

Page 14, ANNEXURE II TO THE COMPREHENSIVE AGREEMENT MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT,
5. Time lines for Implementation:
...
5.8 DRR to be completed before (D+30).

Page 16, ANNEXURE III TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT THE DEFENCE AND SECURITY FORCES, 2. Integration and the Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) process:
2.1 Following the disarmament process at the agreed assembly areas, the combatants shall be transported to the Demobilisation, Centres for verification and orientation to choose between Integration into the defence and security forces or demobilisation. The JVMM shall supervise the successful implementation of the process in conjunction with the Executive Secretariat of the National Commission for Demobilisation, Reinsertion and Reintegration (ES/NCDRR) and all other partners' e.g, UNICEF to support demobilisation of children associated with combatants.

Page 19, ANNEXURE IV TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT, MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT IN RESPECT OF THE LEADERS AND COMBATANTS OF THE PALIPEHUTU-FNL:
...
3.2 Phase 2
3.2.1 Processes will be defined for this phase to enable the armed combatants to leave, under the protection of the Special Task Force, the areas where they are based to the Assembly Areas. The arrangements will include
combatants:
3.2.1.1 walking on foot to the Assembly Areas, or
3.2.1.2 being ferried from their bases in various modes of transport (trucks, aircraft, etc).
3.2.2 The phase will also see the unfolding of the DDR and Integration Processes under the direction of ONUB and other key stakeholders.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 3, Article II:
1. Ceasefire Agreement shall imply:
1.1 Cessation of all military operations and paramilitary actions by the parties against each other and the general civilian population including;
...

Page 10, Annexure I, Annexure I To the Comprehensive Cease-fire Agreement Obligations of the Parties, 4. Definitions:
...
4.2 Ceasefire
4.2.1 Ceasefire means the cessation of all combat, combat related, military operations and paramilitary actions by all belligerents for or against signatories to the ceasefire agreement and the general civilian population. Ceasefire will further include the following:



~

Page 3, Article II:
1, Ceasefire Agreement shall imply:
1.1 Cessation of all military operations and paramilitary actions by the parties against each other and the general civilian population including;

Page 4, Article III:
7. The JVMM and JLTs shall assist in the registration and verification processes of the combatants in the Assembly Areas.


Page 8, ANNEXURE I TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT - OBLIGATIONS OF THE PARTIES:
1. Obligations of both parties:
...
1.5 The Parties remain responsible for command and control of their organisations throughout the implementation process. They shall also recognise the authority of the JVMM and act in accordance with its directives.
1.6 The Parties agree to participate in and cooperate with the Joint Liaison Teams for actions related to defence, police and security, as well as DDR programmes and also cooperate with the JVMM.

Page 9-10, ANNEXURE I TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT - OBLIGATIONS OF THE PALIPEHUTU-FNL:
3 Obligations of the Palipehutu-FNL:
3.1 From the time the Agreement takes effect
3.1.1 The Palipehutu-FNL combatants shall be in possession of all their weapons, ammunition and military equipment, as they move to the Assembly Areas.
3.1.2 The Palipehutu-FNL shall hand over to-JVMM, a certified list of their combatants, weapons, military equipment and inventory. The said list must entail the particulars of all the individuals and formally indicate the
number and location of children and families who shall benefit from special programmes. The list must contain the following details:
a, Name and military rank;
b. An Indication of male, female, child soldier;
c. Clear indication of number and type of weapons/ military equipment in their possession;
d. A clear indication of member's choice to select between demobilisation or integration into the defence and security
forces.

Page 11, ANNEXURE I TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT - Definitions:
4. Definitions
4.5 Assembly Area
The location designated in the agreement or subsequently by the parties and international stakeholders as an area in which forces are to be assembled for the purpose of control and safety, to allow the combatants to be processed for demobilisation or integration.

Page 13, ANNEXURE II TO THE COMPREHENSIVE AGREEMENT MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT, 1. Joint Verification and Monitoring Mechanism (JVMM):
1.1 The Joint Verification and Monitoring Mechanism (JVMM) composed of the representatives from the Burundian government, the Palipehutu-FNL, the African Union and the United Nations. The Regional Peace Initiative shall remain the guarantor of the process.
...
1.3 The JVMM shall be responsible for the following:
...
1.3.2 Supervision of the movement of combatants towards the Assembly Areas;
...
1.3.4 Supervision of the registration and verification processes of the combatants in the Assembly Areas.
1.4 The AU will be required to assist with the provision of security for combatants during their movement towards the Assembly Areas as well as the protection of the leadership.

Page 13, ANNEXURE II TO THE COMPREHENSIVE AGREEMENT MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT:
2. Disengagement of Forces
2.1 The JVMM shall supervise the following:
2.1.1 The disengagement of forces;
2.1.2 The cessation of tactical deployments and operations directed by one party against the other;
2.1.3 The cessation of flights by the Government that could be constituted as aerial reconnaissance against the Palipehutu-FNL;
2.1.4 All law enforcement activities and public security operations within the disengagement areas by the police.

Page 14, ANNEXURE II TO THE COMPREHENSIVE AGREEMENT MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT,
5. Time lines for Implementation:
...
5.5 The Palipehutu-FNL shall provide the list of combatants and equipment to the JVMM (D+7).

Page 16, ANNEXURE III TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT THE DEFENCE AND SECURITY FORCES, 1. Transformation and modernization:
Pursuant to the Dar es Salaam Agreement of Principles signed by the Parties on 18 June 2006, the ongoing transformation and modernisation of the Defence and Security Forces shall be:
...
c. The Palipehutu-FNL shall commit human resources to every level in the process of transformation or ongoing reform and modernisation of the Defence and Security forces.
d. The transformation or the ongoing reform and modernisation of the Defence and Security forces shall be subject to the ongoing national dialogue by all people of Burundi to ensure that the forces shall always be subject to the national agenda in Burundi for democracy, peace, justice, reconciliation, security, stability, development and prosperity.

Page 18-20, ANNEXURE IV TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT, MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT IN RESPECT OF THE LEADERS AND COMBATANTS OF THE PALIPEHUTU-FNL:
1. The Ceasefire Agreement between the Government of Burundi and the Palipehutu-FNL creates conditions for the return to Burundi, under conditions of temporary immunity, of the political leadership and the combatants of the rebel movement, starting, thereby, a process that must culminate in the reintegration of those members into the social, economic and political life of Burundi.
2. The process of repatriation will be handled in keeping with the relevant international norms and schedules that have been used in the past.
3. The repatriation programme will extend over the following phases:
3.1 Phase 1
3.1.1 Palipehutu-FNL will submit to the Facilitation a Certified Personnel Register of the movement's members.
3.1.2 A separate list will be submitted of leadership and members who will be deployed on the Joint Verification Monitoring Mechanism and the Joint Liaison Teams,
3.1.3 Palipehutu-FNL will also provide an indication of the location of its combatants to facilitate the planning of the movement to the Assembly and Cantonment Areas.
3.1.4 A Facilitation Team will be established comprising the Regional Technical Team, Burundi Government and the Palipehutu-FNL.
3.1.5 A Special Task Force will be established to provide security to the Facilitation Team which, soon after its establishment, will visit Burundi to:
3.1.5.1 Assess the security situation in the country;
3.1.5.2 Check possibilities for the accommodation and welfare of returning leaders;
3.1.5.3 Look for office space;
3.1.5.4 Determine the protection and security needs for the Palipehutu-FNL leaders, and
3.1.5.5 Evaluate the identified Assembly and Cantonment Areas.
3.2 Phase 2
3.2.1 Processes will be defined for this phase to enable the armed combatants to leave, under the protection of the Special Task Force, the areas where they are based to the Assembly Areas. The arrangements will include combatants:
3.2.1.1 walking on foot to the Assembly Areas, or
3.2.1.2 being ferried from their bases in various modes of transport (trucks, aircraft, etc).
3.2.2 The phase will also see the unfolding of the DDR and Integration Processes under the direction of ONUB and other key stakeholders.
...
5. SECURITY
A high premium will have to be placed on the question of security. The matter will be designed as follows:
5.1 Leadership
The Special Task Force will provide static and close protection for the Palipehutu-FNL leadership from the time they enter Burundi as part of the Reconnaissance Team.
5.2 Palipehutu-FNL will have the right, in coordination with the Special Task Force, to provide additional personnel for the protection of their leadership.
5.3 Combatants
The Special Task Force will provide protection and security to Palipehutu-FNL combatants as they move from their base areas to the Assembly .
Points.
5.4 ONUB will provide security to the combatants at the Assembly Areas and Cantonment Sites.
5.5 The protection and security arrangements for the Palipehutu-FNL leadership will be in place for six months, whereupon they will be reviewed. Should the review indicate the necessity, the period of protection and security will be extended to meet the need.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
Page 9, ANNEXURE I TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT - OBLIGATIONS OF THE PARTIES:
1. Obligations of both parties:
...
1.10 The Parties shall ensure that all foreign armed elements within their ranks are declared, surrendered and do not form part of the certified list for integration purposes.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
Page 3, Article II:
1, Ceasefire Agreement shall imply:
...
1.1.5 Cessation of all acts of violence against the civilian population: acts of vengeance; summary executions; torture; harassment; detention and persecution of civilians on the basis of ethnic origin; religious beliefs; and or political affiliation; arming of civilians; use of child soldiers; sexual violence; sponsoring or promotion of terrorist or genocide ideologies;

Page 10, Annexure I, Annexure I To the Comprehensive Cease-fire Agreement Obligations of the Parties, 4. Definitions:
4.1. The definitions shall serve as implementation principles of the present Ceasefire Agreement.
...
4.2.1.6 Cessation of all acts of violence against the civilian population; acts of vengeance; summary executions; torture; harassment; detention and persecution of civilians on the basis of ethnic origin; religious beliefs; and or political affiliation; arming of civilians; use of child soldiers; sexual violence; sponsoring or promotion of terrorist or genocide ideologies.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
Amnesty/pardon proper
Page 9, ANNEXURE I TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT - OBLIGATIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF BURUNDI:
2.1 From the time the Agreement takes effect:
...
2.1.5 The government shall proclaim provisional immunity for members of the Palipehutu-FNL for acts committed during the armed struggle until the signing of the Agreement.

Page 14, ANNEXURE II TO THE COMPREHENSIVE AGREEMENT MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT, 3. Release of Prisoners:
3.1 From the start of the effective implementation of the ceasefire, the members of the Palipehutu-FNL shall enjoy provisional immunity for acts committed during the armed struggle until the signing of the Ceasafire Agreement.

Page 18, ANNEXURE IV TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT, MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT IN RESPECT OF THE LEADERS AND COMBATANTS OF THE PALIPEHUTU-FNL:
1. The Ceasefire Agreement between the Government of Burundi and the Palipehutu-FNL creates conditions for the return to Burundi, under conditions of temporary immunity, of the political leadership and the combatants of the rebel movement, starting, thereby, a process that must culminate in the reintegration of those members into the social, economic and political life of Burundi.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
Page 9, ANNEXURE I TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT - OBLIGATIONS OF THE PARTIES:
1. Obligations of both parties:
...
1.11 The Parties shall ensure the release of political prisoners and prisoners of war based on a procedure agreed "upon after the—signing of the Agreement.

Page 10, Annexure I, Annexure I To the Comprehensive Cease-fire Agreement Obligations of the Parties, 4. Definitions:
...
4.2 Ceasefire
4.2.1 Ceasefire means the cessation of all combat, combat related, military operations and paramilitary actions by all belligerents for or against signatories to the ceasefire agreement and the general civilian population. Ceasefire will further include the following:
...
4.2.1.3 Upon signing the ceasefire agreement, the parties shall address the issues of war/political prisoners;

Page 14, ANNEXURE II TO THE COMPREHENSIVE AGREEMENT MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT, 3. Release of Prisoners:
3.1. ...
A procedure for the release of political prisoners and prisoners of war shall also start.

Page 14, ANNEXURE II TO THE COMPREHENSIVE AGREEMENT MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT, 4. Implementation Phases:
4.1 This Agreement will be implemented in the following phases:
4.1.1 Phase 1 shall include the following activities:
...
c. Release of political prisoners and prisoners of war;
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
Page 16, ANNEXURE III TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT THE DEFENCE AND SECURITY FORCES, 1. Transformation and modernization:
Pursuant to the Dar es Salaam Agreement of Principles signed by the Parties on 18 June 2006, the ongoing transformation and modernisation of the Defence and Security Forces shall be:
...
d. The transformation or the ongoing reform and modernisation of the Defence and Security forces shall be subject to the ongoing national dialogue by all people of Burundi to ensure that the forces shall always be subject to the national agenda in Burundi for democracy, peace, justice, reconciliation, security, stability, development and prosperity.

Implementation

UN signatory
In the presence of:
...
• Amb. N Satti, UN Special Envoy to the Great Lakes Region.

Guarantors:
...
H.E. Ambassador N Satti, UN Special Envoy to the Great Lakes Region
Other international signatory
In the presence of:
• H.E. Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, President of the Republic of Uganda.
• H.E. Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, President of the United Republic of Tanzania.
• H.E. Thabo Mbeki, President of the Republic of South Africa.
• Hon Charles Nqakula, Facilitator.
• H.E. Bernard Makuza, Prime Minister of Rwanda.
• Hon R. Tuju, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Kenya.
• H.E. P Mazimhaka, Deputy Chairperson of the African Union Commission.
• Hon Dr SG Mwaie, Special Envoy of Zambia to the Great Lakes Region.

Guarantors: H.E President YK Museveni, Chairperson of the Regional Initiative for Peace in Burundi, H.E President JM Kikwete, Vice Chairperson of the Regional Initiative for Peace in Burundi, H.E President T Mbeki, Representative of the Facilitating country, South Africa

Witnesses: H.E. P Mazimhaka, Representative of the African Union
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 4, Article III:
1. The verification and control of the Ceasefire shall be conducted by the Joint Verification and Monitoring Mechanism (JVMM), which shall involve the Parties, United Nations (UN) and African Union (AU).
2. All violations of this Ceasefire Agreement shall be reported to, and addressed through, the JVMM.
3. The JVMM and the Joint Liaison Teams (JLTs) shall supervise the movement of combatants towards Assembly Areas.
4. The AU shall establish a Special Task Force for the protection of the leadership and combatants of Palipehutu-FNL, including their movement towards the Assembly Areas.
5. The UN and other international donors shall be requested to provide support for the establishment and maintenance of the Assembly Areas.
6. The JVMM shall, in conjunction with the UN, address the issue of command structures and modalities for inner and outer perimeter security of the Assembly Areas;
7. The JVMM and JLTs shall assist in the registration and verification processes of the combatants in the Assembly Areas.

Page 8, ANNEXURE I TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT - OBLIGATIONS OF THE PARTIES:
1. Obligations of both parties:
1.1 The Parties shall put in place mechanisms required to immediately effect the provisions of the Ceasefire Agreement (Agreement).
1.1.2 A Joint Verification and Monitoring Mechanism (JVMM) and Joint Liaison Teams (JLTs) shall be established and shall be composed of members of the Parties with neutral international presence and act in accordance with provisions and spirit of the Agreement.
1.3 The Parties shall nominate their members to the JVMM and the JLTs on the day of the signing of the Agreement.
...
1.5 The Parties remain responsible for command and control of their organisations throughout the implementation process. They shall also recognise the authority of the JVMM and act in accordance with its directives.
1.6 The Parties agree to participate in and cooperate with the Joint Liaison Teams for actions related to defence, police and security, as well as DDR programmes and also cooperate with the JVMM.

Page 9, ANNEXURE I TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT - OBLIGATIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF BURUNDI:
2.1 From the time the Agreement takes effect:
...
2.1.4 All law enforcement activities and public security operations within the Assembly Areas shall be carried out by the police in collaboration with the JVMM and JLTs;

Page 9-10, ANNEXURE I TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT - OBLIGATIONS OF THE PALIPEHUTU-FNL:
3 Obligations of the Palipehutu-FNL:
...
3.1.2 The Palipehutu-FNL shall hand over to-JVMM, a certified list of their combatants, weapons, military equipment and inventory. The said list must entail the particulars of all the individuals and formally indicate the
number and location of children and families who shall benefit from special programmes. The list must contain the following details:
a, Name and military rank;
b. An Indication of male, female, child soldier;
c. Clear indication of number and type of weapons/ military equipment in their possession;
d. A clear indication of member's choice to select between demobilisation or integration into the defence and security
forces.

Page 11, ANNEXURE I TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT - Definitions:
4. Definitions
4.7 Violation of the Ceasefire Agreement/Joint Verification and Monitoring Mechanism
Violation of the Ceasefire Agreement means the non-observance of any of the points mentioned above. A Joint Verification and Monitoring Mechanism (JVMM) with international presence will be established at the earliest possible time-to deal with such cases.

Page 11, ANNEXURE I TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT - Definitions:
4. Definitions
4.8 The Joint Liaison Teams
Teams established from members of the parties to the conflict and international observers to share information and facilitate communication between parties. This will help to reduce the likelihood of violations of ceasefire, thereby clarifying alleged violations of the Agreement and assist in building confidence between the parties and the population. The JLTs shall report to the JVMM.

Page 13, ANNEXURE II TO THE COMPREHENSIVE AGREEMENT MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMPREHENSIVE
CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT, 1. Joint Verification and Monitoring Mechanism (JVMM):
1.1 The Joint Verification and Monitoring Mechanism (JVMM) composed of the representatives from the Burundian government, the Palipehutu-FNL, the African Union and the United Nations. The Regional Peace Initiative shall
remain the guarantor of the process.
1.2 The JVMM shall establish the Joint Liaison Teams (JLTs) as its subsidiary structures.
1.3 The JVMM shall be responsible for the following:
1.3.1 Demarcation of the Assembly Areas, Disengagement Areas and Transit Routes;
1.3.2 Supervision of the movement of combatants towards the Assembly Areas;
1.3.3 Establishment of the command structures and modalities for Inner and outer perimeter security of the Assembly Areas, in conjunction with UN force;
1.3.4 Supervision of the registration and verification processes of the combatants in the Assembly Areas.
1.4 The AU will be required to assist with the provision of security for combatants during their movement towards the Assembly Areas as well as the protection of the leadership.
1.5 The International Donor Community shall be requested to provide support for maintenance in terms of medical and logistical requirements to the combatants in the Assembly Areas.

Page 13, ANNEXURE II TO THE COMPREHENSIVE AGREEMENT MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMPREHENSIVE
CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT, 1. Joint Verification and Monitoring Mechanism (JVMM):
2. Disengagement of Forces
2.1 The JVMM shall supervise the following:
2.1.1 The disengagement of forces;
2.1.2 The cessation of tactical deployments and operations directed by one party against the other;
2.1.3 The cessation of flights by the Government that could be constituted as aerial reconnaissance against the Palipehutu-FNL;
2.1.4 All law enforcement activities and public security operations within the disengagement areas by the police.

Page 14, ANNEXURE II TO THE COMPREHENSIVE AGREEMENT MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT, 4. Implementation Phases:
4.1 This Agreement will be implemented in the following phases:
4.1.1 Phase 1 shall include the following activities:
...
d. Disarmament, first screening by the Joint Liaison Teams with the non qualifiers being disallowed, preliminary registration and transportation to the Demobilisation Centre (DC);

Page 14, ANNEXURE II TO THE COMPREHENSIVE AGREEMENT MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT,
5. Time lines for Implementation:
...
5.2 The Parties shall provide names of members who will be part of the JVMM and JLTs to the Facilitator (D Day).
...
5.4 Establishment of the JVMM and JLTs (D+7).
5.5 The Palipehutu-FNL shall provide the list of combatants and equipment to the JVMM (D+7).
...
5.8 DRR to be completed before (D+30).
5.9 The JVMM is empowered.

Page 16, ANNEXURE III TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT THE DEFENCE AND SECURITY FORCES, 1. Transformation and modernization:
Pursuant to the Dar es Salaam Agreement of Principles signed by the Parties on 18 June 2006, the ongoing transformation and modernisation of the Defence and Security Forces shall be:
a. Monitored and evaluated by the African Union working in consonance with the United Nations and other International fora. The Regional initiative shall remain the guarantor of this process.

Page 16, ANNEXURE III TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT THE DEFENCE AND SECURITY FORCES, 2. Integration and the Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) process:
2.1 Following the disarmament process at the agreed assembly areas, the combatants shall be transported to the Demobilisation, Centres for verification and orientation to choose between Integration into the defence and security forces or demobilisation. The JVMM shall supervise the successful implementation of the process in conjunction with the Executive Secretariat of the National Commission for Demobilisation, Reinsertion and Reintegration (ES/NCDRR) and all other partners' e.g,
UNICEF to support demobilisation of children associated with combatants.
2.2 The JVMM shall develop the mechanisms to address criteria for integration, strength, rank harmonisation, post allocation and career path for individuals in the Defence and Security forces. This process shall be monitored, and evaluated by the African Union working in consonance with the United Nations and other International fora.

Page 18-19, ANNEXURE IV TO THE COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT, MODALITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT IN RESPECT OF THE LEADERS AND COMBATANTS OF THE PALIPEHUTU-FNL:
1. The Ceasefire Agreement between the Government of Burundi and the Palipehutu-FNL creates conditions for the return to Burundi, under conditions of temporary immunity, of the political leadership and the combatants of the rebel movement, starting, thereby, a process that must culminate in the reintegration of those members into the social, economic and political life of Burundi.
...
3. The repatriation programme will extend over the following phases:
3.1 Phase 1
3.1.1 Palipehutu-FNL will submit to the Facilitation a Certified Personnel Register of the movement's members.
3.1.2 A separate list will be submitted of leadership and members who will be deployed on the Joint Verification Monitoring Mechanism and the Joint Liaison Teams,
3.1.3 Palipehutu-FNL will also provide an indication of the location of its combatants to facilitate the planning of the movement to the Assembly and Cantonment Areas.
3.1.4 A Facilitation Team will be established comprising the Regional Technical Team, Burundi Government and the Palipehutu-FNL.
3.1.5 A Special Task Force will be established to provide security to the Facilitation Team which, soon after its establishment, will visit Burundi to:
3.1.5.1 Assess the security situation in the country;
3.1.5.2 Check possibilities for the accommodation and welfare of returning leaders;
3.1.5.3 Look for office space;
3.1.5.4 Determine the protection and security needs for the Palipehutu-FNL leaders, and
3.1.5.5 Evaluate the identified Assembly and Cantonment Areas.
...
3.2 Phase 2
...
3.2.2 The phase will also see the unfolding of the DDR and Integration Processes under the direction of ONUB and other key stakeholders.
...
5. SECURITY
...
5.4 ONUB will provide security to the combatants at the Assembly Areas and Cantonment Sites.
5.5 The protection and security arrangements for the Palipehutu-FNL leadership will be in place for six months, whereupon they will be reviewed. Should the review indicate the necessity, the period of protection and security will be extended to meet the need.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh