Accord de Paix de Birao

Country/entity
Central African Republic
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Accord de Paix de Birao
Date
01/04/2007
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - )
The Central African Republic conflict is one of a set of regionally connected conflicts addressed by the Great Lakes process. Since the mid-1990s several waves of internal conflict took place in the Central African Republic, primarily along tribal, and later-on increasingly sectarian, lines. In 1996 and 1997, French troops and soldiers from neighbouring countries intervened to end a mutiny in the capital, Bangui, by factions of the army. The fighting was predominantly along tribal lines, with southern tribes in revolt against the ‘northern’ government. A UN mission was installed in 1998 to secure the truce.

After General Bozizé took control of the country after several coup attempts in 2003, a ‘bush war’ began led by armed opposition forces. From late 2006 onward, government troops with French military support severely weakened the rebels. Following this, a number of agreements were signed during 2007-2008, but not all factions have accepted them. In 2011, Bozizé was re-elected in supposedly fraudulent elections, which resulted in a new wave of uprisings. Séléka, an alliance of northern rebel groups, took over parts of the country and forced Bozizé to agree to a power-sharing deal. However, after this agreement broke down, Séléka took control of Bangui and Bozizé had to flee the country.

Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - ) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Related)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
17: CAR: coups and rebellions process
Does this need new name?
Parties
For the Government of the Central African Republic, General NDOUGOU Raymond, Prefect of L’OUHAM PENDE, For the Union of Democratic Forces of Unity, DAMANE Zakaria, Municipal Advisor in GORDIL.
Third parties
Description
The parties renew their commitments to immediately stop the hostilities and media campaigns; the concentration of the UFDR troops in one designated zone while they wait to be integrated into the armed forces or civilian life; the creation of a programme for the rehabilitation of former combatants, former militaries and functionaries, and the conditions for the return of displaced people; the release of political prisoners; the participation of the UFDR in the management of the state; the UFDR renounces the armed struggle; the establishment of a follow-up commission; in case of interpretation differences the parties can call upon the national council for mediation; in case one of the parties does to abide to the agreed points, the other disengages too.

Agreement document
CF_070401_BiraoPeaceAccord_tr.pdf

Agreement document (original language)
CF_070401_Birao Peace Accord.pdf

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
Substantive
Page 2, Article 3
The implementation of an urgent and top priority programme to:
... 3. Create the conditions needed to return, reinstall and reinsert all persons displaced by the conflict.
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
Sexual orientation
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
Rebels transitioning to political parties
Page 2, Article 5
The participation of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity in managing government business, in a spirit of reconciliation and in line with the provisions of the constitution.
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
Merger of forces
Page 1, Article 2
The containment of the troops of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity in their present locations, pending their integration with the defence and security forces and their incorporation in civilian life.

Page 2, Article 3
The implementation of an urgent and top priority programme to:
1. Create the conditions needed to rehabilitate the troops of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity, and to integrate them with the defence and security forces in line with current legislation
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 1, PREAMBLE,
• Determined to consolidate the rule of law, good governance, with consequent social progress, and complete entitlement to fundamental liberties guaranteed under law; No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
Page 1, PREAMBLE,
• Conscious of the need for dialogue to establish a durable peace throughout the national territory, an essential precondition for the reconstruction of the country and establishing democracy; No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
Media roles
Page 1, Article 1
An immediate cessation of hostilities and abstention from all military activities and all other forms of violence, as well as the closure of all media campaigns designed to prevent attempts to develop a spirit of fraternity and national harmony.

Page 2, Article 6
The unequivocal renunciation by the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity of the use of armed struggle as a means to communicate its message.
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
Page 1, Article 1
An immediate cessation of hostilities and abstention from all military activities and all other forms of violence, as well as the closure of all media campaigns designed to prevent attempts to develop a spirit of fraternity and national harmony.

Page 2, Article 6
The unequivocal renunciation by the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity of the use of armed struggle as a means to communicate its message.
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
Page 2, Article 3
The implementation of an urgent and top priority programme to:
...
2. Return ex-communicated Central African soldiers and Union of Democratic Forces for Unity civilian staff to their original training and service units.

Page 2, Article 4
The liberation of political prisoners and the declaration of a general amnesty for the Central African troops and fighters of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity No specific mention.
DDR
DDR programmes
Page 1, Article 2
The containment of the troops of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity in their present locations, pending their integration with the defence and security forces and their incorporation in civilian life.

Page 2, Article 3
The implementation of an urgent and top priority programme to:
1. Create the conditions needed to rehabilitate the troops of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity, and to integrate them with the defence and security forces in line with current legislation
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 2, Article 3
The implementation of an urgent and top priority programme to:
1. Create the conditions needed to rehabilitate the troops of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity, and to integrate them with the defence and security forces in line with current legislation
2. Return ex-communicated Central African soldiers and Union of Democratic Forces for Unity civilian staff to their original training and service units.

Page 2, Article 4
The liberation of political prisoners and the declaration of a general amnesty for the Central African troops and fighters of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity

Page 2, Article 5
The participation of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity in managing government business, in a spirit of reconciliation and in line with the provisions of the constitution.

Page 2, Article 6
The unequivocal renunciation by the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity of the use of armed struggle as a means to communicate its message No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
Amnesty/pardon proper (indefinite)
Page 2, Article 4
The liberation of political prisoners and the declaration of a general amnesty for the Central African troops and fighters of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity.
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
Page 2, Article 4
The liberation of political prisoners and the declaration of a general amnesty for the Central African troops and fighters of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity. No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
Page 1, PREAMBLE
...
• Considering the ongoing desire of His Excellency (Army) General François BOZIZE, President of the Republic, Head of State, reiterated in his speech to the nation of 31 December 2006, to promote tolerance, dialogue and reconciliation among all the sons and daughters of Central Africa;

Page 2, Article 5
The participation of the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity in managing government business, in a spirit of reconciliation and in line with the provisions of the constitution. No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
(witness) signed by UN Special Rep. to the CAR General Lamine Cisse No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
No specific mention.
Enforcement mechanism
Page 2, Article 7
The creation of a monitoring commission for implementation of the present agreement, which may call upon any qualified person for their advice.

Page 2, Article 8
In case of any differences in opinion or difficulties in implementing the present agreement, either of the parties may refer to the National Mediation Council. If any difference in opinion persists despite the efforts of this Committee, either party may refer to the President of the Ad Hoc Committee, on Central African questions, his Excellency El Hadj Omar Bongo Ondimba, President of the Republic of Gabon, which this agreement requires us all to consider.

Page 2, Article 9
In case of any flagrant and deliberate violation, duly noted, by either of the parties of the provisions of this agreement, the other party will withdraw from it in its entirety. No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh