Country/entity
El Salvador
Region
Americas
Agreement name
New York Act
Date
31/12/1991
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (El Salvador Civil War (1979 - 1992)
The civil war in El Salvador lasted from 1979 to 1992 between an authoritarian government and non-state opponents. Following a failed coup d’état, five leftist guerrilla movements merged to form the umbrella organisation Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN). U.S. support for the central Salvatorean government after 1979 lasted until its collapsed in late 1980s, after which the right-wing Republican National Alliance (Arena) filled the power vacuum. In March 1990, the rebels announced a suspension of attacks on non-military entered into talks backed by the UN and Catholic Church with the government. Despite the talks violence peaked over the next two years until the Chapultepec Peace Accords were signed in Mexico City in February 1992. Another ceasefire was signed a month later, which lasted nine months and was never broken during that time. Arena won the 1994 presidential elections and maintained a significant portion of the legislature until 2009, when the FMLN attained the presidency.

El Salvador Civil War (1979 - 1992) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
36: El Salvador peace process
Parties
Representing the Government of El Salvador: (Signed) Mr. Oscar SANTAMARIA; (Signed) Col. Mauricio Ernesto VARGAS; (Signed) Mr. David ESCOBAR GALINDO; (Signed) Col. Juan MARTINEZ VARELA; (Signed) Mr. Abelardo TORRES; (Signed) Mr. Rafael HERNAN CONTRERAS;

Representing the Frente Farabundo Marti para la Liberacion Nacional: (Signed) Cmdr. Schafik HANDAL; (Signed) Cmdr. Francisco JOVEL ; (Signed) Cmdr. Salvador SANCHEZ CEREN; (Signed) Cmdr. Eduardo SANCHO; (Signed) Cmdr. Joaquin VILLALOBOS
Third parties
(Signed) Alvaro DE SOTO, Representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations
Description
Parties declared they had reached definitive agreements which would put the armed conflict to an end. Agreement reached on all technical and military aspects relating to separation of warring parties and cessation of the armed conflict, including end to FMLN military structure and reintegration of its members into civil, political and institutional life. Cessation of armed conflict to take effect on 1 February 1992 and to conclude on 31 October 1992. Further meeting scheduled to negotiate timetable for implementing agreements with Final Peace Agreements to be signed on 16 January 1992. Declaration that the parties have completed negotiations on all the areas laid out in the Caracas Agenda; further meeting scheduled for parties to negotiate timeframe for implementation

Agreement document
SV_911231_NewYorkAct.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
Page 1,
... The parties have also agreed that the cessation of the armed conflict shall take effect formally on 1 February 1992 and shall conclude on 31 October 1992.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
DDR programmes
Page 1,
... An agreement has also been reached on all technical and military aspects relating to the separation of the warring parties and the cessation of the armed conflict, which includes the end of the military structure of the FMLN and the reintegration of its members, within a framework of full legality, into the civil, political and institutional life of the country.

Page 1,
... A further meeting between the parties has been scheduled for 5 January 1992 to negotiate the timetable for implementing the agreements and the procedure for ending the military structure of the FMLN and reintegrating its members, within a framework of full legality, into the civil, political and institutional life of the country.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 1,
... An agreement has also been reached on all technical and military aspects relating to the separation of the warring parties and the cessation of the armed conflict, which includes the end of the military structure of the FMLN and the reintegration of its members, within a framework of full legality, into the civil, political and institutional life of the country.

Page 1,
... A further meeting between the parties has been scheduled for 5 January 1992 to negotiate the timetable for implementing the agreements and the procedure for ending the military structure of the FMLN and reintegrating its members, within a framework of full legality, into the civil, political and institutional life of the country.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
(Signed) Alvaro DE SOTO, Representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations
Other international signatory
If the timetable for implementation is not met, the parties agree to be bound by a formula for resolving the outstanding issues proposed by the Secretary-General;
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
No specific mention.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh