Dakar Agreement between Chad and Sudan signed in Dakar (Senegal)

Country/entity
Chad
Sudan
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Dakar Agreement between Chad and Sudan signed in Dakar (Senegal)
Date
13/03/2008
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/intrastate conflict(s) (Chadian Conflicts (1966 - )
The political history of Chad has been defined by ethno-religious conflict following independence from France in 1960, particularly between the Islamic north and the Christian and animist south. Although prevalent during the colonial era, this became particularly apparent under Tombalbaye during his 15-year rule (1960-1975), which saw mass discrimination against the Muslim northern and central regions. In 1966, the Islamist National Liberation Front on Chad (FROLINAT) was formed, but the movement was defined by factionalism and in-fighting, often encouraged by Libyan government policies, until the civil war ended in 1993. In 1975 Tombalbaye was killed during a coup, and the country reverted to military rule. Constant pressure from the various FROLINAT factions, however, caused then-ruler General Felix Malloum to align himself with Hissene Habre, a rebel leader formerly-aligned with FROLINAT, but then-commander of the Forces Armées du Nord (FAN). In 1978, Libyan troops also occupied the Aouzou Strip (See Libyan-Chadian Conflict). Meanwhile, Habre’s FROLINAT competitor, Goukouni Oueddei, gathered the majority of the northern insurgent factions, and the ensuing civil war between 11 factions eroded the capabilities of the state. In 1979, the Lagos Accords created a unity government (GUNT) that briefly convened the factions, but infighting between Habre and Goukouni’s forces broke out soon after.

Habre finally gained control of N’Djamena in 1982, but faced continuing insurgent pressure from GUNT. This changed in the mid-1980s when all forces in Chad aligned themselves against the Libyan occupation and expelled them from Chad. Infighting in Habre’s regime, meanwhile, saw the defection of General Idriss Deby to Sudan, where he launched a Zaghawa campaign against the President and took the capital in December 1990 with Libyan-backing. Deby was announced President in early 1991, and to ease fighting he announced elections, which he won, in 1996. A number of short-lived peace deals were signed with several rebel factions in 1997, but fighting continued. In 2003, an influx of over 200,000 refugees from Darfur complicated the matter further, and in 2005 Chad declared war on Sudan, which was backing the Chadian rebel group, Rally for Democracy and Liberty. A series of battles ensued across Chad culminating in the Battle of N’Djamena in 2008. The latest war ended in 2010 with a peace accord signed between Sudan and Chad.

In 2021, the FACT (Front pour l’Alternance et la Concorde au Tchad: Front for Change and Concord in Chad) attacked the Chadian military on the eve of presidential elections. President Idriss Déby was killed in the attack, and the army formed a Transitional Military Council (TMC).
Chadian Conflicts (1966 - ) and Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan - internal
In December 2013, after president Salva Kiir accused opposition leader Riek Machar of attempting a coup, violent conflict broke out between government forces of the SPLM/A and anti-governmental groups. In addition, several other political militias as well as communal militias have joined the conflict. In 2015 the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan (ARCSS) was signed. Due to unsuccessful implementation the agreement was revitalized in 2018. In September 2019, Kiir and Machar agreed to establish a power-sharing government after struggles on forming a unity transitional government.
Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Implementation/renegotiation (Implementation modalities)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
134: Chad-Sudan Agreements
Parties
Idriss Deby Itno, President of the Republic of Chad; Omar Hassan al-­Bashir, President of the Republic of Sudan
Third parties
'Facilitators': His Excellency Abdoulaye Wade, President of the Republic of Senegal; His Excellency El Hadj Omar Bongo Ondimba, President of the Gabonese Republic; For the current Chairman of African Union: HE Jakaya Kikwete; His Excellency Alpha Oumar Konare, Chairperson of the African Union Commission. In the presence of: The European Union, The United States of America, The France, The United Nations Secretary General, The Secretary General of OIC
Description
An agreement between the Parties that provides for a pledge to ban all armed elements from using one State's territory to destabilize the other State, as well as a reiteration of commitment to prior agreements. The agreement also establishes a contact group composed of Foreign Ministers to implement this agreement.

Agreement document
SD_TD_080313_Dakar Agreement between Chad and Sudan.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
Cross-border provision
Page 1, 1. Resolve before our peers and the representatives of the international community to make peace and normalize relations between our two countries;

Page 1, 2. Reiterate respect our previous commitments, including the Tripoli Agreement of 8 February 2006, the framework agreement in Khartoum and its additional protocols of the August 28, 2006, declaration of Cannes from February 15, 2007 and the agreement of Riyadh May 3, 2007. In order to implement effectively these agreements, we call upon the international community in general and in particular on Libya, Congo, Senegal, Gabon, Chad, the CEN­SAD, the ECCAS and the African Union to take all necessary steps towards the establishment of the force of peace and security to ensure and observe the joint operations security of the common border;

Page 1, 3. Agree in this regard to set up a contact group which meets once a month in one of the capitals of member countries of the group. It is composed of the Foreign Ministers of the countries listed in paragraph 2 or any designated representative for this purpose. The contact group is charged with the follow-­up, the implementation in good faith of this agreement and the monitoring of possible violations. It is co­-chaired by Libya and the Congo;

Page 1, 4. We solemnly pledge to ban all activities of armed groups and to prevent the use of our respective territories for the destabilization of any of our States;

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
Page 1, 2. Reiterate respect our previous commitments, including the Tripoli Agreement of 8 February 2006, the framework agreement in Khartoum and its additional protocols of the August 28, 2006, declaration of Cannes from February 15, 2007 and the agreement of Riyadh May 3, 2007. In order to implement effectively these agreements, we call upon the international community in general and in particular on Libya, Congo, Senegal, Gabon, Chad, the CEN­SAD, the ECCAS and the African Union to take all necessary steps towards the establishment of the force of peace and security to ensure and observe the joint operations security of the common border;
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 1, 4. We solemnly pledge to ban all activities of armed groups and to prevent the use of our respective territories for the destabilization of any of our States;
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
A representative of the UN was present but did not sign.
Other international signatory
'Facilitators': His Excellency Abdoulaye Wade, President of the Republic of Senegal; His Excellency El Hadj Omar Bongo Ondimba, President of the Gabonese Republic; For the current Chairman of African Union: HE Jakaya Kikwete; His Excellency Alpha Oumar Konare, Chairperson of the African Union Commission. In the presence of: The European Union, The United States of America, The France, The Secretary General of OIC
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
No specific mention.
Enforcement mechanism
Page 1, 2. Reiterate respect our previous commitments, including the Tripoli Agreement of 8 February 2006, the framework agreement in Khartoum and its additional protocols of the August 28, 2006, declaration of Cannes from February 15, 2007 and the agreement of Riyadh May 3, 2007. In order to implement effectively these agreements, we call upon the international community in general and in particular on Libya, Congo, Senegal, Gabon, Chad, the CEN­SAD, the ECCAS and the African Union to take all necessary steps towards the establishment of the force of peace and security to ensure and observe the joint operations security of the common border;

Page 1, 3. Agree in this regard to set up a contact group which meets once a month in one of the capitals of member countries of the group. It is composed of the Foreign Ministers of the countries listed in paragraph 2 or any designated representative for this purpose. The contact group is charged with the follow-­up, the implementation in good faith of this agreement and the monitoring of possible violations. It is co-­chaired by Libya and the Congo;

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