Accord de Paix entre le Gouvernement de la République Centrafricaine et les Mouvements Politico-Militaires ci-après designés: FDPC et UFDR (Syrte Agreement)

Country/entity
Central African Republic
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Accord de Paix entre le Gouvernement de la République Centrafricaine et les Mouvements Politico-Militaires ci-après designés: FDPC et UFDR (Syrte Agreement)
Date
02/02/2007
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - )
The Central African Republic conflict is one of a set of regionally connected conflicts addressed by the Great Lakes process. Since the mid-1990s several waves of internal conflict took place in the Central African Republic, primarily along tribal, and later-on increasingly sectarian, lines. In 1996 and 1997, French troops and soldiers from neighbouring countries intervened to end a mutiny in the capital, Bangui, by factions of the army. The fighting was predominantly along tribal lines, with southern tribes in revolt against the ‘northern’ government. A UN mission was installed in 1998 to secure the truce.

After General Bozizé took control of the country after several coup attempts in 2003, a ‘bush war’ began led by armed opposition forces. From late 2006 onward, government troops with French military support severely weakened the rebels. Following this, a number of agreements were signed during 2007-2008, but not all factions have accepted them. In 2011, Bozizé was re-elected in supposedly fraudulent elections, which resulted in a new wave of uprisings. Séléka, an alliance of northern rebel groups, took over parts of the country and forced Bozizé to agree to a power-sharing deal. However, after this agreement broke down, Séléka took control of Bangui and Bozizé had to flee the country.

Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - ) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Related)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
17: CAR coups and rebellions process
Parties
Pour le Gouvernement de la République Centrafricain, S.E Paul OTTO, Ministre de la Justice, Garde des Sceaux
Pour Le Front Démocratique du Peuple Centrafricain, Abdoulaye MISKINE, Président du FDPC
Pour L'Union des Forces Démocratiques pour le Rassemblement: (signature unclear)
Third parties
EN PRESENCE DE:
Pour La République du Tchad, Tchonai Elimi Hasson
Pour La Grande Jamahiriya Arabe-Libyenne, Populaire et Socialiste, A.M. Shalgam



mediated by the communauté d'Etat Cen-Sad (Khadafi representing them)
Description
This agreement is identical in wording to the previous Birao Agreement, minus the last two articles (only one of which is substantive, relating to the ability of both partners to withdraw from the ageement in the event of its flagrant violation by the other, Article 9). The agreement was necessary due to the bombing of the UNFDR headquarters by French Mirage jets after the Birao Agreement, which accordingly could be argued to have cancelled the Birao agreement. It therefore covers the immediate cessation of hostilities including hostile media campaigns; DDR; the conditions for the return of displaced people; the release of political prisoners; the participation of the groups in the management of the state; the establishment of an implementation commission; and mechanisms for dealing with differences in interpretation and failure to comly with the agreement.

Agreement document
CF_070202_Accord de Paix entre le Gouvernement et FDPC UFDR_2007_tr.pdf

Agreement document (original language)
CF_070202_Accord de Paix entre le Gouvernement et FDPC UFDR_2007 (French).pdf

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
Substantive
Page 2, Article 3
The implementation of an urgent and top priority programme to:
... 3. Create the conditions needed to return, reinstall and reinsert all persons displaced by the conflict.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
Page 2, PREAMBLE
...
• Considering the unwavering desire of His Excellency, Army General François BOZIZE, President of the Republic, Head of State, reiterated in his speech to the nation of December 31, 2006, to promote tolerance, dialogue and reconciliation among all the daughters and sons of Central Africa
Men and boys
Gender neutral wording
Page 2, PREAMBLE
...
• Considering the unwavering desire of His Excellency, Army General François BOZIZE, President of the Republic, Head of State, reiterated in his speech to the nation of December 31, 2006, to promote tolerance, dialogue and reconciliation among all the daughters and sons of Central Africa
Sexual orientation
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
Page 3, Article 5
The Democratic Front of the Central African People and the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity shall participate in the management of State business, in a spirit of reconciliation and in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
Page 3, Article 5
The Democratic Front of the Central African People and the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity shall participate in the management of State business, in a spirit of reconciliation and in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
Page 3, Article 3
...
2. The rights of expelled Central African military personnel, and of civil servants of the Democratic Front of the Central African People and of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity, shall be reinstated, in their original training and work units

Power sharing

Political power sharing
State level
Limited state-level powersharing is provided for, see below.
Executive coalition
Page 3,
Article 5:
The Democratic Front of the Central African People and the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity shall participate in the management of State business, in a spirit of reconciliation and in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
Merger of forces
Page 3, Article 2
The confinement of troops of the Democratic Front of the Central African People and of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity in a location somewhere in the country to be agreed between the two parties prior to their integration in the ranks of the defence and security forces, or their reinsertion in civilian life.

Page 3, Article 3
Urgent and prioritised implementation of a programme in which:
1. Preparations shall be made for the rehabilitation of combatants from the Democratic Front of the Central African People and of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity, and their integration in the ranks of the defence and security forces and paramilitary formations, in accordance with current legislation

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
Page 2, PREAMBLE
...
• Conscious of the need for dialogue to establish a durable peace throughout the national territory, an essential prerequisite for the reconstruction of the country and democracy building;
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
Media roles
Page 3, Article 1
The immediate cessation of hostilities and abstention from any military activity or any other forms of violence, and abstention from any media campaigns which may interfere with efforts to create a spirit of brotherhood and harmony.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
Page 3, Article 1
The immediate cessation of hostilities and abstention from any military activity or any other forms of violence, and abstention from any media campaigns which may interfere with efforts to create a spirit of brotherhood and harmony.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
Page 3, Article 3
Urgent and prioritised implementation of a programme in which:
1. Preparations shall be made for the rehabilitation of combatants from the Democratic Front of the Central African People and of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity, and their integration in the ranks of the defence and security forces and paramilitary formations, in accordance with current legislation
2. The rights of expelled Central African military personnel, and of civil servants of the Democratic Front of the Central African People and of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity, shall be reinstated, in their original training and work units...

Page 3, Article 4
Political prisoners shall be released and a general amnesty declared for soldiers and Central African combatants of the Democratic Front of the Central African People and of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity.
DDR
DDR programmes
Page 3, Article 2
The confinement of troops of the Democratic Front of the Central African People and of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity in a location somewhere in the country to be agreed between the two parties prior to their integration in the ranks of the defence and security forces, or their reinsertion in civilian life.

Page 3, Article 3
Urgent and prioritised implementation of a programme in which:
1. Preparations shall be made for the rehabilitation of combatants from the Democratic Front of the Central African People and of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity, and their integration in the ranks of the defence and security forces and paramilitary formations, in accordance with current legislation
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 3, Article 3
Urgent and prioritised implementation of a programme in which:
1. Preparations shall be made for the rehabilitation of combatants from the Democratic Front of the Central African People and of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity, and their integration in the ranks of the defence and security forces and paramilitary formations, in accordance with current legislation
2. The rights of expelled Central African military personnel, and of civil servants of the Democratic Front of the Central African People and of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity, shall be reinstated, in their original training and work units...

Page 3, Article 4
Political prisoners shall be released and a general amnesty declared for soldiers and Central African combatants of the Democratic Front of the Central African People and of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity.

Page 3, Article 5
The Democratic Front of the Central African People and the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity shall participate in the management of State business, in a spirit of reconciliation and in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.

Page 3, Article 6
The Democratic Front of the Central African People and of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity shall definitively renounce armed struggle as a means of expression.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
Amnesty/pardon proper
Page 3, Article 4
Political prisoners shall be released and a general amnesty declared for soldiers and Central African combatants of the Democratic Front of the Central African People and of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
Page 3, Article 4
Political prisoners shall be released and a general amnesty declared for soldiers and Central African combatants of the Democratic Front of the Central African People and of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
Page 2, PREAMBLE
...
• Considering the unwavering desire of His Excellency, Army General François BOZIZE, President of the Republic, Head of State, reiterated in his speech to the nation of December 31, 2006, to promote tolerance, dialogue and reconciliation among all the daughters and sons of Central Africa.

Page 3, Article 5
The Democratic Front of the Central African People and the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity shall participate in the management of State business, in a spirit of reconciliation and in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
EN PRESENCE DE:
Pour La République du Tchad, Tchonai Elimi Hasson
Pour La Grande Jamahiriya Arabe-Libyenne, Populaire et Socialiste, A.M. Shalgam
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
No specific mention.
Enforcement mechanism
Page 4, Article 7
The signatory parties shall establish a committee to monitor implementation of the present Agreement. The Monitoring Committee for implementation of the present Agreement may call upon any qualified person for advice.

Page 4, Article 8
In case of any disagreement on implementation of the present Agreement, either party may appeal to the National Mediation Council. If disagreement persists despite the efforts of national mediation, either party may appeal to the Permanent High Mediator for Peace in the Community of Sahel-Saharan States (CEN-SAD) area, whose judgement shall be final.

Page 4, Article 9
In case of any flagrant and deliberate violation by either of the parties, of the provisions of the present Agreement, duly recorded, the other party shall withdraw entirely from the Agreement.

The University of Edinburgh