Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the region

Country/entity
Angola
Burundi
Central African Republic
Democratic Republic of Congo
Republic of Congo
Rwanda
South Africa
South Sudan
Tanzania
Uganda
Zambia
(African Great Lakes)
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the region
Date
24/02/2013
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/intrastate conflict(s) (African Great Lakes Process (2004 - 2013)
The African Great Lakes process attempted to use a regional approach to address a set of inter-linked conflicts notably in Burundi, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Central African Republic and Uganda.

African Great Lakes Process (2004 - 2013) )
Stage
Implementation/renegotiation (Implementation modalities)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
6: African Great Lakes: Regional Process
Parties
H.E. Mr Parfait Anicet Mbay, for Angola; H.E. Mr. Laurent Kavakure for Burundi; H.E. Mr. Paul Kagame, President of the Republic of Rwanda; H.E. Mr. Salva Kiir Mayardit, President of the Republic of South Sudan; H.E. Mr. Whyinter Kabimba, for Zambia
Third parties
Description
This agreement renews state, regional and international commitment to ending the ongoing violence, aimed at creating a sustainable peace.

Agreement document
AO_BI_CF_CD_CG_RW_SD_TZ_UG_ZM_130224_FrameworkAgreementDRCRegion.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
Rhetorical
Page 1,
3. The consequences of this violence have been nothing short of devastating. Acts of sexual violence and serious violations of human rights are used regularly and almost daily as weapons of war. Displacement figures are among the highest in the world and persistently hover near two million people. The implementation of the country's reconstruction, security reform and poverty alleviation program is regularly disrupted.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
Page 1,
3. The consequences of this violence have been nothing short of devastating. Acts of sexual violence and serious violations of human rights are used regularly and almost daily as weapons of war. Displacement figures are among the highest in the world and persistently hover near two million people. The implementation of the country's reconstruction, security reform and poverty alleviation program is regularly disrupted.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
Nature of state (general)
Page 2,
5. The principles of engagement at each of these levels shall consist of commitments in the following areas.
... For the region:
A renewed commitment:
- Not to interfere in the internal affairs of neighbouring countries
... - To respect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of neighbouring countries;

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
General references
Page 2,
5. The principles of engagement at each of these levels shall consist of commitments in the following areas.
For the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo:
A renewed commitment:
... - To further further structural reform of Government institutions, including financial reform; and
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
Page 2,
5. The principles of engagement at each of these levels shall consist of commitments in the following areas:
For the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo:
A renewed commitment:
... - To make progress with decentralization;

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 1,
3. The consequences of this violence have been nothing short of devastating. Acts of sexual violence and serious violations of human rights are used regularly and almost daily as weapons of war. Displacement figures are among the highest in the world and persistently hover near two million people. The implementation of the country's reconstruction, security reform and poverty alleviation program is regularly disrupted.

Page 3,
5. The principles of engagement at each of these levels shall consist of commitments in the following areas:
... For the region:
A renewed commitment:
... - To neither harbour nor provide protection of any kind to persons accused of war crimes, crimes against humanity, acts of genocide or crimes of aggression, or persons falling under the United Nations sanctions regime;
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
Page 1,
1. Significant progress has been achieved in the Democratic Republic of the Congo over the past decade. The local and regional peace processes initiated at that time laid the foundation for relative peace and stability in large parts of the country. Similarly, the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo has begun some reforms, with partners’ support, that are intended to lay the ground for economic recovery, and the democratization of the country.

Page 2,
5. The principles of engagement at each of these levels shall consist of commitments in the following areas:
For the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo:
A renewed commitment:
... - To further the agenda of reconciliation, tolerance and democratization.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
Page 3,
5. The principles of engagement at each of these levels shall consist of commitments in the following areas:
... For the region:
A renewed commitment:
... - To facilitate the administration of justice through judicial cooperation within the region
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Socio-economic development
Page 1,
1. Significant progress has been achieved in the Democratic Republic of the Congo over the past decade. The local and regional peace processes initiated at that time laid the foundation for relative peace and stability in large parts of the country. Similarly, the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo has begun some reforms, with partners’ support, that are intended to lay the ground for economic recovery, and the democratization of the country.
3. The consequences of this violence have been nothing short of devastating. Acts of sexual violence and serious violations of human rights are used regularly and almost daily as weapons of war. Displacement figures are among the highest in the world and persistently hover near two million people. The implementation of the country's reconstruction, security reform and poverty alleviation program is regularly disrupted.

Page 2,
5. The principles of engagement at each of these levels shall consist of commitments in the following areas:
For the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo:
A renewed commitment:
... - To further economic development, including with respect to the expansion of infrastructure and basic social service delivery:

Page 2-3,
5. The principles of engagement at each of these levels shall consist of commitments in the following areas:
For the region:
A renewed commitment:
... - To strengthen regional cooperation including deepening economic integration with special consideration for the exploitation of natural resources
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
Page 2-3,
5. The principles of engagement at each of these levels shall consist of commitments in the following areas:
... For the region:
A renewed commitment:
... - To strengthen regional cooperation including deepening economic integration with special consideration for the exploitation of natural resources
International funds
Page 3,
5. The principles of engagement at each of these levels shall consist of commitments in the following areas:
... For the international community:
... - A renewed commitment by bilateral partners to remain engaged in supporting the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the region, including with appropriate means to ensure long-term sustainability; and to support the implementation of the Protocols and priority projects of the Pact on Security, Stability and Development in the Great Lakes region.
- A renewed commitment to work towards the revitalization of the Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL) and support the implementation of tis economic development and regional integration agenda;
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
Page 3,
5. The principles of engagement at each of these levels shall consist of commitments in the following areas:
... For the region:
A renewed commitment:
... - To respect the legitimate concerns and interests of the neighbouring countries, in particular regarding security matters;
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
Page 2,
5. The principles of engagement at each of these levels shall consist of commitments in the following areas:
For the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo:
A renewed commitment:
- To continue, and deepen security sector reform, particularly with respect to the Army and Police;
Armed forces
Page 2,
5. The principles of engagement at each of these levels shall consist of commitments in the following areas:
For the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo:
A renewed commitment:
- To continue, and deepen security sector reform, particularly with respect to the Army and Police;
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 2,
5. The principles of engagement at each of these levels shall consist of commitments in the following areas:
For the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
A renewed commitment:
- To continue, and deepen security sector reform, particularly with respect to the Army and Police;
- To consolidate State authority, particularly in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, including to prevent armed groups from destabilizing neighbouring countries;
...
For the region:
A renewed commitment:
... - To neither tolerate nor provide assistance or support of any kind of armed groups;
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
National courts
Page 3,
5. The principles of engagement at each of these levels shall consist of commitments in the following areas:
... For the region:
A renewed commitment:
... - To neither harbour nor provide protection of any kind to persons accused of war crimes, crimes against humanity, acts of genocide or crimes of aggression, or persons falling under the United Nations sanctions regime; and,
- To facilitate the administration of justice through judicial cooperation within the region
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
Page 2,
5. The principles of engagement at each of these levels shall consist of commitments in the following areas:
For the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo:
A renewed commitment:
... - To further the agenda of reconciliation, tolerance and democratization.

Implementation

UN signatory
UN Secretary General signs as witness.
Other international signatory
African Union Commission, International Conference of the Great Lakes Region, Southern African Development Community sign as witnesses.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 3,
5. The principles of engagement at each of these levels shall consist of commitments in the following areas:
... For the international community:
... - A strategic review of the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) that aims to strengthen support to the Government to enable it to address security challenges and extend State authority;

Page 4,
5. The principles of engagement at each of these levels shall consist of commitments in the following areas:
... For the international community:
...- Appointment of a United Nations Special Envoy to support efforts to reach durable solution in a multi-track plan that allows the convergence of all initiatives in progress.
Enforcement mechanism
Page 4, Oversight mechanisms,
7. A regional oversight mechanism involving these leaders of the region, namely the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Central African Republic, the Republic of Angola, the Republic of Burundi, the Republic of the Congo, the Republic of Rwanda, the Republic of South Africa, the Republic of South Sudan, the United Republic of Tanzania, Republic of Uganda, and the Republic of Zambia with the good offices of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, the Chairperson of the African Union Commission, the Chairperson of the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region, and the Chairperson of the Southern African Development Community in the role of guarantors, shall be established to meet regularly and review progress in the implementation of the regional commitments outlined above, with regard for the national sovereignty of the States concerned.

Page 4-5, Oversight mechanisms,
8. This 11 + 4 mechanism is in support of the ongoing regional efforts and shall therefore be supported by and closely linked to the African Union, the International Conference of the Great Lakes Region, the Southern African Development Community, as well as those of other international partners, including the European Union, Belgium, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. The detailed plan for the implementation of this Framework will be developed jointly including the establishment of benchmarks and appropriate follow-up measures.

Page 5, Oversight mechanisms,
9. The President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo shall put in place, within the Government, a national oversight mechanism in order to accompany and oversee the implementation of the national commitments for reform outlined above. The United Nations, the African Union, the World Bank, the African Development Bank and other bilateral or multilateral partners of the Democratic Republic of the Congo that are agreed upon shall provide support to this mechanism.

The University of Edinburgh