Declaration by the Participants to the Peace Negotiations in Burundi

Country/entity
Burundi
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Declaration by the Participants to the Peace Negotiations in Burundi
Date
21/06/1998
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Burundian Civil War (1993-2005)
The conflict had an ethnic base between Hutu and Tutsi populations, and is one of a set of regionally connected conflicts also addressed n the Great Lakes process. Since independence in 1972, the Burundian political landscape has been polarised and marked by ethnic-based tensions, political assassinations and large-scale violence. For the following two decades, three Tutsi military regimes associated with the Union for National Progress (UPRONA) ruled the country. During these military dictatorships, numerous waves of mass violence resulted from the attempts of various opposition rebels groups to destabilise the three regimes, and the regimes’ use of violence to repress these attempts. Despite a wave of hope in the early 1990’s, Burundi entered a decade-long civil war in 1993 following the assassination of Burundi’s first democratically elected president, Melchior Ndadaye, from the ethnically-Hutu Front for Democracy in Burundi (FRODEBU) by Tutsi opposition in the military.
In 1998 the Arusha Peace Talks commenced and in August 2000, international pressure resulted in the signing of the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi. However, the National Council for the Defense of Democracy (CNND) did not sign. Additionally, and Party for the Liberation of Hutu People (Palipehutu) did not participate in negotiations. These outsiders continued sporadic violence until 2008. In 2015, a new wave of political violence is taking place after President Nkurunziza, from the CNDD-FDD which has been in power since 2005, won a contested third-mandate.
Burundian Civil War (1993-2005) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Mixed)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
16: Burundi: Arusha and related peace process
Parties
we, the leaders/representatives of the parties to the conflict, namely, the Government of Burundi, National Assembly, Front pour
la democratie au Burundi (FRODEBU), Union pour le progrès national (UPRONA), Conseil national pour la défense de la démocratie (CNDD), Parti pour le redressement nationale (PARENA), Parti libéral (PL), Parti indépendant des travailleurs (PIT), Parti social democrate (PSD), Alliance burundo-africaine pour le salut (ABASA), INKINZO, AV-INTWARI, Parti pour la réconciliation du peuple (PRP), Parti du peuple (PP), Rassemblement du peuple burundais (RPB), Parti pour la libération du peuple hutu du Burundi (PALIPEHUTU) and Front de la
libération nationale (FROLINA), in the presence of representatives of the following organizations of civil society: the Chamber of Commerce, the Women’s Association and the Youth Organization

1. Government of Burundi
(Signed) Ambrose NIYONSABA, Head of delegation
2. National Assembly
(Signed) Alphonse NAHINDAVYI-NDANGA, Head of delegation
3. Front pour la democratie au Burundi
(Signed) Jean MINANI, Head of delegation
4. Union pour le progrès national Express reservations
(Signed) Libère BARARUNYERETSE, Head of delegation
5. Conseil national pour la défense de la démocratie
(Signed) Leonard NYANGOMA, Head of delegation
6. Parti pour le redressement national
(Signed) Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA, Head of Delegation
7. Alliance burundo-africaine pour le salut
(Signed) Nsanze TERENCE, Head of Delegation
8. AV-INTWARI
(Signed) André NKUNDIKIJE, Head of delegation
9. Front pour la libération nationale
(Signed) Joseph KARUMBA, Head of delegation
10. INKINZO
(Signed) Kamo PASCAL, Head of delegation
11. Parti pour la libération du peuple hutu du Burundi
(Signed) Antoine SEZOYA, Head of delegation
12. Parti indépendant des travailleurs
(Signed) Etienne NYAHOZA, Head of delegation
13. Parti libéral
(Signed) Gaetan NIKOBAMYE, Head of delegation
14. Parti du peuple
(Signed) Schadrack NIYONKURU, Head of delegation
15. Parti pour la réconciliation du peuple
(Signed) Mathias HITIMANA, Head of delegation
16. Parti social democrate
(Signed) Godefroy HAKIZIMANA, Head of delegation
17. Rassemblement du peuple burundais
(Signed) Balthazar BIGIRIMANA, Head of delegation

Third parties
- At the invitation of Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere, the Facilitator of the peace negotiations on Burundi

- In that connection, we thank the heads of State and Government of the region, the representatives of the secretaries-general of the Organization of African Unity and the United Nations for the encouragement and support which they offered at the opening ceremony of
the peace negotiations.
...
We express our special appreciation and deep gratitude to the Facilitator, Mwalimu K. Nyerere, for his patience and commitment to the quest for a just and lasting peace in Burundi.
Description
This agreement was reached at the first session of negotiations between Burundian parties. It demonstrates and provides for the following dimensions: (1) the universal commitment to resolve the Burundi conflict by peaceful means and end all forms of violence; (2) the commitment to resume talks in one month’s time; (3) the setting of the agenda for the comprehensive negotiations; (4) the appointment of the committees which are to assume responsibility for the various agenda items.

Agreement document
BI_980621_DeclarationByTheParticipantsToPeaceNegotiationsOnBurundi.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
Rhetorical
Page 1, Untitled Preamble:
... we, the leaders/representatives of the parties to the conflict, namely, the Government of Burundi, National Assembly, Front pour
la democratie au Burundi (FRODEBU), Union pour le progrès national (UPRONA), Conseil national pour la défense de la démocratie (CNDD), Parti pour le redressement nationale (PARENA), Parti libéral (PL), Parti indépendant des travailleurs (PIT), Parti social democrate (PSD), Alliance burundo-africaine pour le salut (ABASA), INKINZO, AV-INTWARI, Parti pour la réconciliation du peuple (PRP), Parti du peuple (PP), Rassemblement du peuple burundais (RPB), Parti pour la libération du peuple hutu du Burundi (PALIPEHUTU) and Front de la libération nationale (FROLINA), in the presence of representatives of the following organizations of civil society: the Chamber of Commerce, the Women’s Association and the Youth Organization
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
Rhetorical
Page 1-2, Untitled Preamble:
...
We also agree that the questions to be submitted for negotiation shall be as follows:
(d) Rehabilitation and resettlement of refugees and displaced persons, reconstruction and economic and social development;
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
Page 1, Untitled Preamble:
... we, the leaders/representatives of the parties to the conflict, namely, the Government of Burundi, National Assembly, Front pour
la democratie au Burundi (FRODEBU), Union pour le progrès national (UPRONA), Conseil national pour la défense de la démocratie (CNDD), Parti pour le redressement nationale (PARENA), Parti libéral (PL), Parti indépendant des travailleurs (PIT), Parti social democrate (PSD), Alliance burundo-africaine pour le salut (ABASA), INKINZO, AV-INTWARI, Parti pour la réconciliation du peuple (PRP), Parti du peuple (PP), Rassemblement du peuple burundais (RPB), Parti pour la libération du peuple hutu du Burundi (PALIPEHUTU) and Front de la libération nationale (FROLINA), in the presence of representatives of the following organizations of civil society: the Chamber of Commerce, the Women’s Association and the Youth Organization
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
General references
Page 1-2, Untitled Preamble:
...
We also agree that the questions to be submitted for negotiation shall be as follows:
(b) Democracy and good governance, institutional systems, constitutional systems, the question of justice and the effort to combat impunity, the judicial system, and administrative system and transitional institutions;
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
Page 1-2, Untitled Preamble:
...
We also agree that the questions to be submitted for negotiation shall be as follows:
(b) Democracy and good governance, institutional systems, constitutional systems, the question of justice and the effort to combat impunity, the judicial system, and administrative system and transitional institutions;
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
Page 1, Untitled Preamble:
... we, the leaders/representatives of the parties to the conflict, namely, the Government of Burundi, National Assembly, Front pour
la democratie au Burundi (FRODEBU), Union pour le progrès national (UPRONA), Conseil national pour la défense de la démocratie (CNDD), Parti pour le redressement nationale (PARENA), Parti libéral (PL), Parti indépendant des travailleurs (PIT), Parti social democrate (PSD), Alliance burundo-africaine pour le salut (ABASA), INKINZO, AV-INTWARI, Parti pour la réconciliation du peuple (PRP), Parti du peuple (PP), Rassemblement du peuple burundais (RPB), Parti pour la libération du peuple hutu du Burundi (PALIPEHUTU) and Front de la libération nationale (FROLINA), in the presence of representatives of the following organizations of civil society: the Chamber of Commerce, the Women’s Association and the Youth Organization

Page 3, Signatures and Commentaries:
...
4. Union pour le progrès national Express reservations to para. 1, para. 3 (iii), and para. 4, on the role of civil society, the suspension of hostilities and the venue of the next session.
...
10. INKINZO With the reservation that the following points should be reviewed:
- Civil society (participation in negotiations);
...
15. Parti pour la réconciliation du peuple
Reservations on the role of civil society and the suspension of hostilities.
16. Parti social democrate
Express reservations to paragraphs 1, 3 and 4, on the role of civil society, the suspension of hostilities and the venue of the next meeting, including the lifting of sanctions to improve the atmosphere of the work.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
Page 1-2, Untitled Preamble:
...
We also agree that the questions to be submitted for negotiation shall be as follows:
...
(b) Democracy and good governance, institutional systems, constitutional systems, the question of justice and the effort to combat impunity, the judicial system, and administrative system and transitional institutions;

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
Page 1-2, Untitled Preamble:
...
Aware of the suffering of our people, we are determined to exercise, individually and collectively, responsible leadership with the aim of putting an end to this suffering and creating the conditions for peaceful coexistence on the basis of democratic values and security for all,
(i) We solemnly undertake to carry out serious negotiations until we find a just and lasting solution to this crisis in our country;
...
We also agree that the questions to be submitted for negotiation shall be as follows:
(b) Democracy and good governance, institutional systems, constitutional systems, the question of justice and the effort to combat impunity, the judicial system, and administrative system and transitional institutions;

Page 2:
Consequently, the parties have decided to set up the following committees:
...
2. Committee on Democracy and Good Governance;
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
Page 1-2, Untitled Preamble:
...
We also agree that the questions to be submitted for negotiation shall be as follows:
(b) Democracy and good governance, institutional systems, constitutional systems, the question of justice and the effort to combat impunity, the judicial system, and administrative system and transitional institutions;
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Socio-economic development
Page 1-2, Untitled Preamble:
...
We also agree that the questions to be submitted for negotiation shall be as follows:
...
(d) Rehabilitation and resettlement of refugees and displaced persons, reconstruction and economic and social development;

Page 2:
Consequently, the parties have decided to set up the following committees:
...
4. Committee on Reconstruction and Economic Development;
Infrastructure and reconstruction
Page 1-2, Untitled Preamble:
...
We also agree that the questions to be submitted for negotiation shall be as follows:
...
(d) Rehabilitation and resettlement of refugees and displaced persons, reconstruction and economic and social development;

Page 2:
Consequently, the parties have decided to set up the following committees:
...
4. Committee on Reconstruction and Economic Development;
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
Page 1, Untitled Preamble:
... we, the leaders/representatives of the parties to the conflict, namely, the Government of Burundi, National Assembly, Front pour
la democratie au Burundi (FRODEBU), Union pour le progrès national (UPRONA), Conseil national pour la défense de la démocratie (CNDD), Parti pour le redressement nationale (PARENA), Parti libéral (PL), Parti indépendant des travailleurs (PIT), Parti social democrate (PSD), Alliance burundo-africaine pour le salut (ABASA), INKINZO, AV-INTWARI, Parti pour la réconciliation du peuple (PRP), Parti du peuple (PP), Rassemblement du peuple burundais (RPB), Parti pour la libération du peuple hutu du Burundi (PALIPEHUTU) and Front de la libération nationale (FROLINA), in the presence of representatives of the following organizations of civil society: the Chamber of Commerce, the Women’s Association and the Youth Organization
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
Page 2:
Consequently, the parties have decided to set up the following committees:
..
3. Committee on Peace and Security for All;

Page 4, Signatures and Commentaries:
...
8. AV-INTWARI
With the following four express reservations:
...
(3) "Genocide and security in Burundi (First Committee)
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
Page 1-2, Untitled Preamble:
...
Aware of the suffering of our people, we are determined to exercise, individually and collectively, responsible leadership with the aim of putting an end to this suffering and creating the conditions for peaceful coexistence on the basis of democratic values and security for all,
...
(ii) We undertake to settle the Burundi conflict by peaceful means and to put an end to all forms of violence;
(iii) Consequently, all the armed parties to the conflict declare a suspension of hostilities as from 20 July 1998 at the latest;
...
We also agree that the questions to be submitted for negotiation shall be as follows:
...
(c) Peace and security for all, the question of public security and defence forces, the cessation of hostilities, provisions for the permanent
ceasefire;

Page 3, Signatures and Commentaries:
1. Government of Burundi We have reservations on:
...
- the wording concerning the suspension of hostilities, which should refer only to armed factions.
...
4. Union pour le progrès national Express reservations to para. 1, para. 3 (iii), and para. 4, on the role of civil society, the suspension of
hostilities and the venue of the next session.
...
10. INKINZO With the reservation that the following points should be reviewed:
...
- Suspension of hostilities (para. 3 (iii)).
...
15. Parti pour la réconciliation du peuple
Reservations on the role of civil society and the suspension of hostilities.
16. Parti social democrate
Express reservations to paragraphs 1, 3 and 4, on the role of civil society, the suspension of hostilities and the venue of the next meeting, including the lifting of sanctions to improve the atmosphere of the work.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
Page 1, Untitled Preamble:
...
Aware of the suffering of our people, we are determined to exercise, individually and collectively, responsible leadership with the aim of putting an end to this suffering and creating the conditions for peaceful coexistence on the basis of democratic values and security for all,
...
(iii) Consequently, all the armed parties to the conflict declare a suspension of hostilities as from 20 July 1998 at the latest;
...
We also agree that the questions to be submitted for negotiation shall be as follows:
...
(c) Peace and security for all, the question of public security and defence forces, the cessation of hostilities, provisions for the permanent
ceasefire;
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 3-5, Signatures and Commentaries:
1. Government of Burundi We have reservations on:
...
- the wording concerning the suspension of hostilities, which should refer only to armed factions.
...
8. AV-INTWARI
With the following four express reservations:
(1) Para. 3 (iii) "armed factions";
...
12. Parti indépendant des travailleurs
The PIT signs with the following express reservations:
(1) Armed factions;
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
Page 1, Untitled Preamble:
...
Aware of our historic responsibility, we share the same conviction that we owe it to the Burundian people, both present and future generations, to create a climate of lasting peace in our country and to put an end to the constant cycle of violence and fratricide that has long afflicted Burundi,
...
We also agree that the questions to be submitted for negotiation shall be as follows:
(a) Nature of the Burundi conflict and problems of genocide and exclusion and their solutions;
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
Page 1, Untitled Preamble:
...
Aware of our historic responsibility, we share the same conviction that we owe it to the Burundian people, both present and future generations, to create a climate of lasting peace in our country and to put an end to the constant cycle of violence and fratricide that has long afflicted Burundi,
...
We also agree that the questions to be submitted for negotiation shall be as follows:
(a) Nature of the Burundi conflict and problems of genocide and exclusion and their solutions;

Page 2:
Consequently, the parties have decided to set up the following committees:
1. Committee on the Nature of the Burundian Conflict, the Problems of Genocide and Exclusion and their Solutions;
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
No specific mention.
Enforcement mechanism
Page 1-2, Untitled Preamble:
...
We also agree that the questions to be submitted for negotiation shall be as follows:
...
(e) Guarantees for the implementation of the agreement arising from the peace negotiations on Burundi.

Page 2:
Consequently, the parties have decided to set up the following committees:
5. Committee on Guarantees for the Implementation of the Agreement Arising from the Peace Negotiations on Burundi;

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