Accord politique de Libreville sur la résolution de la crise politico-sécuritaire en République Centrafricaine

Country/entity
Central African Republic
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Accord politique de Libreville sur la résolution de la crise politico-sécuritaire en République Centrafricaine
Date
11/01/2013
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - )
The Central African Republic conflict is one of a set of regionally connected conflicts addressed by the Great Lakes process. Since the mid-1990s several waves of internal conflict took place in the Central African Republic, primarily along tribal, and later-on increasingly sectarian, lines. In 1996 and 1997, French troops and soldiers from neighbouring countries intervened to end a mutiny in the capital, Bangui, by factions of the army. The fighting was predominantly along tribal lines, with southern tribes in revolt against the ‘northern’ government. A UN mission was installed in 1998 to secure the truce.

After General Bozizé took control of the country after several coup attempts in 2003, a ‘bush war’ began led by armed opposition forces. From late 2006 onward, government troops with French military support severely weakened the rebels. Following this, a number of agreements were signed during 2007-2008, but not all factions have accepted them. In 2011, Bozizé was re-elected in supposedly fraudulent elections, which resulted in a new wave of uprisings. Séléka, an alliance of northern rebel groups, took over parts of the country and forced Bozizé to agree to a power-sharing deal. However, after this agreement broke down, Séléka took control of Bangui and Bozizé had to flee the country.

Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
17: CAR coups and rebellions process
Parties
For the Presidential Majority
- Jean WILLYBIRO SAKO

For the Democratic Opposition
- Nicolas TIANGAYE

For the politico-military combatant movements (CPJP, MLCJ, FDPC)
- Abdoulaye HISSEIN

For the SELEKA Coalition (CPJP, UFDR, UFR, CPSK)
- Michel DJOTODJIA

For the President of the Monitoring Committee

- Basile IKOUEBE, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Congo

For CEEAC
- Nassour GULLENGDOUKSIA OUAIDOU, Secretary General of CEEAC
Third parties
Description
This agreement provides for an immediate ceasefire and a cessation of all hostilities between the Central African Republic’s government and the SELEKA coalition within 72 hours. Issues covered include the abstention from media campaigns and aggressions against civilians. The agreement also contains provisions on humanitarian assistance, displaced persons, political prisoners, DDR and the establishment of an oversight commission, supervising the implementation of the ceasefire agreement.

Agreement document
CF_130111_AccordPolitiqueDeLibreville_tr.pdf

Agreement document (original language)
CF_130111_AccordPolitiqueDeLibreville.pdf

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
Sexual orientation
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
Nature of state (general)
Page 3, ON THE SECURITY OF THE ACTORS, Article 16
The administration and authority of the state must be re-established across the whole country.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
Temporary new institutions
Page 1, ON THE EXERCISE OF POWER, Article 1
The President of the Republic remains in post until the end of his mandate in 2016. He cannot contest another mandate.

Page 1, ON THE EXERCISE OF POWER, Article 2
An inclusive Government of National Unity is instituted for a period of 12 months, which may be renewed.
The Government of National Unity is made up of members of:
- the presidential majority,
- the democratic opposition,
- the non-combatant politico-military movements,
- the SELEKA coalition
- civil society.

Page 2, ON THE EXERCISE OF POWER, Article 3
The government cannot be dismissed by the President of the Republic for the period of the transition.

Page 2, ON THE EXERCISE OF POWER, Article 5
The Government of National Unity is asked, in particular, to:
- Restore peace and security,
- Organise the municipal elections planned to take place following the dissolution of the National Assembly,
- Reorganise the defence and security forces,
- Reform the judicial system,
- Implement the DDR and RSS process with the support and assistance of the international community,
- Implement economic and social reforms.

Page 2, ON THE EXERCISE OF POWER, Article 6
Neither the Prime Minister nor other members of the Government may contest the next presidential election.

Page 2, ON THE EXERCISE OF POWER, Article 7
The National Assembly will continue to exercise its rights until the next legislative elections.
To prevent any blocks to government business, all legal projects must be voted on by the National Assembly, and in particular those relating to the law on finances, the electoral code, and the reorganisation of the defence and security forces.

Page 2, ON THE SECURITY OF THE ACTORS, Article 8
The President is the guarantor of the security of people and property throughout the national territory.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
Page 2, ON THE EXERCISE OF POWER, Article 5
The Government of National Unity is asked, in particular, to:
...
- Organise the municipal elections planned to take place following the dissolution of the National Assembly

Page 2, ON THE EXERCISE OF POWER, Article 6
Neither the Prime Minister nor other members of the Government may contest the next presidential election.

Page 2, ON THE EXERCISE OF POWER, Article 7
The National Assembly will continue to exercise its rights until the next legislative elections.
To prevent any blocks to government business, all legal projects must be voted on by the National Assembly, and in particular those relating to the law on finances, the electoral code, and the reorganisation of the defence and security forces.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
Page 2, ON THE EXERCISE OF POWER, Article 2
An inclusive Government of National Unity is instituted for a period of 12 months, which may be renewed.
The Government of National Unity is made up of members of:
...
- civil society
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
State level
Summary: State level power sharing is provided for, see below.
Executive coalition
Page 1, ON THE EXERCISE OF POWER, Article 2
An inclusive Government of National Unity is instituted for a period of 12 months, which may be renewed.
The Government of National Unity is made up of members of:
- the presidential majority,
- the democratic opposition,
- the non-combatant politico-military movements,
- the SELEKA coalition
- civil society.

Page 2, ON THE EXERCISE OF POWER, Article 3
The government cannot be dismissed by the President of the Republic for the period of the transition.

Page 2, ON THE EXERCISE OF POWER, Article 4
The Government of National Unity is led by a Prime Minister, the Head of Government, a member of the opposition.

Page 2, ON THE EXERCISE OF POWER, Article 6
Neither the Prime Minister nor other members of the Government may contest the next presidential election
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 1, PREAMBLE
...
Determined to strengthen the rule of law, good political, economic and social governance and respect for human rights and basic liberties
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
Page 2, ON THE EXERCISE OF POWER, Article 5
The Government of National Unity is asked, in particular, to:
...
- Reform the judicial system
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Page 2, ON THE EXERCISE OF POWER, Article 5
The Government of National Unity is asked, in particular, to:
...
- Implement economic and social reforms.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
Page 1, PREAMBLE
...
Deeply concerned by the developing politico-security situation in the Central African Republic
Conscious of the need for a dialogue to establish a durable peace and security across the entire national territory

Page 2, ON THE EXERCISE OF POWER, Article 5
The Government of National Unity is asked, in particular, to:
- Restore peace and security,
...
- Implement the DDR and SSR process with the support and assistance of the international community,

Page 2, ON THE SECURITY OF THE ACTORS, Article 8
The President is the guarantor of the security of people and property throughout the national territory.
Ceasefire
General commitments
Page 3, FINAL PROVISIONS, Article 19
The parties to the present agreement will desist from all measures of force in resolving their differences.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
Page 2, ON THE EXERCISE OF POWER, Article 5
The Government of National Unity is asked, in particular, to:
...
- Reorganise the defence and security forces

Page 2, ON THE EXERCISE OF POWER, Article 7
The National Assembly will continue to exercise its rights until the next legislative elections.
To prevent any blocks to government business, all legal projects must be voted on by the National Assembly, and in particular those relating to the law on finances, the electoral code, and the reorganisation of the defence and security forces.
DDR
DDR programmes
Page 2, ON THE EXERCISE OF POWER, Article 5
The Government of National Unity is asked, in particular, to:
- Implement the DDR and RSS process with the support and assistance of the international community,

Page 3, ON THE SECURITY OF THE ACTORS, Article 15
The militias shall be dissolved throughout the national territory.

Page 3, ON THE SECURITY OF THE ACTORS, Article 17
Armed elements shall be confined in mutually agreed locations, under the supervision of MICOPAX.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 2, ON THE EXERCISE OF POWER, Article 2
An inclusive Government of National Unity is instituted for a period of 12 months, which may be renewed.
The Government of National Unity is made up of members of:
...
- the democratic opposition,
- the non-combatant politico-military movements,
- the SELEKA coalition

Page 3, ON THE SECURITY OF THE ACTORS, Article 13
The SELEKA coalition forces undertake to withdraw from occupied towns and give up armed struggle.

Page 3, ON THE SECURITY OF THE ACTORS, Article 15
The militias shall be dissolved throughout the national territory.

Page 3, ON THE SECURITY OF THE ACTORS, Article 17
Armed elements shall be confined in mutually agreed locations, under the supervision of MICOPAX.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
Page 3, ON THE SECURITY OF THE ACTORS, Article 18
The member states of CEEAC will work with the Government of the Central African Republic towards the progressive elimination of all non-community foreign troops in light of the evolving security situation in the country.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
Page 3, ON THE SECURITY OF THE ACTORS, Article 14
The Government undertakes to release those persons arrested during the security crisis.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
Page 3, ON THE SECURITY OF THE ACTORS, Article 10
The parties to this agreement express their common desire to work towards national reconciliation.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
NFor the President of the Monitoring Committee

- Basile IKOUEBE, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Congo

For CEEAC
- Nassour GULLENGDOUKSIA OUAIDOU, Secretary General of CEEAC

Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Data not yet entered.
Page 3, ON THE SECURITY OF THE ACTORS, Article 11
A monitoring committee shall be established made up of CEEAC member states and international partner organisations, tasked with guaranteeing the implementation of the agreement.

Page 3, ON THE SECURITY OF THE ACTORS, Article 12
The president of the monitoring committee shall guarantee the good faith of the parties, supported by the CEEAC heads of state and the international community.

Page 3, ON THE SECURITY OF THE ACTORS, Article 17
Armed elements shall be confined in mutually agreed locations, under the supervision of MICOPAX.

Page 3, ON THE SECURITY OF THE ACTORS, Article 18
The member states of CEEAC will work with the Government of the Central African Republic towards the progressive elimination of all non-community foreign troops in light of the evolving security situation in the country.

Page 3, FINAL PROVISIONS, Article 20
In case of any litigation or disagreement arising during the implementation of this agreement, the parties will submit to arbitration by the Monitoring Committee and where necessary the conference of CEEAC Heads of State
Enforcement mechanism
Page 2, ON THE SECURITY OF THE ACTORS, Article 9
The president of the monitoring committee, CEEAC, and MICOPAX, shall together ensure the collective and individual security of all actors.

Page 3, ON THE SECURITY OF THE ACTORS, Article 11
A monitoring committee shall be established made up of CEEAC member states and international partner organisations, tasked with guaranteeing the implementation of the agreement.

Page 3, ON THE SECURITY OF THE ACTORS, Article 12
The president of the monitoring committee shall guarantee the good faith of the parties, supported by the CEEAC heads of state and the international community.

Page 3, FINAL PROVISIONS, Article 20
In case of any litigation or disagreement arising during the implementation of this agreement, the parties will submit to arbitration by the Monitoring Committee and where necessary the conference of CEEAC Heads of State

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