Preliminary Agreement on National Reconciliation Pact

Country/entity
Central African Republic
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Preliminary Agreement on National Reconciliation Pact
Date
18/01/1997
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - )
The Central African Republic conflict is one of a set of regionally connected conflicts addressed by the Great Lakes process. Since the mid-1990s several waves of internal conflict took place in the Central African Republic, primarily along tribal, and later-on increasingly sectarian, lines. In 1996 and 1997, French troops and soldiers from neighbouring countries intervened to end a mutiny in the capital, Bangui, by factions of the army. The fighting was predominantly along tribal lines, with southern tribes in revolt against the ‘northern’ government. A UN mission was installed in 1998 to secure the truce.

After General Bozizé took control of the country after several coup attempts in 2003, a ‘bush war’ began led by armed opposition forces. From late 2006 onward, government troops with French military support severely weakened the rebels. Following this, a number of agreements were signed during 2007-2008, but not all factions have accepted them. In 2011, Bozizé was re-elected in supposedly fraudulent elections, which resulted in a new wave of uprisings. Séléka, an alliance of northern rebel groups, took over parts of the country and forced Bozizé to agree to a power-sharing deal. However, after this agreement broke down, Séléka took control of Bangui and Bozizé had to flee the country.

Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - ) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Principles)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
16: CAR: Bangui process
Parties
Political parties:
(Signed)
ADP
FC
CN
FPP
ELAN
GILA-MND
MDD
MDI/S
MDREC
MESAN
MESAN/B
MLPC
MNR
PCD
MSCA
PLD
PARELI
PRC
UNDRP
RDC
UNDD
UDR/FK
UPDES
UPR

Trade unions:
CNTC USTC
USTC
USTC

Civil society:
(a) Religious denominations:
AEEC
(b) Human rights, justice and
CECA
democracy:
CICA
ACAT
LCDH
AFJC
MDDH
GERDES
OCDH

(c) National organizations:
JEUNESSE OFCA

(d) Occupational organizations: UNPC

Notes
a Complete names of political parties, trade unions and members of civil society signatories to
this Agreement:

ACAT Association Centrafricaine de Lutte contre la Torture et l'Abolition de la Peina de Mort

ADP Alliance pour la Démocratie et le Progrès

AEEC Association des Eglises Evangéliques Centrafricaines AFJC Association des Femmes
juristes de Centrafrique
CCTC Confédération Chrétienne des Travailleurs Centrafricains CECA Conférence Episcopale
Centrafricaine
CICA Communauté Islamique Centrafricaine CN Convention Nationale
CNTC Confédération Nationale des Travailleurs Centrafricains

CSTC Confédération Syndicale des Travailleurs Centrafricains ELAN Effort Libéral en Afrique
Noire
FC Forum Civique

FPP Front Patriotique pour le Progès

GERDDES Groupement d'Etudes et de Recherches pour la Démocratie et le Développement Economique et
Social

GILA/MND GILA-Mouvement National pour la Démocratie JEUNESSE Comité Ad Hoc de la Jeunesse
LCDH Ligue Centrafricaine des Droits de l'Homme

MDD Mouvement pour la Démocratie et le Développement

MDDH Mouvement pour la Défense des Droits de l'Homme

MDI/PS Mouvement pour la Démocratie, l'Indépendance et le Progrès Social MDREC Mouvement pour
la Démocratie en République Centrafricaine
MESAN Mouvement d'Evolution Sociale de l'Afrique Noire

MESAN/B Mouvement d'Evolution Sociale de l'Afrique Noire/Barthélémy Boganda

MLPC Mouvement de Libération du Peuple Centrafricain MNR Mouvement de National pour le
Renouveau
MSCA Mouvement Socialiste Centrafricain

OCDH Observatoire Centrafricain des Droits de l'Homme OFCA Organisation des Femmes
Centrafricaines
OSLP Organisation des Syndicats Libres des Secteurs Public, Para-Public et Privé

PARELI Parti Républicain Libéral

UNPC Union Nationale du Patronat Centrafricain PCD Parti Chrétien Démocrate
PLD Parti Libéral Democrate

PRC Parti Républicain Centrafricain PSD Parti Social Démocrate
RDC Rassemblement du Peuple Centrafricain UND/FK Union Démocratie Républicaine/Fini Kodro
UDRP Union pour la Démocratie et le Renouveau Panafricain UNDD Union Nationale pour la
Défense de la Démocratie
UPDES Union du Peuple pour le Développement Economique et Social UPR Union pour la
République
USTC Union Syndicale des Travailleurs de Centrafrique
Third parties
Description
Agreement amongst political parties and civil society organisations to support work of the Committee on Consensus-building and Dialogue, and the International Monitoring Commission, and to participate fully in the meeting of the National Reconciliation Conference to be organized. The general report of the work of the Committee on Consensus-Building and Dialogue and the report of the Political and Institutional Commission, the Security and Social Commission, and the National Reconciliation and Reparation Commission are attached to the Agreement as enforceable clauses.

Agreement document
CF_970118_PreliminaryAgreementonNationalReconciliationPact.pdf

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
Sexual orientation
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
Page 2, Article 1
We, the signatories to this Agreement, have resolved to respect constitutional legality and to safeguard the democratic process threatened by the grave socio-economic and political crisis and the disastrous consequences of various rebellions.

Page 8, I. POLITICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL MEASURES, Paragraph 11
One of the focal points of the debates was the revision of certain articles of the Constitution. The participants recommended a re-reading of the Basic Law.

Page 8, I. POLITICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL MEASURES, Paragraph 13
The participants decided to make an appeal for respect for the Constitution, for constitutional legality, for the institutions, laws and regulations of the Republic and for democratic principles and human rights. No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
Page 7
1. With regard to the address by the head of State on 31 December 1996, the participants welcomed the announcement of a voting timetable, but they felt there was first a need to revise the electoral code to take into account the municipal elections. It was recommended that an independent, joint electoral commission should be set up whose function it would be to specify the timetable, taking into account the availability of funding and the level of security prevailing in the country. No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
Pg 4-9, agreement signed by a range of civil society groups. No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 1, UNTITLED PREAMBLE
...
Desirous of reinforcing the democratic process and the rule of law, of ensuring respect for human rights, of safeguarding the achievements of Central African democracy and of preserving peace and national unity
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
Page 1, UNTITLED PREAMBLE
...
Desirous of reinforcing the democratic process and the rule of law, of ensuring respect for human rights, of safeguarding the achievements of Central African democracy and of preserving peace and national unity

Page 2, Article 1
We, the signatories to this Agreement, have resolved to respect constitutional legality and to safeguard the democratic process threatened by the grave socio-economic and political crisis and the disastrous consequences of various rebellions. No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
Page 1, UNTITLED PREAMBLE
...
Desirous of reinforcing the democratic process and the rule of law, of ensuring respect for human rights, of safeguarding the achievements of Central African democracy and of preserving peace and national unity

Page 2, Article 4
We undertake to participate fully in the meetings of the National Reconciliation Conference to be organized.

[Summary - Page 8-9: The Section II of the General report of the Committee on Consensus-building and Dialogue provides for national reconciliation measures in its entirety. Reconciliation is defines as measures based on the principles of good governance, in particular skilful management of human and financial resources, transparency, the banning of impunity, the establishment of accountability and respect for human rights, so that a true culture of peace and democracy could take root in the country.] No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 2, Article 3
We request that the International Monitoring Committee be retained so as to ensure strict respect for the recommendations of the Committee on Consensus- building and Dialogue.
In the case of non-compliance by one of the parties to this Agreement, any party having a complaint may resort to the arbitration of the International Monitoring Committee. No specific mention.
Enforcement mechanism
Page 1, UNTITLED PREAMBLE
...
Considering the establishment, following this mission, of the International Monitoring committee to supervise the implementation of the measures contained in the final communique of 8 December 1996 and to help find a peaceful and lasting solution to the Central African crisis, and in view of the positive results achieved

Page 2, Article 3
We request that the International Monitoring Committee be retained so as to ensure strict respect for the recommendations of the Committee on Consensus- building and Dialogue.
In the case of non-compliance by one of the parties to this Agreement, any party having a complaint may resort to the arbitration of the International Monitoring Committee. No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh