Accord de Paix Global entre le Gouvernement de la République Centrafricaine et les Mouvements Politico-Militaires Centrafricains désignés ci après : Armée Populaire pour la Restauration de la Démocratie (APRD), Front Démocratique du Peuple Centrafricain (FDPC), Union des Forces Démocratique pour le Rassemblement (UFDR)

Country/entity
Central African Republic
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Accord de Paix Global entre le Gouvernement de la République Centrafricaine et les Mouvements Politico-Militaires Centrafricains désignés ci après : Armée Populaire pour la Restauration de la Démocratie (APRD), Front Démocratique du Peuple Centrafricain (FDPC), Union des Forces Démocratique pour le Rassemblement (UFDR)
Date
21/06/2008
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - )
The Central African Republic conflict is one of a set of regionally connected conflicts addressed by the Great Lakes process. Since the mid-1990s several waves of internal conflict took place in the Central African Republic, primarily along tribal, and later-on increasingly sectarian, lines. In 1996 and 1997, French troops and soldiers from neighbouring countries intervened to end a mutiny in the capital, Bangui, by factions of the army. The fighting was predominantly along tribal lines, with southern tribes in revolt against the ‘northern’ government. A UN mission was installed in 1998 to secure the truce.

After General Bozizé took control of the country after several coup attempts in 2003, a ‘bush war’ began led by armed opposition forces. From late 2006 onward, government troops with French military support severely weakened the rebels. Following this, a number of agreements were signed during 2007-2008, but not all factions have accepted them. In 2011, Bozizé was re-elected in supposedly fraudulent elections, which resulted in a new wave of uprisings. Séléka, an alliance of northern rebel groups, took over parts of the country and forced Bozizé to agree to a power-sharing deal. However, after this agreement broke down, Séléka took control of Bangui and Bozizé had to flee the country.

Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - ) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Mixed)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
17: CAR: coups and rebellions process
Does this need new name?
Parties
Ont signé:
Pour le Gouvernement Centrafricain, S.E.M le Ministre de la Communication, du Civisme, du Dialogue et de la Reconciliation Nationale, Cyriaque Gonda
Pour L'A.P.R.D, Jean-Jacques DEMAFOUTH
Pour l'UFDR, Zakaria DAMANE
Pour le FDPC, (unsigned)
Pour le Président de la République Gabonaise, Président du Comité ad hoc, dans l'espace CEMAC, sur les questions centrafricaines, S.E.Mme le Ministre des Affaires Etrangères,de la Coopération, de la Francophonie et de l'intégration Régionale, P.O. S.E.M. le Ministre Délégué, Noel Nelson MESSONE.
Third parties
In the presence of:
- His Excellency El Hadj Omar BONGO ONDIMBA, President of the Republic of Gabon, President of the CEMAC Ad Hoc Committee on the Central African questions
- His Excellency Francois BOZIZE, President of the Central African Republic

And of:
- S.E.M Ambassador Francois Lonseny FALL, Special Representative of the UN Security General in CAR
- Master Djovi GALLY, Special Envoy of the Francophone Security General in CAR
- General Xavier Sylvestre YANGONGO, Representative of the Public Powers
- Honorable Laurent GOMINA-PAMPALI, Representative of the Presidential Majority
- Master Henri POUZERE, Representative of the Democratic Opposition
- Master Bruno Hyacinthe GBIEGBA, Representation of Civil Society.
Description
This agreement is on an amnesty law, the parties reiterate the commitment to the ceasefire, rehabilitation, the concentration of combatants in safe zones followed by decommissioning of weapons and reinsertion with the help of the international community, after the declaration of amnesty the combatants will be placed under protection of a multinational force. They agree on political representation to advance a politically inclusive dialogue, a committee is created with representatives of the groups, Gabon, government, UN Special Representative and representative from the Francophonie. In case of differences on how to implement the agreement, the Committee will be consulted.

Agreement document
CF_080621_AccorddePaixGlobal_tr.pdf

Agreement document (original language)
CF_Accord de Paix Global entre le Gouvernement et APRD, FDPC, UFDR_2008.pdf

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
Page 1, PREAMBLE
...
Considering the unwavering desire of His Excellency, Army General François BOZIZE, President of the Republic, Head of State, reiterated in his speech to the nation of December 31, 2006, to promote tolerance, dialogue and reconciliation among all the daughters and sons of Africa No specific mention.
Men and boys
Gender neutral wording
Page 1, PREAMBLE
...
Considering the unwavering desire of His Excellency, Army General François BOZIZE, President of the Republic, Head of State, reiterated in his speech to the nation of December 31, 2006, to promote tolerance, dialogue and reconciliation among all the daughters and sons of Africa
No specific mention.
Sexual orientation
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
Rebels transitioning to political parties
Page 2, Article 6
The principle of participation of the representatives of Politico-Military Movements who are signatories to the Global Peace Accord, in the management of Government business, in a spirit of national reconciliation, following the Inclusive Political Dialogue.
No specific mention.
Civil society
Page 1, PREAMBLE
...
Considering the desire of every political actor and every member of civil society in Central Africa to participate in the Inclusive Political Dialogue

Page 2, Article 7
The signatories will establish a Committee to monitor implementation of the present Agreement, comprised of:
...
- The Representative of the International Organisation of La Francophonie.

Page 4, Signed . ..

In the presence of:
. ..
- Master Bruno Hyacinthe GBIEGBA, Representation of Civil Society. No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
State level
Limited State level power-sharing is provided, see below.
Executive coalition
Article 6: The principle of participation of the representatives of Politico-­‐Military
Movements who are signatories to the Global Peace Accord, in the management of Government business, in a spirit of national reconciliation, following the Inclusive Political Dialogue.
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
Merger of forces
Page 2, Article 3
The reinstatement of the rights of Central African military personnel expelled as a result of the rebellion, and of civilian personnel of the APRD, the FDPC and the UFDR, to their original training units.

Page 2, Article 5
As soon as the law of general amnesty and liberation of prisoners is promulgated, APRD, FDPC and UFDR combatants will be officially placed under the protection of the Multinational Force (FOMUC) and the Central African Armed Forces (FACA).
Proportionality
Page 4, Article 7: The signatories will establish a Committee to monitor implementation of the
present Agreement, comprised of:
- One (1) Representative of the Republic of Gabon;
- Three (3) Representatives of the Central African Government;
- Three (3) Representatives of the Politico-­‐Military Movements;
- The Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary-­‐General;
- The Representative of the International Organisation of La Francophonie.

If they agree, the Monitoring Committee may be expanded to include representatives from the
following organisations:
• CEMAC
• FOMUC/FOMAC

Page 5,
• CEEAC
• CEN-­‐SAD
• the African Union
• the European Union.

Article 8:
The Gabonese Government is responsible for contacting the organisations listed in the second part of Article 7, and for convening the first meeting of the Monitoring Committee, no later than one month after signature of the Global Peace Agreement.
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 1, PREAMBLE
...
Determined to consolidate rule of law, and of Good Governance, with its corollary of social progress, and full legal entitlement to fundamental liberties No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
Other
Page 3,

Article 5: As soon as the law of general amnesty and liberation of prisoners is promulgated, APRD, FDPC and UFDR combatants will be officially placed under the protection of the Multinational Force (FOMUC) and the Central African Armed Forces (FACA).
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
Page 2, Article 1
Confirm their agreement to respect the ceasefire already established in previous agreements
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
DDR programmes
Page 2, Article 4
The confinement of APRD, FDPC, and UFDR troops in their present zones, followed by a process of demobilisation, disarmament and reinsertion with the support of the International Community. These sites will be determined by mutual agreement between the parties.
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 1, PREAMBLE
...
In light of the Libreville Ceasefire and Peace Agreement signed on May 9, 2008, between the Government of the Central African Republic and the Popular Army for the Restoration of Democracy

Page 1, PREAMBLE
...
In light of the Birao Peace Agreement signed on April 13, 2007, between the Government of the Central African Republic and the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity

Page 1, PREAMBLE
...
In light of the Peace Agreement signed at Sirte in Libya on February 2, 2007, between the Government of the Central African Republic and the Democratic Front of the Central African People;

Page 2, Article 2
The promulgation of a law of general amnesty for military personnel, combatants and civilians from the APRD, FDPC, and UFDR, for crimes and offences currently under trial in the national jurisdictions of Central Africa, other than those referred to the International Criminal Court.

Page 2, Article 3
The reinstatement of the rights of Central African military personnel expelled as a result of the rebellion, and of civilian personnel of the APRD, the FDPC and the UFDR, to their original training units.

Page 2, Article 4
The confinement of APRD, FDPC, and UFDR troops in their present zones, followed by a process of demobilisation, disarmament and reinsertion with the support of the International Community. These sites will be determined by mutual agreement between the parties.

Page 2, Article 5
As soon as the law of general amnesty and liberation of prisoners is promulgated, APRD, FDPC and UFDR combatants will be officially placed under the protection of the Multinational Force (FOMUC) and the Central African Armed Forces (FACA).

Page 2, Article 6
The principle of participation of the representatives of Politico-Military Movements who are signatories to the Global Peace Accord, in the management of Government business, in a spirit of national reconciliation, following the Inclusive Political Dialogue.

Page 2, Article 7
The signatories will establish a Committee to monitor implementation of the present Agreement, comprised of:
...
- Three (3) Representatives of the Politico-Military Movements; No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
Amnesty/pardon proper (indefinite)
Page 2, Article 2
The promulgation of a law of general amnesty for military personnel, combatants and civilians from the APRD, FDPC, and UFDR, for crimes and offences currently under trial in the national jurisdictions of Central Africa, other than those referred to the International Criminal Court.

Page 2, Article 5:
As soon as the law of general amnesty and liberation of prisoners is promulgated, APRD, FDPC and UFDR combatants will be officially placed under the protection of the Multinational Force (FOMUC) and the Central African Armed Forces (FACA).
Relief of other sanctions
Page 2, Article 3:
The reinstatement of the rights of Central African military personnel expelled as a result of the rebellion, and of civilian personnel of the APRD, the FDPC and the UFDR, to their original training units.
No specific mention.
Courts
International courts
Page 2, Article 2
The promulgation of a law of general amnesty for military personnel, combatants and civilians from the APRD, FDPC, and UFDR, for crimes and offences currently under trial in the national jurisdictions of Central Africa, other than those referred to the International Criminal Court.
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
Page 2, Article 5
As soon as the law of general amnesty and liberation of prisoners is promulgated, APRD, FDPC and UFDR combatants will be officially placed under the protection of the Multinational Force (FOMUC) and the Central African Armed Forces (FACA). No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
Page 1, PREAMBLE
...
Considering the unwavering desire of His Excellency, Army General François BOZIZE, President of the Republic, Head of State, reiterated in his speech to the nation of December 31, 2006, to promote tolerance, dialogue and reconciliation among all the daughters and sons of Africa

Page 2, Article 6
The principle of participation of the representatives of Politico-Military Movements who are signatories to the Global Peace Accord, in the management of Government business, in a spirit of national reconciliation, following the Inclusive Political Dialogue. No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
Agreement signed in presence of Special Representative of UN Secretary General, SEM L’Ambassadeur Francois Lonsény FALL, Représentant Spécial du Secrétaire Général des Nations Unies en Centrafrique. No specific mention.
Other international signatory
In the presence of:
- His Excellency El Hadj Omar BONGO ONDIMBA, President of the Republic of Gabon, President of the CEMAC Ad Hoc Committee on the Central African questions
- His Excellency Francois BOZIZE, President of the Central African Republic

And of:
- S.E.M Ambassador Francois Lonseny FALL, Special Representative of the UN Security General in CAR
- Master Djovi GALLY, Special Envoy of the Francophone Security General in CAR
. . . No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 2, Article 4
The confinement of APRD, FDPC, and UFDR troops in their present zones, followed by a process of demobilisation, disarmament and reinsertion with the support of the International Community. These sites will be determined by mutual agreement between the parties.

Page 2, Article 5
As soon as the law of general amnesty and liberation of prisoners is promulgated, APRD, FDPC and UFDR combatants will be officially placed under the protection of the Multinational Force (FOMUC) and the Central African Armed Forces (FACA).

Page 2, Article 7
The signatories will establish a Committee to monitor implementation of the present Agreement, comprised of:
- One (1) Representative of the Republic of Gabon;
- Three (3) Representatives of the Central African Government;
- Three (3) Representatives of the Politico-Military Movements;
- The Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary-General;
- The Representative of the International Organisation of La Francophonie.
If they agree, the Monitoring Committee may be expanded to include representatives from the following organisations:
• CEMAC
• FOMUC/FOMAC
• CEEAC
• CEN-SAD
• the African Union
• the European Union

Page 3, Article 8
The Gabonese Government is responsible for contacting the organisations listed in the second part of Article 7, and for convening the first meeting of the Monitoring Committee, no later than one month after signature of the Global Peace Agreement. No specific mention.
Enforcement mechanism
Page 2, Article 7
The signatories will establish a Committee to monitor implementation of the present Agreement, comprised of:
- One (1) Representative of the Republic of Gabon;
- Three (3) Representatives of the Central African Government;
- Three (3) Representatives of the Politico-Military Movements;
- The Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary-General;
- The Representative of the International Organisation of La Francophonie.
If they agree, the Monitoring Committee may be expanded to include representatives from the following organisations:
• CEMAC
• FOMUC/FOMAC
• CEEAC
• CEN-SAD
• the African Union
• the European Union

Page 3, Article 8
The Gabonese Government is responsible for contacting the organisations listed in the second part of Article 7, and for convening the first meeting of the Monitoring Committee, no later than one month after signature of the Global Peace Agreement.

Page 3, Article 9
In case of any disagreement on the implementation of the present Agreement, either of the parties may appeal to the Monitoring Committee. If disagreement persists despite the efforts of the Committee, either party may appeal to the President of the CEMAC space Ad Hoc Committee on Central African questions, whose judgement is final. No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh