Statement of the International Conference on Afghanistan (Hague Conference)

Country/entity
Afghanistan
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Statement of the International Conference on Afghanistan (Hague Conference)
Date
31/03/2009
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/intrastate conflict(s) (Afghan Wars (1979 - )
The agreements are drawn from two distinct conflict periods. Post Soviet-intervention period. First, after an uprising against the communist government, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in December 1979 and set up a puppet government. Fierce resistance came in on the form of domestic and foreign Mujahidin fighters who, by 1988, forced the Soviet Union to withdraw. The Communist government that remained was defeated in 1992 against a background of violence, which spiralled into a tumultuous multi-party civil war with a strong tribal basis. In 1993 a peace accord was signed, but by 1994 the conflict realigned itself as the Islamic-based Taliban emerged from the refugee camps, eventually occupying the capital city of Kabul in September 1996 spurring groups that had militantly opposed the communist government to unite in opposition to the Taliban.

Post US-intervention period. After the terror attacks on September 11, 2001, the United States invaded Afghanistan and removed the Taliban from power. In December 2001, the UNSC mandated the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to assist Afghanistan’s interim authorities. In 2003 ISAF command was placed under NATO’s responsibility. Within three years, however, the Taliban managed to re-group and re-structure and launched intense resistance to the internationally-recognized Afghanistan government and NATO support troops. Despite this resurgence of the Taliban, NATO leaders lacked the necessary support for the mission abroad, and NATO troops were withdrawn by the end of 2014.
Afghan Wars (1979 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
2: Afghanistan: 2000s Post-intervention process
Parties
Not signed, but agreement mentions the following parties as having produced it: The Government of Afghanistan; the international community
Third parties
Not signed, but agreement mentions the conference as co-chaired by: The Foreign Minister of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan; The Foreign Minister of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; The Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Afghanistan
Description
This short agreement outlines the commitments made by the Government of Afghanistan and unspecified members of the international community, as part of the Kabul Process. It contains commitments on governance, regional cooperation, security reform and socio-economic development.

Agreement document
AF_090331_Hague Conference Declaration.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
Page 2, Promoting Good Governance
To accelerate efforts to improve governance and strengthen institutions, they agreed to:
...
Give firm support to the preparing and holding of elections that are secure, transparent, fair and credible, so as to enjoy the confidence of the Afghan people and to consolidate democracy in Afghanistan. The participants underscored the importance of the broadest possible participation of women and men.

Page 3, Accelerating Economic Growth and Development
To generate economic growth, they agreed to:
...
Expand efforts to ensure that women are more fully integrated into assistance programmes in recognition of the need for Afghanistan to mobilize its entire population in the development of the country.
Men and boys
Gender neutral wording
Page 2, Promoting Good Governance
To accelerate efforts to improve governance and strengthen institutions, they agreed to:
- Give firm support to the preparing and holding of elections that are secure, transparent, fair and credible, so as to enjoy the confidence of the Afghan people and to consolidate democracy in Afghanistan. The participants underscored the importance of the broadest possible participation of women and men.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
Nature of state (general)
Page 4, Expand Regional Cooperation
...
They reaffirmed their determination to fulfil the vision of a democratic, peaceful, pluralistic and prosperous state based on the Afghan Constitution and the principles of Islam, as set out in the Bonn Agreement of 2001, in the Afghanistan Compact of 2006 and in the Paris Declaration of 2008.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
General references
Page 2, Promoting Good Governance
...
Strengthen Afghanistan's national, provincial and local government institutions.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
Page 2, Promoting Good Governance
...
Give firm support to the preparing and holding of elections that are secure, transparent, fair and credible, so as to enjoy the confidence of the Afghan people and to consolidate democracy in Afghanistan.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
Page 1, Untitled Preamble
...
In particular, they emphasised that effective, well-funded civilian programmes are as necessary as additional military forces and training programmes. They agreed to expand significantly the resources and personnel devoted to civilian capacity-building programmes.

Page 2, Untitled Preamble
...
The participants welcomed the role of Afghan civil society at this Conference and underlined the importance of its involvement in the development of Afghanistan.

Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 1, Untitled Preamble
...
The Government of Afghanistan and the international community...They agreed that greater energy and clear direction must urgently be provided to ensure more effective support for the people of Afghanistan, for its security and prosperity as well as for its democratic and human rights.

Page 2, Promoting Good Governance
...
They committed to strengthening an independent judiciary and the rule of law.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
Page 1, Untitled Preamble
...
The Government of Afghanistan and the international community...They agreed that greater energy and clear direction must urgently be provided to ensure more effective support for the people of Afghanistan, for its security and prosperity as well as for its democratic and human rights.

Page 2, Promoting Good Governance
...
Give firm support to the preparing and holding of elections that are secure, transparent, fair and credible, so as to enjoy the confidence of the Afghan people and to consolidate democracy in Afghanistan.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
Page 2, Promoting Good Governance
...
They committed to strengthening an independent judiciary and the rule of law.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Socio-economic development
Page 1, Untitled Preamble
...
The aim must be to enable the Afghan people in this next phase of its cooperation with the international community to assume greater responsibility for its security and economic development. This vision must be founded on the development of Afghanistan's human capital, its natural resources and its potential as a regional corridor for trade and energy transmission.
...
Building on this vision, the participants agreed to pursue the following priority goals:
...
to generate economic growth



Infrastructure and reconstruction
Page 4, Expand Regional Cooperation
...
Set clearer and common priorities for infrastructure projects in the region and provide assistance for their implementation. In this respect, cooperate more closely on expanding and integrating regional electricity, water and transportation networks.
...
Make better use of regional expertise to build capacity in key economic sectors, such as agriculture and education.
National economic plan
Page 3, Accelerating Economic Growth and Development
To generate economic growth, they agreed to: Review aid programmes and set clearer priorities based on the Afghan National Development Strategy, reduce dependency on expensive foreign contractors, and ensure equitable development gains across the country. They agreed to continue support to successful national programmes such as the National Solidarity Programme.
Natural resources
Page 1, Untitled Preamble
...
This vision must be founded on the development of Afghanistan's human capital, its natural resources and its potential as a regional corridor for trade and energy transmission.

Page 3, Accelerating Economic Growth and Development
...
Improve irrigation and water management, transportation networks and energy utilities to underpin growth.
International funds
Page 1, Untitled Preamble
...
They also pledged to improve aid effectiveness, in line with the June 2008 Paris Declaration.

Page 2, Untitled Preamble
...
The participants urged the World Bank and other International Financial Institutions to maintain strong support for Afghanistan.
Business
Page 2, Untitled Preamble
...
It pledged to support encouraging plans for agricultural and private sector development and agreed to capitalise on the projected reduction in poppy production.

Page 3, Accelerating Economic Growth and Development
...
Expand higher and vocational education to create jobs and meet projected requirements for skills in key sectors, such as mining, construction and engineering. They agreed to build private sector capacity to produce and trade goods domestically and internationally, and bolster micro- enterprise programmes.

Page 4, Expand Regional Cooperation
...
Promote regional trade and improve customs and trade and transit agreements.
Taxation
Reform of taxation
Page 4, Expand Regional Cooperation
...
Promote regional trade and improve customs and trade and transit agreements.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
Page 3, Accelerating Economic Growth and Development
...
Improve irrigation and water management, transportation networks and energy utilities to underpin growth.

Page 4, Expand Regional Cooperation
...
Set clearer and common priorities for infrastructure projects in the region and provide assistance for their implementation. In this respect, cooperate more closely on expanding and integrating regional electricity, water and transportation networks.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
Page 1, Untitled Preamble
...
Building on this vision, the participants agreed to pursue the following priority goals:
...
to strengthen security
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
Page 2, Untitled Preamble
...
The international community emphasized its support for strengthening the Afghan National Army as well as for the Afghan National Police, which is now undergoing a comprehensive reform.
Armed forces
Page 1, Untitled Preamble
...
In this context, they welcomed a new US strategic review as an important contribution to re-energizing our common efforts in Afghanistan. They agreed on its emphasis on bringing together civilian and military support in a coherent way and in a regional perspective.

Page 2, Untitled Preamble
...
The international community emphasized its support for strengthening the Afghan National Army as well as for the Afghan National Police, which is now undergoing a comprehensive reform.

Page 3, Strengthen Security
To reinforce the fight against terrorism, they agreed to: Increase rapidly the actual size and capability of the Afghan National Security Forces enabling them to gradually take the lead in fighting terrorism and provide security for the Afghan people.
...
Strengthen Afghanistan's border security by intensifying cooperation among Afghan National Security Forces, NATO/ISAF and regional partners, and thereby countering illegal trafficking in arms and drugs.

Page 3, Expand Regional Cooperation
...
Improve the security and integrity of national borders by working with governments in the region to strengthen cooperation on law enforcement, counter-narcotics efforts and customs policies.
DDR
DDR programmes
Page 2, Untitled Preamble
...
The participants welcomed the Afghan Government's efforts to reintegrate into civilian life those Afghan fighters who distance themselves from international terrorism, respect the Constitution and lay down arms.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
Page 2, Untitled Preamble
...
It pledged to support encouraging plans for agricultural and private sector development and agreed to capitalise on the projected reduction in poppy production.

Page 2, Promoting Good Governance
...
Assist Afghan Government institutions in promoting transparency, increasing accountability and merit-based appointments as well as intensifying the fight against corruption at every level.

Page 3, Strengthen Security
To reinforce the fight against terrorism, they agreed to:
...
Integrate existing counter-narcotics programmes more closely into broader strategies for improved governance, economic development and stability. They will further strengthen support aimed at increasing poppy free provinces.
...
Strengthen Afghanistan's border security by intensifying cooperation among Afghan National Security Forces, NATO/ISAF and regional partners, and thereby countering illegal trafficking in arms and drugs.

Page 3, Expand Regional Cooperation
...
Welcome the increased attention given to Afghanistan and the regional context as exemplified by conferences in Tehran, Moscow, The Hague, Islamabad and Trieste as important steps in enhancing development and in fighting terrorism, drug trafficking and transboundary organised crime.
Drugs
Page 2, Untitled Preamble
...
It pledged to support encouraging plans for agricultural and private sector development and agreed to capitalise on the projected reduction in poppy production.

Page 2, Promoting Good Governance
...
Assist Afghan Government institutions in promoting transparency, increasing accountability and merit-based appointments as well as intensifying the fight against corruption at every level.

Page 3, Strengthen Security
To reinforce the fight against terrorism, they agreed to:
...
Integrate existing counter-narcotics programmes more closely into broader strategies for improved governance, economic development and stability. They will further strengthen support aimed at increasing poppy free provinces.
...
Strengthen Afghanistan's border security by intensifying cooperation among Afghan National Security Forces, NATO/ISAF and regional partners, and thereby countering illegal trafficking in arms and drugs.

Page 3, Expand Regional Cooperation
...
Welcome the increased attention given to Afghanistan and the regional context as exemplified by conferences in Tehran, Moscow, The Hague, Islamabad and Trieste as important steps in enhancing development and in fighting terrorism, drug trafficking and transboundary organised crime.
Terrorism
Page 2, Untitled Preamble
...
The participants emphasised the importance of a determined fight against terrorism and violent extremism in Afghanistan and of eliminating sanctuaries for Al Qaeda and other terrorist networks wherever they exist. They reaffirmed their view that such networks represent a global threat.
...
The participants welcomed the Afghan Government's efforts to reintegrate into civilian life those Afghan fighters who distance themselves from international terrorism, respect the Constitution and lay down arms.

Page 3, STRENGTHEN SECURITY. To reinforce the fight against terrorism, they agreed to:
- Increase rapidly the actual size and capability of the Afghan National Security Forces enabling them to gradually take the lead in fighting terrorism and provide security for the Afghan people.
- Integrate existing counter-narcotics programmes more closely into broader strategies for improved governance, economic development and stability. They will further strengthen support aimed at increasing poppy free provinces.
- Strengthen Afghanistan's border security by intensifying cooperation among Afghan National Security Forces, NATO/ISAF and regional partners, and thereby countering illegal trafficking in arms and drugs.

Page 3, EXPAND REGIONAL COOPERATION. To make the fight against terrorism more effective and to better use the potential for cooperation among all countries in the region, they emphasized the need to:
- Eliminate sanctuaries for Al Qaeda and other terrorist networks in the region.

Page 3, Expand Regional Cooperation
... Welcome the increased attention given to Afghanistan and the regional context as exemplified by conferences in Tehran, Moscow, The Hague, Islamabad and Trieste as important steps in enhancing development and in fighting terrorism, drug trafficking and transboundary organised crime.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 1, Untitled Preamble
...
They emphasised the central role of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) to coordinate international action and assistance and to support the Afghan Government. The participants urged UNAMA to expand its presence into as many provinces as possible, and committed themselves to respecting UNAMA's role.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh