National Reconciliation Pact (Bangui National Reconciliation Conference)

Country/entity
Central African Republic
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
National Reconciliation Pact (Bangui National Reconciliation Conference)
Date
05/03/1998
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - )
The Central African Republic conflict is one of a set of regionally connected conflicts addressed by the Great Lakes process. Since the mid-1990s several waves of internal conflict took place in the Central African Republic, primarily along tribal, and later-on increasingly sectarian, lines. In 1996 and 1997, French troops and soldiers from neighbouring countries intervened to end a mutiny in the capital, Bangui, by factions of the army. The fighting was predominantly along tribal lines, with southern tribes in revolt against the ‘northern’ government. A UN mission was installed in 1998 to secure the truce.

After General Bozizé took control of the country after several coup attempts in 2003, a ‘bush war’ began led by armed opposition forces. From late 2006 onward, government troops with French military support severely weakened the rebels. Following this, a number of agreements were signed during 2007-2008, but not all factions have accepted them. In 2011, Bozizé was re-elected in supposedly fraudulent elections, which resulted in a new wave of uprisings. Séléka, an alliance of northern rebel groups, took over parts of the country and forced Bozizé to agree to a power-sharing deal. However, after this agreement broke down, Séléka took control of Bangui and Bozizé had to flee the country.

Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
16: CAR: Bangui process
Parties
His Excellency Ange-Félix PATASSÉ
President of the Republic
Government
National Assembly
Judiciary
Armed Forces of the Central African Republic
Association of Mayor
Political parties
ADP Alliance pour la démocratie et le progrès
CDCAD Carrefour démocratique centrafricain pour le
développement
CN Convention nationale
ELAN Effort libéral en Afrique noire
FC Forum Civique
FPP Front patriotique pour le progrès
GILA-MND Mouvement national pour le développement
MDD Mouvement pour la démocratie et le développement
MLPC Mouvement de libération du peuple centrafricain
MSCA Mouvement socialiste centrafricain
PAD Parti pour l'action et le développement
PARELI Parti républicain libéral
PCD Parti chrétien démocrate
PLD Parti libéral démocrate
PRC Parti républicain centrafricain
PSD Parti social démocrate
MDI/PS Mouvement pour la démocratie, l'indépendance et le
progrès social
MESAN Mouvement d'évolution sociale de l'Afrique noire
MESAN BOGANDA Mouvement d'évolution sociale de l'Afrique
noire/Barthélemy Boganda
MDRC Mouvement pour la démocratie en république
centrafricaine
MNR Mouvement national pour le renouveau
MUD Mouvement pour l'unité et le développement
RDC Rassemblement démocratique centrafricaine
UDRP Union pour la démocratie et le renouveau panafricain
UDR/FK Union démocratique républicaine/Fimi Kodro
UNDD Union nationale pour la défense de la démocratie
UPR Union pour la République
UPDES Union du peuple pour le développement économique et
sociale
Trade unions:
CNTC Confédération nationale des travailleurs centrafricains
OSLP Organisation des syndicats libres des secteurs public,
parapublic et privé
Patronat
USTC Union syndicale des travailleurs centrafricains
USCC Union syndicale des chargeurs centrafricains
UNTC Union nationale des travailleurs centrafricains
Religious denominations:
AEEC Association des églises évangéliques centrafricaines
Catholic Church
CICA Communauté islamique centrafricain
Human rights, justice and democracy:
ACAT Association centrafricaine de lutte contre la torture et
l'abolition de la peine de mort
AFJC Association des femmes juristes de Centrafrique
GERDES Groupement d'études et de recherches pour la démocratie
et le développement economique et social
LCDH Ligue centrafricaine des droits de l'homme
GRPS Groupe de réflexion politique et sociale
LONDO Levons-nous
MDDH Mouvement pour la défense des droits de l'homme
S/1998/219
English
Page 8
GAMPCC Groupe des artistes musiciens pour la promotion de la
culture en Centrafrique
OCDH Observatoire centrafricain des droits de l'homme
GRADDER Groupe de réflexion et d'action pour la défense de la
démocratie républicaine
CNDH Commission nationale des droits de l'homme
National organizations:
OFCA Organisation des femmes centrafricaines
KOLI-OUALI GALA Hommes et femmes commerçants
FNEC Fédération nationale des éleveurs centrafricains
Fed. BOUBA-NGUERE Fédération des vendeurs ambulants
JEC Jeunesse étudiante chrétiennes
FESCA Fédération du Scoutisme centrafricain
USCA Union scolaire centrafricaine
CNOSCA Comité national olympique du sport centrafricain
ACCB Association des commerçants centrafricains du bétail
ANEC Association nationale des étudiants centrafricains
ONAPHA Organisation nationale des personnes handicapées
UMCA Union des musiciens centrafricains
AVIMUT Association des victimes des mutineries
CIONGCA Conseil inter-organisation non gouvernementale de
Centrafrique
ANBC Association nationale des bouchers centrafricains
FNCJ Fédération nationale des clubs des jeunesses
Occupational organization:
UNPC Union nationale du patronat centrafricain
Third parties
Description
Largely rhetorical declaration involving principled commitments. Involves a large number of civil and political groups in the country, committing to democracy, reconciliation, and addressing poverty.

Agreement document
CF_980305_NationalReconciliationPact.pdf

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
Rhetorical
Page 1, UNTITLED PREAMBLE
Convinced of the need to establish a definitive national reconciliation pact between all Central Africans so as to put an end to political, economic and social practices characterized by nepotism, tribalism, exclusion and poor governance

Page 2, Article 1
The parties signatory to this Pact solemnly undertake to practise good governance, excluding nepotism, clanship, tribalism, political patronage and misappropriation of funds
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
Agreement signed by women's groups:

OFCA Organisation des femmes centrafricaines
KOLI-OUALI GALA Hommes et femmes commerçants
FNEC Fédération nationale des éleveurs centrafricains No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
Sexual orientation
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
Page 1, UNTITLED PREAMBLE
Gauging the seriousness of the socio-economic crisis, characterized by growing poverty, the breakdown of family and social ties, the decline in Central African purchasing power and food production and the emergence of famine and widespread malnutrition, which are sources of disturbances and social conflict
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
General references
Page 2, Article 2
The signatories solemnly undertake to use elections as the only legal means of access to government power and decide to ban the use of weapons and force as ways and means of access to government power. They renounce the use of the armed forces to destabilize a democratic regime and to sow terror in the hearts of the population in defiance of democratic principles, human rights and the national Constitution.
They strongly oppose all forms of dictatorship and call on the authorities to listen to the people and respect the rights of the minority
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
Page 2, Article 2
The signatories solemnly undertake to use elections as the only legal means of access to government power and decide to ban the use of weapons and force as ways and means of access to government power. They renounce the use of the armed forces to destabilize a democratic regime and to sow terror in the hearts of the population in defiance of democratic principles, human rights and the national Constitution.
They strongly oppose all forms of dictatorship and call on the authorities to listen to the people and respect the rights of the minority. No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
Page 2, Article 2
The signatories solemnly undertake to use elections as the only legal means of access to government power and decide to ban the use of weapons and force as ways and means of access to government power. They renounce the use of the armed forces to destabilize a democratic regime and to sow terror in the hearts of the population in defiance of democratic principles, human rights and the national Constitution.
They strongly oppose all forms of dictatorship and call on the authorities to listen to the people and respect the rights of the minority No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
Agreement signed by civil society actors:

Trade unions:
CNTC Confédération nationale des travailleurs centrafricains
OSLP Organisation des syndicats libres des secteurs public,
parapublic et privé
Patronat
USTC Union syndicale des travailleurs centrafricains
USCC Union syndicale des chargeurs centrafricains
UNTC Union nationale des travailleurs centrafricains

Religious denominations:
AEEC Association des églises évangéliques centrafricaines
Catholic Church
CICA Communauté islamique centrafricain
Human rights, justice and democracy:
ACAT Association centrafricaine de lutte contre la torture et
l'abolition de la peine de mort
AFJC Association des femmes juristes de Centrafrique
GERDES Groupement d'études et de recherches pour la démocratie
et le développement economique et social
LCDH Ligue centrafricaine des droits de l'homme
GRPS Groupe de réflexion politique et sociale
LONDO Levons-nous
MDDH Mouvement pour la défense des droits de l'homme
S/1998/219
English
Page 8
GAMPCC Groupe des artistes musiciens pour la promotion de la
culture en Centrafrique
OCDH Observatoire centrafricain des droits de l'homme
GRADDER Groupe de réflexion et d'action pour la défense de la
démocratie républicaine
CNDH Commission nationale des droits de l'homme
National organizations:
OFCA Organisation des femmes centrafricaines
KOLI-OUALI GALA Hommes et femmes commerçants
FNEC Fédération nationale des éleveurs centrafricains
Fed. BOUBA-NGUERE Fédération des vendeurs ambulants
JEC Jeunesse étudiante chrétiennes
FESCA Fédération du Scoutisme centrafricain
USCA Union scolaire centrafricaine
CNOSCA Comité national olympique du sport centrafricain
ACCB Association des commerçants centrafricains du bétail
ANEC Association nationale des étudiants centrafricains
ONAPHA Organisation nationale des personnes handicapées
UMCA Union des musiciens centrafricains
AVIMUT Association des victimes des mutineries
CIONGCA Conseil inter-organisation non gouvernementale de
Centrafrique
ANBC Association nationale des bouchers centrafricains
FNCJ Fédération nationale des clubs des jeunesses
Occupational organization:
UNPC Union nationale du patronat centrafricain No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
[Summary] Agreement is signed by religious groups.

Page 5, Religious denominations:
AEEC Association des églises évangéliques centrafricaines
Catholic Church
CICA Communauté islamique centrafricain No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 1, UNTITLED PREAMBLE
...
Considering the flagrant violation of human rights linked to political and military crises

Page 2, Article 2
The signatories solemnly undertake to use elections as the only legal means of access to government power and decide to ban the use of weapons and force as ways and means of access to government power. They renounce the use of the armed forces to destabilize a democratic regime and to sow terror in the hearts of the population in defiance of democratic principles, human rights and the national Constitution.
They strongly oppose all forms of dictatorship and call on the authorities to listen to the people and respect the rights of the minority

Page 3, Article 6
The signatories undertake to work together to create the political, social and economic conditions necessary to prevent any violations of human rights. No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
Page 2, Article 2
The signatories solemnly undertake to use elections as the only legal means of access to government power and decide to ban the use of weapons and force as ways and means of access to government power. They renounce the use of the armed forces to destabilize a democratic regime and to sow terror in the hearts of the population in defiance of democratic principles, human rights and the national Constitution.
They strongly oppose all forms of dictatorship and call on the authorities to listen to the people and respect the rights of the minority No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Socio-economic development
Page 2, Article 3
The signatories call on all Central Africans to unite in rebuilding the country, which has been destabilized politically and torn apart economically, culturally and socially.

Page 2, Article 4
The parties signatory to this Pact undertake to launch a frontal attack on poverty, and to support the State in its quest for ways and means of restoring a sound national economy and equitably distributing resources, on the one hand and, on the other, in its efforts to improve the social sectors of education and health, while giving priority attention to the regular payment of wages, scholarships and pensions.
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
Page 1, UNTITLED PREAMBLE
...
Considering the upsurge of insecurity in Bangui and in the interior, owing to the proliferation of weapons and the phenomenon of highway banditry,
Convinced that only an effort by the entire national community, supported by the international community, can make it possible to find ways and means of restoring peace and security, a sine qua non of the effective resumption of socio-economic activities for peaceful, lasting development No specific mention.
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
Demilitarisation provisions
Page 2, Article 5
The parties signatory to this Pact launch a strong appeal to the international community to assist the national and international forces of order in their sensitive mission to collect the weapons spread throughout the country and to restore order.
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
Page 1, UNTITLED PREAMBLE
...
Considering the upsurge of insecurity in Bangui and in the interior, owing to the proliferation of weapons and the phenomenon of highway banditry,

Page 2, Article 1
The parties signatory to this Pact solemnly undertake to practise good governance, excluding nepotism, clanship, tribalism, political patronage and misappropriation of funds No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
Page 1, UNTITLED PREAMBLE
...
Considering the upsurge of insecurity in Bangui and in the interior, owing to the proliferation of weapons and the phenomenon of highway banditry,

Page 2, Article 1
The parties signatory to this Pact solemnly undertake to practise good governance, excluding nepotism, clanship, tribalism, political patronage and misappropriation of funds No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
Page 1, UNTITLED PREAMBLE
...
Convinced of the need to establish a definitive national reconciliation pact between all Central Africans so as to put an end to political, economic and social practices characterized by nepotism, tribalism, exclusion and poor governance No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
No specific mention.
Enforcement mechanism
Page 2, UNTITLED PREAMBLE
...
Aware of the need to establish a Monitoring and Arbitration Committee responsible for settling any disputes that may arise from non-compliance with the provisions of this Pact

Page 2, Article 5
The parties signatory to this Pact launch a strong appeal to the international community to assist the national and international forces of order in their sensitive mission to collect the weapons spread throughout the country and to restore order.

Page 3, Article 7
The parties signatory to this Pact decide to establish a Monitoring and Arbitration Committee to monitor the implementation of the undertakings set forth in this Pact and to serve as an arbitrator in any disputes that may arise.
They undertake to have recourse to the Committee in the case of non-compliance with the provisions of this Pact.
The composition, powers and functions of the Monitoring and Arbitration Committee are set forth as an annex to this Pact. No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh