Country/entity
Afghanistan
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Peshawar Accord
Date
24/04/1992
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
Yes
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Afghan Wars (1979 - )
The agreements are drawn from two distinct conflict periods. Post Soviet-intervention period. First, after an uprising against the communist government, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in December 1979 and set up a puppet government. Fierce resistance came in on the form of domestic and foreign Mujahidin fighters who, by 1988, forced the Soviet Union to withdraw. The Communist government that remained was defeated in 1992 against a background of violence, which spiralled into a tumultuous multi-party civil war with a strong tribal basis. In 1993 a peace accord was signed, but by 1994 the conflict realigned itself as the Islamic-based Taliban emerged from the refugee camps, eventually occupying the capital city of Kabul in September 1996 spurring groups that had militantly opposed the communist government to unite in opposition to the Taliban.

Post US-intervention period. After the terror attacks on September 11, 2001, the United States invaded Afghanistan and removed the Taliban from power. In December 2001, the UNSC mandated the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to assist Afghanistan’s interim authorities. In 2003 ISAF command was placed under NATO’s responsibility. Within three years, however, the Taliban managed to re-group and re-structure and launched intense resistance to the internationally-recognized Afghanistan government and NATO support troops. Despite this resurgence of the Taliban, NATO leaders lacked the necessary support for the mission abroad, and NATO troops were withdrawn by the end of 2014.
Afghan Wars (1979 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
1: Afghanistan: 1990s Taliban process
Parties
Not signed, agreement mentions the following parties: Hazrat Sahib Sibghatullah Mojaddedi, Professor Burhan ud-Din Rabbani, Hizb-e-Islami, Ittehad-e-Islami, Hizb-e-Islami, National Islamic Front, Jamiat-e-Islami, Harkat-e-Inquilab-e-Islami, Hizb-e-Wahdat, Shura-e-Etelaf, Maulvi Mansoor
Third parties
Description
This short agreement provides for the formation of the Islamic State of Afghanistan, with an interim government divided between the Mujahideen political Tanzim (party) groups. It outlines the structure and process for the provisional period.

Agreement document
AF_920424_PeshawarAccord.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
Temporary new institutions
Page 1, Article 1
It was decided that a 51 persons body, headed by Hazrat Sahib Sibghatullah Mojaddedi, would go inside Afghanistan so that they could take over power from the present rulers of Kabul, completely and without any terms and conditions during the two months period. The head of this body will also represent the Presidentship of the State during these two months. After this period, this body will remain as an interim Islamic Council, along with the Transitional State and its Chairmanship will be held by Hazrat Sahib. The period of this Council, will also be for four (4) months.

Page 2, Article 12
12. The total period of this process will be six months. As regards to Transitional Government, the Islamic Council, will make unanimous decision. The period of this Transitional Government will be two (2) years.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
State level
Summary: The agreement in its entirety outlines the allocation of interim governmental posts and ministries to the conflicted parties.
Executive coalition
Page 1,

The structure and process for the provisional period of the Islamic State of Afghanistan, was formed as under:

Article 1
It was decided that a 51 persons body, headed by Hazrat Sahib Sibghatullah Mojaddedi, would go inside Afghanistan so that they could take over power from the present rulers of Kabul, completely and without any terms and conditions during the two months period. The head of this body will also represent the Presidentship of the State during these two months. After this period, this body will remain as an interim Islamic Council, along with the Transitional State and its Chairmanship will be held by Hazrat Sahib. The period of this Council, will also be for four (4) months.

Pages 1-2
5. The Prime Ministership was assigned to the Hizb-e-Islami, Afghanistan.

6. The Deputy Prime Ministership and the Ministry of Interior, to Ittehad-e-Islami, Afghanistan.

7. The Deputy Prime Ministership and the Ministry of Education, to Hizb-e-Islamic of Maulvi Khalis.

8. The Deputy Prime Ministership and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the National Islamic Front.

9. The Ministry of Defence to Jamiat-e-Islami, Afghanistan.

10. The Supreme Court to Harkat-e-Inqilab-e-Islami Organization. 11. It was also decided that the Leadership Council, in additional to making the division of appointments in the Ministries, will also determine Ministries for Hizb-e-Wahdat, Shura-e-Etelaf (Council of Coalition) Maulvi Mansoor and other brothers.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
No specific mention.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh