Chapultepec Agreement

Country/entity
El Salvador
Region
Americas
Agreement name
Chapultepec Agreement
Date
16/01/1992
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (El Salvador Civil War (1979 - 1992)
The civil war in El Salvador lasted from 1979 to 1992 between an authoritarian government and non-state opponents. Following a failed coup d’état, five leftist guerrilla movements merged to form the umbrella organisation Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN). U.S. support for the central Salvatorean government after 1979 lasted until its collapsed in late 1980s, after which the right-wing Republican National Alliance (Arena) filled the power vacuum. In March 1990, the rebels announced a suspension of attacks on non-military entered into talks backed by the UN and Catholic Church with the government. Despite the talks violence peaked over the next two years until the Chapultepec Peace Accords were signed in Mexico City in February 1992. Another ceasefire was signed a month later, which lasted nine months and was never broken during that time. Arena won the 1994 presidential elections and maintained a significant portion of the legislature until 2009, when the FMLN attained the presidency.

El Salvador Civil War (1979 - 1992) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - comprehensive (Agreement)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
36: El Salvador peace process
Parties
Govt of El Salvador, FMLN
Third parties
Boutros Boutros-Ghali, UNSG (signatory, status unclear)
Description
Set of political agreements dealing with the armed forces, civil police, judicial system, electoral system, economic and social questions, political participation by FMLN, cessation of armed conflict, UN verification, implementation timetable; series of annex elaborating necessary legislative reform

Agreement document
SV_910116_Chalputepec.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
Substantive
Page 35, Chapter V: Economic and Social Questions
9. National Reconstruction Plan:
[...] The National Reconstruction Plan shall also include programme for the war-disabled and the relatives of victims among the civilian population.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
Page 13, Chapter II, National Civil Police

[This chapter deals extensively with the establishment of the National Civil Police]

II.7.D.b. A publicity campaign to promote the recruitment of new personnel for the National Civil Police shall be designed and implemented as soon as possible. Special consideration shall be given to the recruitment of women.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
Page 28, Chapter IV: Electoral System,
The Parties reaffirm their commitment, made in the Mexico Agreements, to promote a comprehensive proposal for reform of the electoral system. To that end, they request COPAZ to appoint the Special Commission envisaged for that purpose in the Mexico Agreements. That Commission shall study the preliminary draft amendments to the Electoral Code submitted to the Legislative Assembly by the Central Board of Elections, as well as any proposals put forward by its members or by independent experts invited for that purpose. The Special Commission shall organize its work in such a way that the results can be used within the time-limits set for the reform of the electoral system.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
Rebels transitioning to political parties
Chapter VI
Political Participation by FMLN
The following agreements have been reached concerning political participation by
FMLN, and shall be subject to the implementation timetable contained in this Agreement:
1. Adoption of legislative or other measures needed to guarantee former
FMLN combatants the full exercise of their civil and political rights, with
a view to their reintegration, within a framework of full legality, into the
civil, political, and institutional life of the country.
2. Freedom for all political prisoners.
3. Full guarantees and security for the return of exiles, war-wounded and
other persons currently outside the country for reasons related to the
armed conflict.
4. Granting of licences for FMLN mass media.
5. Cessation of the armed conflict implies the commitment and the right of
FMLN to full political participation, without any restrictions other than
those deriving from the new institutional and legal framework established
by the agreements reached during the negotiations.
6. Legalization of FMLN as a political party, through the adoption of a
legislative decree to that end.
7. Guarantee that FMLN will be able to conduct its activities normally when
it becomes a political party, meaning:
a. Freedom to canvass for new members;
b. The right to set up an appropriate infrastructure (premises, printing
works, etc.);
c. Free exercise of the right of assembly and mobilization for FMLN
leaders, activists and members;
d. Freedom for FMLN to purchase and use advertising space in the
mass media.
8. Legal solution to the participation of FMLN members in COPAZ, once the
latter formalizes its existence.
9. Special security measures
Immediately after the signing of this Agreement, special security measures
shall be taken to protect any FMLN leaders who may require such
protection. The aforesaid measures, which may include their being
accompanied by diplomatic personnel and also technical support from
friendly Governments, shall offer all the facilities required for FMLN
leaders to be able to organize their own security in accordance with the
law. COPAZ shall supervise the arrangements agreed to herein and shall,
if necessary, promote the adoption of the relevant legislative or other
provisions to ensure that such security measures are fully effective and
properly established. As part of its responsibility for the security of FMLN
leaders, the Government of El Salvador shall provide the necessary
facilities for implementing the agreed arrangements. ONUSAL shall
verify the adoption of the above measures.
Civil society
Page 34, Chapter V: Economic and Social Questions
8. Forum for economic and social consultation
A. Purpose of the Forum
A forum shall be established in which representatives of the Government, labour and the business community shall participate on an equal footing for the purpose of working out a set of broad agreements on the economic and social development of the country for the benefit of all its inhabitants. The consultation process shall be a sustained effort and shall be conducted in phases, bearing in mind that the aim is to reach some agreements that are to be implemented immediately to achieve stabilization, others that are designed to tackle the economic and social problems that will ensue from the end of the conflict and still others that are geared specifically to reconstruction.

Among other things, the Government shall propose to the Forum for Economic and Social Consultation that existing labour legislation be revised in order to promote and maintain a climate of harmonious labour relations, without prejudice to the unemployed and the public at large. It shall also propose that the situation of disadvantaged urban and outlying urban communities be analysed with a view to proposing solutions to problems resulting from the armed conflict of recent years. In general terms, the Forum shall be the mechanism for agreeing on measures to alleviate the social cost of the structural adjustment programme.

B. Establishment of the Forum
COPAZ shall convene the Forum for Economic and Social Consultation for the first time no later than one month after the signing of this Agreement.

C. Composition of and representation in the Forum
The composition of the Forum and the representation in it of the various sectors and the Government shall be as follows:
a. The Government of El Salvador shall be represented at a high level, its representatives being empowered to take decisions on economic and social matters;
b. The most representative labour and business organizations shall be invited to represent those sectors.
In addition, the Forum may invite other social and political sectors to participate in its work as observers, on terms to be determined by it.

D. Powers of the Forum
The Forum shall determine its own operational structure and the issues for discussion and consultations. The sectors represented in the Forum shall have equal rights and shall enjoy equal opportunities for expressing their views.

In order to guarantee the effectiveness of the agreements reached by the Forum by consensus, the Government undertakes to issue, amend or repeal decrees or provisions within its sphere of competence and to submit relevant proposals to the other organs of State.

E. Secretariat of the Forum
The Forum shall appoint a secretariat to provide it with technical support and ensure the continuity of its work.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
Sharing of resources
Page 34, Chapter V: Economic and Social Questions
8. Forum for economic and social consultation
A. Purpose of the Forum
A forum shall be established in which representatives of the Government, labour and the business community shall participate on an equal footing for the purpose of working out a set of broad agreements on the economic and social development of the country for the benefit of all its inhabitants. The consultation process shall be a sustained effort and shall be conducted in phases, bearing in mind that the aim is to reach some agreements that are to be implemented immediately to achieve stabilization, others that are designed to tackle the economic and social problems that will ensue from the end of the conflict and still others that are geared specifically to reconstruction.

Among other things, the Government shall propose to the Forum for Economic and Social Consultation that existing labour legislation be revised in order to promote and maintain a climate of harmonious labour relations, without prejudice to the unemployed and the public at large. It shall also propose that the situation of disadvantaged urban and outlying urban communities be analysed with a view to proposing solutions to problems resulting from the armed conflict of recent years. In general terms, the Forum shall be the mechanism for agreeing on measures to alleviate the social cost of the structural adjustment programme.

B. Establishment of the Forum
COPAZ shall convene the Forum for Economic and Social Consultation for the first time no later than one month after the signing of this Agreement.

C. Composition of and representation in the Forum

The composition of the Forum and the representation in it of the various sectors and the Government shall be as follows:
a. The Government of El Salvador shall be represented at a high level, its representatives being empowered to take decisions on economic and social matters;

b. The most representative labour and business organizations shall be invited to represent those sectors.
In addition, the Forum may invite other social and political sectors to participate in its work as observers, on terms to be determined by it.

D. Powers of the Forum

The Forum shall determine its own operational structure and the issues for discussion and consultations. The sectors represented in the Forum shall have equal rights and shall enjoy equal opportunities for expressing their views.

In order to guarantee the effectiveness of the agreements reached by the Forum by consensus, the Government undertakes to issue, amend or repeal decrees or provisions within its sphere of competence and to submit relevant proposals to the other organs of State.

E. Secretariat of the Forum
The Forum shall appoint a secretariat to provide it with technical support and ensure the continuity of its work.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 1, Reaffirming that their purpose, as set forth in the Geneva Agreement of 4 April 1990, is "to end the armed conflict by political means as speedily as possible, promote the democratization of the country, guarantee unrestricted respect for human rights and reunify Salvadorian society",
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
Page 1, Reaffirming that their purpose, as set forth in the Geneva Agreement of 4 April 1990, is "to end the armed conflict by political means as speedily as possible, promote the democratization of the country, guarantee unrestricted respect for human rights and reunify Salvadorian society",
Protection measures
Protection of civilians
Page 13, Chapter II: National Civil Police and includes various references to protextion
Summary:
1. Establishment of the National Civil Police
2. Doctrine
3. Functional and Territorial Structure
4. Personnel
5. National Public Security Academy
6. Legal Regime
7.Transitional Regime]

Selected provisions include:

Pages 11-13, Chapter II
National Civil Police
1. Establishment of the national civil police
The National Civil Police shall be established in accordance with the constitutional reform resulting from the Mexico Agreements. The National Civil Police shall be a new force with a new organization, new officers, new education and training mechanisms and
a new doctrine.
A. The National Civil Police shall be the only armed police body with national jurisdiction. Its mission shall be to protect and safeguard the free exercise of the rights and freedoms of individuals, to prevent and combat all types of crimes, and to maintain internal p
2. Doctrine
C. Members of the National Civil Police shall at all times observe the duties imposed on them by law, serving the community and protecting all persons from illegal acts, in keeping with the high degree of responsibility required by their profession.
D. In the performance of their tasks, members of the National Civil Police
shall respect and protect human dignity and shall preserve and defend the
human rights of all persons.
I. Members of the National Civil Police shall ensure full protection of the
health of persons in their custody and, in particular, shall take immediate
steps to provide medical care when necessary.
N. As part of the performance of their duty to safeguard the exercise of the
rights of individuals, members of the National Civil Police shall protect
the exercise of the right of assembly and demonstration.
Protection of groups
Page 8, D. Regulation of private security services.
The Parties recognize the need to regulate the activities of all those entities, groups or persons who provide security or protection to private individuals, corporations or State institutions, in order to guarantee the transparency of their activities and also their strict subordination to the law and to respect for human rights.
a. A special law shall regulate the activities of entities, groups or persons
who provide security or protection to private individuals, corporations or
State institutions

Page 16, 6. Division for the Protection of Eminent Persons
This Division shall be responsible for protecting and
escorting senior State officials; foreign dignitaries visiting
the country; and other persons on the basis of decisions of
the Government or of the courts; and for guarding public
buildings and the offices of diplomatic missions or
international organizations.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
Freedom of association
Page 36, Chapter VI: Political Participation by FMLN
The following agreements have been reached concerning political participation by FMLN, and shall be subject to the implementation timetable contained in this Agreement:
Vote and take part
Page 36, Chapter VI: Political Participation by FMLN
The following agreements have been reached concerning political participation by FMLN, and shall be subject to the implementation timetable contained in this Agreement:

5. Cessation of the armed conflict implies the commitment and the right of FMLN to full political participation, without any restrictions other than those deriving from the new institutional and legal framework established by the agreements reached during the negotiations.

6. Legalization of FMLN as a political party, through the adoption of a legislative decree to that end.

7. Guarantee that FMLN will be able to conduct its activities normally when it becomes a political party, meaning:
a. Freedom to canvass for new members;
b. The right to set up an appropriate infrastructure (premises, printing works, etc.);
c. Free exercise of the right of assembly and mobilization for FMLN leaders, activists and members;
d. Freedom for FMLN to purchase and use advertising space in the mass media.
Other
Page 36, Chapter VI: Political Participation by FMLN
The following agreements have been reached concerning political participation by FMLN, and shall be subject to the implementation timetable contained in this Agreement:

1. Adoption of legislative or other measures needed to guarantee former FMLN combatants the full exercise of their civil and political rights, with a view to their reintegration, within a framework of full legality, into the civil, political, and institutional life of the country.
Socio-economic rights
Property
Page 31, Chapter V: Economic and Social Questions
3. Lands within conflict zones
E. Legalization of land tenure
Except for particularly complex cases, the Government of El Salvador shall legalize the land-tenure situation in conflict zones definitively within six months from the signing of the cease-fire agreement, granting, as appropriate, individual or collective title to the land.
NHRI
New or fundamentally revised NHRI
Page 29, Chapter III: Judicial System
2. Office of the National Counsel for the Defence of Human Rights
A. The National Counsel for the Defence of Human Rights shall be appointed within 90 days following the entry into force of the constitutional reform resulting from the Mexico Agreements.

B. COPAZ shall be entrusted with preparing the preliminary bill organizing the Office of the National Counsel for the Defence of Human Rights.
C. The preliminary bill shall establish appropriate means for putting into effect the firm commitment assumed by the Parties in the course of the negotiations to identify and eradicate any groups which engage in a systematic practice of human rights violations, in particular, arbitrary arrests, abductions and summary executions, as well as other attempts on the liberty, integrity and security of persons. This includes the commitment to identify and, where appropriate, abolish and dismantle any clandestine jail or place of detention. In any event, the Parties agree to give top priority to the investigation of such cases, under ONUSAL verification.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
Media roles
Page 36, Chapter VI: Political Participation by FMLN
The following agreements have been reached concerning political participation by FMLN, and shall be subject to the implementation timetable contained in this Agreement:

4. Granting of licences for FMLN mass media.

...7. Guarantee that FMLN will be able to conduct its activities normally when it becomes a political party, meaning:
a. Freedom to canvass for new members;
b. The right to set up an appropriate infrastructure (premises, printing works, etc.);
c. Free exercise of the right of assembly and mobilization for FMLN leaders, activists and members;
d. Freedom for FMLN to purchase and use advertising space in the mass media.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
Page 29, Chapter III: Judicial System
1. National Council of the Judiciary
A. The Parties reaffirm that, as already agreed in the Mexico Agreements, the composition of the National Council of the Judiciary shall be such as to guarantee its independence from the organs of the State and from political parties and its membership shall, as far as possible, include not only judges but also sectors of society not directly connected with the administration of justice. In accordance with the New York Agreement, they refer the matter to COPAZ to prepare the corresponding preliminary legislative draft.

B. Judicial Training School
a. Pursuant to the Mexico Agreements, the preliminary draft referred to in the preceding paragraph shall include provisions regulating the Judicial Training School, which shall function under the responsibility of the National Council of the Judiciary and whose purpose shall be to ensure a steady improvement in the professional training of judges and other judicial officials and of members of the Office of the Attorney-General of the Republic; to investigate the country's judicial problems and promote solutions thereto; and to foster greater bonds of solidarity among members of the judiciary and a coherent overall vision of the function of the judiciary in a democratic State.
b. The rules for the administration and organization of the Judicial Training School shall be such as to ensure its academic independence and its openness to the various schools of legal thought.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Socio-economic development
Page 28, Chapter V: Economic and Social Questions
1. Preamble, One of the prerequisites for the democratic reunification of Salvadorian society is the sustained economic and social development of the country. At the same time, reunification of Salvadorian society and a growing degree of social cohesion are indispensable for fostering development. Hence, the set of agreements required to put a definitive end to the armed conflict in El Salvador must include certain minimum commitments to promote development for the benefit of all sectors of the population.

Page 33,6. Measures to alleviate the social cost of structural adjustment programmes
A. Consumer protection
The Government of El Salvador undertakes to adopt policies and create effective mechanisms for consumer protection in accordance with the requirements set out in the last part of article 101, paragraph 2, of the Constitution. In order to comply with this constitutional requirement, the Government undertakes to submit to the Legislative Assembly, within 60 days from the signing of this Agreement, a consumer protection bill providing for the strengthening of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, which could be a first step towards the establishment of an Office of Consumer Protection Advocate (Procuraduría General de Defensa del Consumidor).

C. Social welfare programmes
The Government of El Salvador shall seek to strengthen existing social welfare programmes designed to alleviate extreme poverty. Additional external resources shall be sought for this purpose.

7. Procedures for direct external cooperation for community development and assistance projects
The Government of El Salvador shall facilitate private direct external cooperation for community development and assistance projects, provided that assistance is channelled in accordance with foreign exchange and lending regulations. Official direct external cooperation may also be approved, subject to the provision of the requisite information on the purposes of such cooperation.

The Government shall grant legal and institutional facilities to private sources of direct external cooperation benefiting communities, social organizations and national non- governmental organizations: it shall not discriminate among the latter, provided that it is ascertained that they are engaged in or wish to engage in integrated development projects. Former combatants of both Parties shall have access to external cooperation funds.

8. Forum for economic and social consultation
A. Purpose of the Forum
A forum shall be established in which representatives of the Government, labour and the business community shall participate on an equal footing for the purpose of working out a set of broad agreements on the economic and social development of the country for the benefit of all its inhabitants. The consultation process shall be a sustained effort and shall be conducted in phases, bearing in mind that the aim is to reach some agreements that are to be implemented immediately to achieve stabilization, others that are designed to tackle the economic and social problems that will ensue from the end of the conflict and still others that are geared specifically to reconstruction.

Among other things, the Government shall propose to the Forum for Economic and Social Consultation that existing labour legislation be revised in order to promote and maintain a climate of harmonious labour relations, without prejudice to the unemployed and the public at large. It shall also propose that the situation of disadvantaged urban and outlying urban communities be analysed with a view to proposing solutions to problems resulting from the armed conflict of recent years. In general terms, the Forum shall be the mechanism for agreeing on measures to alleviate the social cost of the structural adjustment programme.

B. Establishment of the Forum
COPAZ shall convene the Forum for Economic and Social Consultation for the first time no later than one month after the signing of this Agreement.

C. Composition of and representation in the Forum
The composition of the Forum and the representation in it of the various sectors and the Government shall be as follows:
a. The Government of El Salvador shall be represented at a high level, its representatives being empowered to take decisions on economic and social matters;
b. The most representative labour and business organizations shall be invited to represent those sectors. In addition, the Forum may invite other social and political sectors to participate in its work as observers, on terms to be determined by it.

D. Powers of the Forum
The Forum shall determine its own operational structure and the issues for discussion and consultations. The sectors represented in the Forum shall have equal rights and shall enjoy equal opportunities for expressing their views.

In order to guarantee the effectiveness of the agreements reached by the Forum by consensus, the Government undertakes to issue, amend or repeal decrees or provisions within its sphere of competence and to submit relevant proposals to the other organs of State.

E. Secretariat of the Forum
The Forum shall appoint a secretariat to provide it with technical support
and ensure the continuity of its work.
National economic plan
Page 35, Chapter V: Economic and Social Questions
9. National Reconstruction Plan
Within 30 days from the signing of the agreement on the cessation of the armed conflict, the Government of El Salvador shall submit to FMLN the National Reconstruction Plan which it has drawn up, so that the recommendations and suggestions of FMLN, like those of the various sectors of national life, may be taken into account, ensuring that the Plan reflects the country's collective wishes.
The main objectives of the Plan shall be the integrated development of zones affected by the conflict, satisfaction of the most immediate needs of the population hardest hit by the conflict and of former combatants of both Parties, and the reconstruction of damaged infrastructure. In particular, in the context of the corresponding national programmes, measures shall be taken to facilitate the reintegration of FMLN into the country's civil, institutional and political life, including fellowship, employment and pension programmes, housing programmes and programmes for starting up new businesses.

The Plan shall pay special attention to the need to promote job creation on a massive scale and to increase the production of basic foodstuffs, which shall be a priority for the State. To that end, the Government shall promote the integrated development of agricultural, stockbreeding, fisheries, forestry and agro-industrial activities, guarantee the provision of basic social services and launch the construction and rehabilitation of economic and social infrastructures. The National Reconstruction Plan shall also include programmes for the war-disabled and the relatives of victims among the civilian population.

Given the magnitude of the additional resources that will be required for the implementation of the Plan, both Parties appeal to the international community to lend its fullest support to the fund-raising effort. To this end, a national reconstruction fund shall be established, to be supported by the United Nations Development Programme.

The role of UNDP shall include advising the Government on all matters relating to the mobilization of external support, assisting in the preparation of projects and programmes likely to attract such support, facilitating approaches to official bilateral and multilateral agencies, mobilizing technical assistance and cooperating with the Government in harmonizing the Plan with the activities of non-governmental organizations involved in local and regional development activities.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
Page 33, Chapter V: Economic and Social Questions
6. Measures to alleviate the social cost of structural adjustment programmes
...B. Privatization
The policy of privatization shall increase society's share of ownership by affording workers access to ownership of privatized companies. It shall also avoid monopolistic practices, while guaranteeing business freedom and consumer protection, in accordance with the provisions of article 110 of the Constitution.

Page 34, 8. Forum for economic and social consultation
A. Purpose of the Forum
A forum shall be established in which representatives of the Government, labour and the business community shall participate on an equal footing for the purpose of working out a set of broad agreements on the economic and social development of the country for the benefit of all its inhabitants. The consultation process shall be a sustained effort and shall be conducted in phases, bearing in mind that the aim is to reach some agreements that are to be implemented immediately to achieve stabilization, others that are designed to tackle the economic and social problems that will ensue from the end of the conflict and still others that are geared specifically to reconstruction.

Page 35, 9. National Reconstruction Plan
... The main objectives of the Plan shall be the integrated development of zones affected by the conflict, satisfaction of the most immediate needs of the population hardest hit by the conflict and of former combatants of both Parties, and the reconstruction of damaged infrastructure. In particular, in the context of the corresponding national programmes, measures shall be taken to facilitate the reintegration of FMLN into the country's civil, institutional and political life, including fellowship, employment and pension programmes, housing programmes and programmes for starting up new businesses.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
Personal or commercial banking
Page 32, Chapter V: Economic and Social Questions
5. Loans to the agricultural sector and to micro- and small-scale enterprise A. Loans to the sector as a whole

The Government of El Salvador shall see to it that the national financial system has the resources it needs to meet the demand for credit of the agricultural sector in general and of micro- and small-scale enterprise and small-scale peasant production, including cooperatives in the reformed and the non-reformed sector, in particular.
It shall also establish rules governing loans for agricultural and industrial production so that such loans are granted in a timely manner and in amounts sufficient to sustain productive capacity and the marketing of the goods produced. To that end, it shall promote an increase in loans by the commercial banking system to small businessmen and small-scale enterprises.

B. Active involvement of target sectors
The Government also undertakes to permit and promote the active involvement of target sectors in both the design and the administration of special credit programmes for those sectors. To that end, the Government undertakes to increase the participation of organizations representing the sectors referred to in the preceding section in developing policies of the Agricultural Guarantee Fund, FIGAPE, FEDECREDITO and BFA, and to ensure that the financial position of these institutions remains sound and that they become conduits for channelling external resources into loans for micro- and small-scale enterprise, small-scale peasant production and cooperatives in both the reformed and the non-reformed sector.
International finance
Page 32, Chapter V: Economic and Social Questions
5. Loans to the agricultural sector and to micro- and small-scale enterprise A. Loans to the sector as a whole


D. International cooperation for the agricultural sector

Given the increase in the demand for agricultural credit that will follow the signing of the Peace Agreement, the Government of El Salvador undertakes to seek additional external resources to cover the new needs of
the sector. In this connection, the Government shall seek external financial resources to increase the operations of the Agricultural Guarantee Fund as a mechanism for facilitating lending to small- and medium-sized farmers and their cooperatives, without adversely affecting the financial health of lending institutions.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
Property return and restitution
Page 29, Chapter V: Economic and Social Questions
2. The agrarian problem
A. Lands in excess of the constitutional limit of 245 hectares
The Government of El Salvador shall transfer rural farmland that has not yet been transferred under articles 105 and 267 of the Constitution of the Republic.

It likewise undertakes to ensure that implementation of the relevant constitutional requirements is not evaded by owners of rural holdings in excess of 245 hectares.

B. State-owned lands which are not currently part of a forestry reserve
The Government of El Salvador shall transfer to beneficiaries of the agrarian reform, as provided in article 104 of the Constitution, State- owned rural farmland which is not part of a forestry reserve.
Under the various land-transfer programmes which the Government of El Salvador is carrying out with State-owned farmland, preference shall be given to former combatants of both Parties who so request voluntarily, are of peasant origin and familiar with farming, and possess no land of any kind. The size of the lots shall be determined by the amount of land available, as mentioned above, and the number of beneficiaries who meet the conditions set out in this section.

C. Lands offered for sale to the State
Making use of the legal, technical and financial resources available to it, the Government of El Salvador shall seek to acquire and transfer through the Land Bank lands voluntarily offered for sale by their owners. Once the said lands are acquired, they shall be transferred to beneficiaries of the agrarian reform.

D. Recipients of lands transferred in accordance with the preceding sections
The lands acquired under sections A, B and C of this chapter shall be used to satisfy the need for land of landless peasants and small farmers. Specifically, title to the land shall be transferred legally to the peasants and small farmers designated by law as beneficiaries of the agrarian reform.

E. Payments for land
The lands referred to in the preceding sections shall be transferred at market prices and on the same credit terms as are granted to beneficiaries of the reformed sector. At the same time, a system of payments may be established on the basis of a fixed price and long-term financing at low, fixed interest rates not subject to interest capitalization. Domestic credit shall be supplemented with financing from international cooperation, for which a special fund, financed from external resources, shall be established for the purchase of land.

F. New legislation
Since the current agrarian legislation is haphazard, contradictory and incomplete, the Parties agree that it must be harmonized and unified into an agrarian code. To this end, the Government shall submit the relevant draft legislation to the Legislative Assembly no later than 12 months after the signing of this Agreement. If it fails to do so, COPAZ shall take on the task of preparing the corresponding preliminary draft.

3. Lands within conflict zones
A. The land-tenure system in conflict zones
In accordance with the New York Agreement, the current land-tenure situation in conflict zones shall be respected until a satisfactory legal solution for the definitive land-tenure system is arrived at. Consequently, landholders shall not be evicted pending agreement on such a solution; moreover, they shall be given financial support to increase agricultural production.

In view of the irregularity of the land-tenure system in conflict zones, the Parties agree on the following:

B. Determination as to who are the "current land holders"
"Landholders" shall mean those currently occupying and/or working the land in conflict zones.

C. Inventory of cases covered by this part of the Agreement
Within 30 days from the signing of the Agreement, FMLN shall submit an inventory of land or buildings affected by the Agreement. Upon verification that such land or buildings are in fact subject to the provisions of this Agreement, and in accordance with the procedure set forth in the next section, the Government of El Salvador shall seek to provide a satisfactory legal solution for their final disposal through the voluntary sale of such property by the rightful owners to the current holders, on the terms referred to in section 3 (F) of this chapter.

Should a rightful owner not wish to sell his property, the Government of El Salvador shall make use of the legal mechanisms at its disposal to try to resettle the peasants or small farmers on such land as may be available for the purpose and shall, as far as possible, seek to ensure that such land is situated in the same zones.

D. Establishment of a Special Commission
COPAZ shall appoint a special commission whose members shall be of recognized integrity and ability. The special commission, to be formed within 20 days following the signing of this Agreement, shall be entrusted with the following tasks and duties:
a. To verify the inventory of affected land or buildings within conflict zones. Once the inventory has been verified, the special commission shall submit copies to the Government of El Salvador and to COPAZ;
b. Should the need arise, to facilitate the settlement of disputes between current holders and rightful owners;
c. To take any decisions and measures it deems necessary and proper for the prompt and effective fulfilment of the agreements set forth in this chapter.

E. Legalization of land tenure
Except for particularly complex cases, the Government of El Salvador shall legalize the land-tenure situation in conflict zones definitively within six months from the signing of the cease-fire agreement, granting, as appropriate, individual or collective title to the land.

F. Payment for lands
Lands shall be purchased from their former owners at market prices. The sale to the current holders shall be subject to the same conditions as those granted to beneficiaries of the reformed sector. However, special conditions may be agreed to in the interests of the peace process.

G. Verification by COPAZ
COPAZ shall guarantee fulfilment of the agreements set forth in sections 2 and 3.

4. 3 July 1991 agreement on occupied lands
The agreement on occupied lands between the Government of El Salvador and peasant organizations shall be respected.

With regard to lands occupied illegally after the date of that agreement, the Government of El Salvador gives notice that it reserves the right to enforce the relevant legal provisions so as to ensure that the rule of law prevails. FMLN holds that the agrarian problem, including land occupations, should be dealt with through consultation and the channels and mechanisms provided by the peace agreements.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
Page 37, Chapter VII: Cessation of the Armed Conflict
1. The cessation of the armed conflict (hereinafter referred to as the CAC) is a brief, dynamic and irreversible process of predetermined duration which must be implemented throughout the national territory of El Salvador. During the CAC, there shall be no substantive negotiations but only the measures necessary to put into practice the agreements reached during the negotiating process.
2. The CAC shall begin on 1 February 1992 (hereinafter referred to as D-Day) and shall be completed on 31 October 1992.
3. The CAC consists of four elements, as defined herein:
a. The cease-fire;
b. The separation of forces;
c. The end of the military structure of FMLN and the reintegration of its members, within a framework of full legality, into the civil, political and institutional life of the country;
d. United Nations verification of all the abovementioned activities.
This chapter also includes agreements on the restoration of public administration in conflict zones and the use of the mass media to promote reconciliation (see annexes E and F).

The cease-fire
4. The cease-fire shall enter into force officially on D-Day.
5. As of that date, each of the parties shall, as appropriate, refrain from carrying out any hostile act or operation by means of forces or individuals under its control, meaning that neither party shall carry out any kind of attack by land, sea or air, organize patrols or offensive manoeuvres, occupy new positions, lay mines, interfere with military communications or carry out any kind of reconnaissance operations, acts of sabotage or any other military activity which, in the opinion of ONUSAL, might violate the cease- fire, or any act that infringes the rights of the civilian population.
6. Official verification of compliance with the undertaking described in the preceding paragraph shall begin on D-Day. Any alleged violation of the cease-fire shall be investigated by ONUSAL.
7. During the period between the signing of this Agreement and D-Day, the two parties shall observe an informal cease-fire under which they undertake not to carry out any of the activities described in paragraph 5.
8. ONUSAL shall deploy its personnel and equipment during the informal cease-fire period, so as to be able to verify all aspects of the CAC as of D-Day.
Police
Page 13, Chapter II: National Civil Police
[This chapter deals extensively with the establishment of a National Civil Police force:
Summary:
1. Establishment of the National Civil Police
2. Doctrine
3. Functional and Territorial Structure
4. Personnel
5. National Public Security Academy
6. Legal Regime
7.Transitional Regime]
Armed forces
Page 2, Chapter 1: Armed Forces
This Chapter deals extensively with the Armed Forces:
Summary:
1. Doctrinal Principles
2. Educational System of the Armed Forces
3. Purification
4. Reduction
5. End to impunity
6. Public security forces
7. Intelligence services
8. Rapid deployment infantry battalions
9. Subordination to civilian authority
10. Paramilitary bodies
11. Suspension of forcible recruitment
12. Preventative and promotional measures
13. Redeployment and discharge
DDR
DDR programmes
Page 37, Chapter VII: Cessation of the Armed Conflict
1. The cessation of the armed conflict (hereinafter referred to as the CAC) is a brief, dynamic and irreversible process of predetermined duration which must be implemented throughout the national territory of El Salvador. During the CAC, there shall be no substantive negotiations but only the measures necessary to put into practice the agreements reached during the negotiating process.

2. The CAC shall begin on 1 February 1992 (hereinafter referred to as D-Day) and shall be completed on 31 October 1992.
3. The CAC consists of four elements, as defined herein:
a. The cease-fire;
b. The separation of forces;
c. The end of the military structure of FMLN and the reintegration of its members, within a framework of full legality, into the civil, political and institutional life of the country;
d. United Nations verification of all the abovementioned activities.
This chapter also includes agreements on the restoration of public administration in conflict zones and the use of the mass media to promote reconciliation (see annexes E and F)...

Separation of forces

9. The purpose of the separation of forces is to reduce the risk of incidents, to build trust and to allow ONUSAL to verify both parties' compliance with this Agreement.

10. The separation of forces shall take place in two stages, so that the Salvadorian armed forces (FAES) fall back progressively from their present positions until deployed as they would normally be in peacetime and the FMLN forces are concentrated progressively in designated locations within conflict areas as determined in annex D.

11. During the first stage, which shall coincide with the five days following D-Day, FAES land forces shall go to the barracks, bases, existing semi-permanent facilities and other locations listed in annex A and FMLN forces, except for the combatants mentioned in paragraph 18, shall go to the places listed in annex B. The places listed in annexes A and B generally reflect the present deployment of the two parties' forces.

12. The movements described in the preceding paragraph shall be made under the supervision of ONUSAL. Neither party shall do anything to prevent or jeopardize the movement of the other party's forces during this period. ONUSAL military observers shall closely supervise all the places listed in annexes A and B and shall in principle be present 24 hours a day in each of those places as of D-Day.

13. During the period between D-Day + 6 days and D-Day + 30 days, FAES land forces shall fall back to their peacetime positions as listed in annex C and FMLN forces, except for the combatants mentioned in paragraph 18, shall fall back to the locations indicated in annex D. The precise designation of such locations shall be determined by the ONUSAL Chief Military Observer, in consultation with the two parties, during the informal cease- fire period.

14. The movements described in the preceding paragraph, which shall also be supervised by ONUSAL, shall be carried out according to phased programmes agreed between the ONUSAL Chief Military Observer and the two parties during the informal cease-fire period, through the joint working group to which reference is made in paragraph 32. During this task, the group shall be guided as appropriate by the agreed timetable for the implementation of the agreements reached.

15. As soon as possible after the signing of this Agreement but no later than two weeks before D-Day, the FAES shall transmit to the ONUSAL Chief Military Observer detailed information on the number of their troops and weapons to be concentrated in the places listed in annex A.

16. As soon as possible after the signing of this Agreement but no later than two weeks before D-Day, FMLN shall supply the ONUSAL Chief Military Observer with detailed information on its troop strength and inventories of arms, ammunition, mines, other explosives and military equipment located anywhere within the national territory. These arms, etc. shall be concentrated in the places listed in annex B, with the exception of those of its clandestine forces, which shall be concentrated in the places listed in annex D during the second stage of the separation of forces.

17. Upon completion of the first stage of the separation of forces, that is, as of D-Day + 6, ONUSAL shall verify that all troops and military equipment declared by the parties, other than the arms, etc. referred to in the last sentence of the preceding paragraph, have been concentrated in the locations listed in annexes A and B. ONUSAL shall investigate any report or allegation of the presence of troops or military equipment in any place other than those locations, apart from the movements authorized in paragraphs 20-22.

18. The arrangements just described relate to FAES land forces and FMLN forces as defined in paragraph 11. Although it is not possible, for practical reasons, to arrange a similar separation of clandestine forces, the latter shall remain fully subject to the undertaking to refrain from carrying out any hostile act or operation. As provided in paragraph 6, any alleged violation of this undertaking shall be investigated by ONUSAL.

19. As of D-Day, the naval and air force components of the FAES shall refrain from carrying out any offensive operation. They shall carry out only such non-hostile missions as are necessary for the discharge of their duties unrelated to the armed conflict. ONUSAL shall be advised in advance of all military flight plans. Such flights shall not be carried out over places where FMLN forces have been concentrated.

20. During the CAC period, ONUSAL liaison officers shall be posted in FAES units, bases and barracks to coordinate in advance the movements of FAES forces throughout the national territory and to verify that such movements will neither violate the cease-fire nor jeopardize in any other way the process of implementing this Agreement.

21. With special reference to FAES forces deployed near places where there are FMLN forces, in other words, those listed in appendix 1 to annex A and those listed in appendix 1 to annex C, the Government agrees that such forces shall be authorized to leave their locations only with the consent of ONUSAL and for the following purposes:

a. To carry out troop rotations and relief;

b. To carry out liaison and coordination activities between commands at battalion level and above;

c. To deliver logistical supplies;

d. To take part in programmes for the deactivation, removal and destruction of mines;

e. To go on leave or seek medical care or for other humanitarian reasons, individually, in civilian clothing and unarmed.

However, ONUSAL shall not grant permission for any movement, even in the above cases, if it believes that such movement could jeopardize the cease-fire or other aspects of this Agreement or disturb the process of détente and reconciliation. Forces that leave their locations for the purposes listed in paragraphs (a), (b), (c) and (d) shall be accompanied by ONUSAL, which shall verify that such movements are in keeping with this Agreement.

22. Similarly, during the CAC period ONUSAL liaison officers shall be posted in the listed locations where FMLN forces are to be concentrated in order to coordinate movements by those forces. FMLN agrees that its forces may leave the locations in question only with the consent of ONUSAL and for the following purposes:

a. To carry out liaison and coordination activities between its high command and the commands of the
forces stationed at the various locations indicated;

b. To supply provisions, clothing or vital necessities;

c. To take part in programmes for the deactivation, removal and destruction of mines;

d. To go on leave or seek medical care or for other humanitarian reasons, individually, in civilian clothing and unarmed.

However, ONUSAL shall not grant permission for any movement, even in the above cases, if it believes that such movement could jeopardize the cease-fire or other aspects of this Agreement or disturb the process of détente and reconciliation. Forces that leave their locations for the purposes listed in paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) shall be accompanied by ONUSAL, which shall verify that such movements are in keeping with this Agreement.

23. ONUSAL shall verify that the supplies delivered to each party do not include lethal articles. However, the FAES shall be allowed to maintain stocks of ammunition normal for peacetime. The mechanisms for such verification shall be established by the ONUSAL Chief Military Observer in consultation with the two parties.

24. During the cease-fire, COPAZ shall systematically evaluate the progress being made in implementing the Agreements. If it notes that a situation is developing which might result in a crisis, it shall draw such conclusions and make such recommendations as may be necessary to prevent a collapse of the cease-fire or a crisis of public order. It shall transmit its conclusions and recommendations to the Chief of ONUSAL.

25. Should a public order crisis occur despite the above provisions and if the normal means for the maintenance of domestic peace and public security have been exhausted, with the result that the President of the Republic deems it necessary to make use of the exceptional measures provided for in the amendment to article 168 (12) of the Constitution adopted in April 1991, the President shall, before giving the relevant order, inform the Chief of ONUSAL to enable him to make any appropriate remarks. The actions of the FAES under such circumstances shall be monitored closely by ONUSAL to ensure that they are consistent with all the peace Agreements.

End of the military structure of FMLN and reintegration of its members, within a framework of full legality, into the civil, institutional and political life of the country

26. Between D-Day + 6 and D-Day + 30, according to the phased programmes referred to in paragraph 14, FMLN shall concentrate in the 15 designated locations listed in annex D all arms, ammunition, mines, other explosives and military equipment belonging to its forces, both those concentrated during the first stage in the places listed in annex B and those belonging to its clandestine forces, and ONUSAL shall verify that they tally with the information given in the inventories it has received in accordance with paragraph 16.

27. In each of the 15 designated locations, all the arms and equipment mentioned above, save for the personal weapons and equipment of combatants present in the place, shall be kept in locked warehouses. Each warehouse shall have two locks, one key to which shall be kept by ONUSAL and the other by the FMLN commander in the place. ONUSAL shall verify the contents of such warehouses periodically to ensure that there has been no change in them.

28. During the CAC period, FMLN members shall keep their personal weapons and equipment as long as they remain in the designated locations. When they leave those places in order to be reintegrated, within a framework of full legality, into the civil, political and institutional life of the country, their personal weapons shall also be deposited in the locked warehouses referred to in the preceding paragraph. Combatants who are still in the designated locations when the programme for the destruction of arms, etc. provided for in the next paragraph begins, shall deposit their personal weapons and equipment in the locked warehouses, for verification by ONUSAL, immediately prior to their destruction according to a programme agreed with ONUSAL.

29. Between 15 and 31 October 1992, FMLN shall destroy all arms and equipment deposited in designated locations according to the arrangement described above, in the presence and under the sole supervision of ONUSAL and with its technical advice. Such destruction shall be carried out simultaneously in all 15 places designated for FMLN. FMLN shall dispose of the remains of the destroyed weapons.

United Nations verification

30. The numbers of ONUSAL military and civilian personnel shall be increased to enable it to fulfil its tasks related to the agreed processes, as described in this Agreement.

31. The Secretary-General shall request the Security Council to approve this increase in the mandate and personnel of ONUSAL. He shall also request the General Assembly to provide the necessary funding from the budget. The composition by country of the military component of ONUSAL and the appointment of the commander of its military division shall be decided by the Security Council on the recommendation of the Secretary-General, who shall first consult with the two parties. In order to fulfil its new tasks effectively, ONUSAL will require, as in the other aspects of its mandate, complete freedom of movement throughout the territory of El Salvador.

32. To facilitate the application of this Agreement, a joint working group shall be set up immediately after the Agreement has been signed. The working group shall consist of the ONUSAL Chief Military Observer, as Chairman, and one representative from each of the parties. The members of the working group may be accompanied by the necessary advisers. The Chairman of the working group shall convene its meetings on his own initiative or at the request of either or both of the parties.
Intelligence services
Page 7, 7. Intelligence services:

A. The National Intelligence Department shall be abolished and State intelligence services shall be entrusted to a new entity to be called the State Intelligence Agency, which shall be subordinated to civilian authority and come under the direct authority of the President of the Republic. During the transitional period, the Director of the State Intelligence Agency shall be a civilian appointed by the President of the Republic on the basis of his ability to attract broad acceptance. He may be dismissed by resolution of the Legislative Assembly on grounds of serious human rights violations.

B. The legal regime, staff training, organizational lines, operational guidelines and, in general, the doctrine of the State Intelligence Agency shall accord with democratic principles; the concept of State intelligence as a State function for the common good, free from all considerations of politics, ideology or social position or any other discrimination; and strict respect for human rights.

C. TheactivitiesoftheStateIntelligenceAgencyshallberestrictedtothoserequired for compiling and analysing information in the general interest, by the means and within the limits authorized by the legal order and, in particular, on the basis of strict respect for human rights.

D. The activities of the State Intelligence Agency shall be supervised by the Legislative Assembly, using the oversight mechanisms established by the Constitution.

E. Alternative employment and compensation shall be offered to staff currently attached to the National Intelligence Department who are not incorporated into the new State Intelligence Agency. International support shall be sought for that purpose.

F. The incorporation into the State Intelligence Agency of staff of the National Intelligence Department who so request shall be permitted only after rigorous evaluation of their past performance, abilities and capacity to adapt to the new doctrine. Such evaluation shall be made by the Director of the Agency, under the authority of the President of the Republic, with the support of international advisory services and United Nations verification.

G. The State Intelligence Agency shall be organized by its Director, under the authority of the President of the Republic.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 41, Chapter VII: Cessation of the Armed Conflict
End of the military structure of FMLN and reintegration of its members, within a framework of full legality, into the civil, institutional and political life of the country

26. Between D-Day + 6 and D-Day + 30, according to the phased programmes referred to in paragraph 14, FMLN shall concentrate in the 15 designated locations listed in annex D all arms, ammunition, mines, other explosives and military equipment belonging to its forces, both those concentrated during the first stage in the places listed in annex B and those belonging to its clandestine forces, and ONUSAL shall verify that they tally with the information given in the inventories it has received in accordance with paragraph 16.

27. In each of the 15 designated locations, all the arms and equipment mentioned above, save for the personal weapons and equipment of combatants present in the place, shall be kept in locked warehouses. Each warehouse shall have two locks, one key to which shall be kept by ONUSAL and the other by the FMLN commander in the place. ONUSAL shall verify the contents of such warehouses periodically to ensure that there has been no change in them.

28. During the CAC period, FMLN members shall keep their personal weapons and equipment as long as they remain in the designated locations. When they leave those places in order to be reintegrated, within a framework of full legality, into the civil, political and institutional life of the country, their personal weapons shall also be deposited in the locked warehouses referred to in the preceding paragraph. Combatants who are still in the designated locations when the programme for the destruction of arms, etc. provided for in the next paragraph begins, shall deposit their personal weapons and equipment in the locked warehouses, for verification by ONUSAL, immediately prior to their destruction according to a programme agreed with ONUSAL.

29. Between 15 and 31 October 1992, FMLN shall destroy all arms and equipment deposited in designated locations according to the arrangement described above, in the presence and under the sole supervision of ONUSAL and with its technical advice. Such destruction shall be carried out simultaneously in all 15 places designated for FMLN. FMLN shall dispose of the remains of the destroyed weapons.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
Page 6, Chapter I: Armed Forces
5. End to impunity
The Parties recognize the need to clarify and put an end to any indication of impunity on the part of officers of the armed forces, particularly in cases where respect for human rights is jeopardized. To that end, the Parties refer this issue to the Commission on the Truth for consideration and resolution. All of this shall be without prejudice to the principle, which the Parties also recognize, that acts of this nature, regardless of the sector to which their perpetrators belong, must be the object of exemplary action by the law courts so that the punishment prescribed by law is meted out to those found responsible.
Prisoner release
Page 36, Chapter VI: Political Participation by FMLN
The following agreements have been reached concerning political participation by FMLN, and shall be subject to the implementation timetable contained in this Agreement:
... 2. Freedom for all political prisoners.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
Page 38, Chapter V: Economic and Social Questions
National Reconstruction Plan:
... The National Reconstruction Plan shall also include programme for the war-disabled and the relatives of victims among the civilian population.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
Page 26, Chapter II: National Civil Police, 7. Transitional regime, D. Personnel
i. Without prejudice to the provisions of the preceding paragraph, zones that were traditionally conflict zones during the armed conflict shall be the object of special treatment designed to promote national reconciliation and stability during the transition. Such treatment shall involve the formation of police units comprising personnel of different origins who have graduated from the National Public Security Academy. The chiefs of the corresponding delegations shall be appointed following consultations with the advisory commission of COPAZ.

Implementation

UN signatory
Boutros Boutros-Ghali, UNSG (signatory, capacity unclear)
Submitted to UNSC by Permanent Representative of El Salvador to UN.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 42, Chapter VII: Cessation of the Armed Conflict
United Nations verification
30. The numbers of ONUSAL military and civilian personnel shall be increased to enable it to fulfil its tasks related to the agreed processes, as described in this Agreement.

31. The Secretary-General shall request the Security Council to approve this increase in the mandate and personnel of ONUSAL. He shall also request the General Assembly to provide the necessary funding from the budget. The composition by country of the military component of ONUSAL and the appointment of the commander of its military division shall be decided by the Security Council on the recommendation of the Secretary-General, who shall first consult with the two parties. In order to fulfil its new tasks effectively, ONUSAL will require, as in the other aspects of its mandate, complete freedom of movement throughout the territory of El Salvador.

32. To facilitate the application of this Agreement, a joint working group shall be set up immediately after the Agreement has been signed. The working group shall consist of the ONUSAL Chief Military Observer, as Chairman, and one representative from each of the parties. The members of the working group may be accompanied by the necessary advisers. The Chairman of the working group shall convene its meetings on his own initiative or at the request of either or both of the parties.
Enforcement mechanism
Page 43, Chapter VIII: United Nations Verification

1. The United Nations shall verify compliance with this Agreement and with the San José, Mexico City and New York Agreements of 26 July 1990, 27 April 1991 and 25 September 1991, respectively, with the cooperation of the Parties and of the authorities whose duty it is to enforce them.

2. The international cooperation referred to in this Agreement shall be coordinated by the United Nations and shall be subject to a formal application by the Government, compliance with official formalities and the appropriate consultations.

The University of Edinburgh