Istanbul Process on Regional Security and Cooperation for a Secure and Stable Afghanistan

Country/entity
Afghanistan
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Istanbul Process on Regional Security and Cooperation for a Secure and Stable Afghanistan
Date
02/11/2011
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/intrastate conflict(s) (Afghan Wars (1979 - )
The agreements are drawn from two distinct conflict periods. Post Soviet-intervention period. First, after an uprising against the communist government, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in December 1979 and set up a puppet government. Fierce resistance came in on the form of domestic and foreign Mujahidin fighters who, by 1988, forced the Soviet Union to withdraw. The Communist government that remained was defeated in 1992 against a background of violence, which spiralled into a tumultuous multi-party civil war with a strong tribal basis. In 1993 a peace accord was signed, but by 1994 the conflict realigned itself as the Islamic-based Taliban emerged from the refugee camps, eventually occupying the capital city of Kabul in September 1996 spurring groups that had militantly opposed the communist government to unite in opposition to the Taliban.

Post US-intervention period. After the terror attacks on September 11, 2001, the United States invaded Afghanistan and removed the Taliban from power. In December 2001, the UNSC mandated the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to assist Afghanistan’s interim authorities. In 2003 ISAF command was placed under NATO’s responsibility. Within three years, however, the Taliban managed to re-group and re-structure and launched intense resistance to the internationally-recognized Afghanistan government and NATO support troops. Despite this resurgence of the Taliban, NATO leaders lacked the necessary support for the mission abroad, and NATO troops were withdrawn by the end of 2014.
Afghan Wars (1979 - ) )
Stage
Implementation/renegotiation (Addresses new or outstanding issues)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
2: Afghanistan: 2000s Post-intervention process
Parties
Not signed, agreements mentions the following parties as having produced it: the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, the People’s Republic of China, the Republic of India, the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the Russian Federation, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia the Republic of Tajikistan, the Republic of Turkey, Turkmenistan, and the United Arab Emirates.
Third parties
Not signed, agreement mentions the following parties as having supported it: the Commonwealth of Australia, Canada, the Arab Republic of Egypt, the Republic of France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Republic of Italy, Japan, Norway, Republic of Poland, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States as well as the United Nations, Economic Cooperation Organization, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Shanghai Cooperation Organization, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, Organization for Islamic Cooperation, the European Union, the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia.
Description
This agreement expands on commitments made in the 2002 Kabul Declaration of Good Neighbourly Relations. It includes provisions for a wide range of issues, including security, counter-terrorism, corruption, socio-economic reconstruction, regional cooperation, education, culture and visa regimes.

Agreement document
AF_111102_IstanbulProcessOnAfghanistan.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
Rhetorical
Page 2, 2
Hence, we will be guided by the following set of common principles and commitments, which shall include, but not be limited to:
...
Facilitating the voluntary, dignified, and orderly return of Afghan refugees

Page 5, 16, Section A
...
Creation or enhancement of conditions conducive to the voluntary and safe return of refugees, in a dignified and orderly manner
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
Page 3, 6
...
Afghanistan also reconfirms its will and determination to combat terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, strengthen its economy, especially by ensuring good governance, promotion of investments, and addressing corruption, fight radicalism and narcotrafficking, respect human rights, in particular the rights of women, and to work together with its friends and partners for enhanced regional co-operation.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
Nature of state (general)
Page 2, 5
We respect Afghanistan as a sovereign, independent, democratic state, which constitutes an integral component of the peace, well-being and prosperity of the region and beyond.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 1, 2
Hence, we will be guided by the following set of common principles and commitments, which shall include, but not be limited to:
...
Peaceful settlement of disputes in accordance with the United Nations Charter and international law; Fulfilment of obligations under international law

Page 3, 6
...
Afghanistan also reconfirms its will and determination to
...
respect human rights, in particular the rights of women
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
Page 2, 5
We respect Afghanistan as a sovereign, independent, democratic state, which constitutes an integral component of the peace, well-being and prosperity of the region and beyond.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 8, 16, Section E
...
Considering relaxation of rules and restrictions at border crossings for legitimate travelers on the basis of reciprocal arrangements
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
Media roles
Page 8, 16, Section C
...
Promotion of the role of mass media as a driver for democratic development and mutual understanding, and to spread messages of peace, harmony and tolerance
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Socio-economic development
Page 1, 2
Hence, we will be guided by the following set of common principles and commitments, which shall include, but not be limited to:
...
Continued support for the Government and people of Afghanistan, as they develop their country, re-construct their economy, and further improve their human capital

Page 2, 5
...
We support the Government of Afghanistan’s priorities on the issues of security, governance, economy, counter-terrorism, counter-narcotics and regional cooperation

Page 8, 16, Section C
Establishing a multi-disciplinary professional and technical training Center in Tajikistan which is aimed at preparing civilian specialists for the needs of the Afghanistan economy, with support of international community
Infrastructure and reconstruction
Page 6, 16, Section B
...
Training of personnel in various fields of economic activity; The development of a coherent strategy to develop and maintain a regionally connecting infrastructure, with support from international partners
...
Encouraging Afghanistan’s role as a land-bridge, connecting the region through cooperation and completion of bridges on trans-boundary rivers, roads and railway networks; in this connection, focusing on construction of new automobile bridges over the Panj River in Kokul and Ayvaj fields of Tajikistan and supporting the implementation of the project on a railway route from East, Central, South and West Asia and to the sea routes through Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Afghanistan with existing Uzbekistan-Afghanistan railway being connected to a prospective Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan-Afghanistan railway, and supporting the implementation of the project on a railway route from Iran to Afghanistan, the Khaf-Herat Railway
...
A more effective regional cooperation in the agricultural and rural fields
...
The development of infrastructure around the main ports and linking them via road and railroad for shipment of goods and energy to and from Central Asia, South Asia, Eurasia and the Black Sea
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
Page 7, 16, Section B
...
Co-operation on easier flow of energy resources within, from and across the region, especially with regard to electricity, minerals, oil and gas, including their exploitation and transit, through regional projects, such as TAPI, and CASA-1000 project which has to be implemented with a broader financial contribution, as well as the World Bank, Asian Development Bank and the Islamic Development Bank
International funds
Page 7, 16, Section B
...
Co-operation on easier flow of energy resources within, from and across the region, especially with regard to electricity, minerals, oil and gas, including their exploitation and transit, through regional projects, such as TAPI, and CASA-1000 project which has to be implemented with a broader financial contribution, as well as the World Bank, Asian Development Bank and the Islamic Development Bank
Business
Page 6, 16, Section B
...
Improvement of the exchange of information on commercial opportunities and specific trading conditions; Improvement in the provisions for the settlement of commercial disputes, including various forms of arbitration; A strategy to encourage participation of the private sector in regional development programs, including through private sector-public sector joint ventures; Exchange of information on development of international tourism and tourist infrastructure and assistance in establishing and strengthening contacts
...
Improvement of business contacts and facilities; Encourage the establishment of a framework for enhanced cooperation among Chambers of Commerce
...
Wider support for Tajikistan`s efforts to conduct the 5th Regional Economic Cooperation Conference on Afghanistan (RECCA V) which is planned to be held on March 26-27, 2012 in Dushanbe. Amongst other agenda items, the Conference will consider the proposal from Afghanistan and Tajikistan on enhancing trade connectivity along historical trade routes. On the margins of the RECCA V, we support the organization of a business forum and a forum of scientists and researchers
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
Tangible
Page 8, 16, Section C
Joint projects aimed at [...] Co-operation in preserving valuable cultural, historical, archaeological and religious assets
Promotion
Page 8, 16, Section C
Joint projects aimed at disseminating information on various cultures and traditions in the region; Co-operation in preserving valuable cultural, historical, archaeological and religious assets
Environment
Page 5, 16, Section A
...
Development of joint guidelines for cooperation in the field of disaster management

Page 6, 16, Section B
...
Facilitation of the development of co-operation in the various field of environment;
Water or riparian rights or access
Page 7, 16, Section B
...
Exploring the possibility of cooperation in the development of hydroelectric power and in the sphere of water management without prejudice to existing agreements; Consider, wherever appropriate and mutually agreed, development of large-scale irrigation works without prejudice to existing agreements
...
The development of infrastructure around the main ports and linking them via road and railroad for shipment of goods and energy to and from Central Asia, South Asia, Eurasia and the Black Sea

Security sector

Security Guarantees
Page 2, 5
...
We support the Government of Afghanistan’s priorities on the issues of security, governance, economy, counter-terrorism, counter-narcotics and regional cooperation

Page 8, 17
Through the İstanbul Process, we reaffirm our commitment to strengthening regional security and cooperation, including for the purpose of building a secure and stable Afghanistan
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
DDR programmes
Page 3, 9
In assisting Afghanistan, we endorse its efforts at promoting an inclusive reconciliation process and welcome and support the efforts of the High Peace Council, and the implementation of the Afghan Peace and Reintegration Program.
...
We will continue to support Afghan-led efforts to reconcile and re-integrate those Afghan militant elements who renounce violence, cut links with terrorist groups, and accept the Afghan Constitution
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
Page 2, 2
Hence, we will be guided by the following set of common principles and commitments, which shall include, but not be limited to:
...
Elimination of illicit drug production, trade and trafficking; Preventing the cultivation and production of narcotics

Page 2, 5
...
We support the Government of Afghanistan’s priorities on the issues of security, governance, economy, counter-terrorism, counter-narcotics and regional cooperation

Page 2, 6
We re-emphasize our determination to help Afghanistan fight terrorism and illicit drugs
...
Afghanistan also reconfirms its will and determination to
...
addressing corruption, fight radicalism and narcotrafficking

Page 3, 8
We will strengthen cooperation with Afghanistan, as well as regional and international cooperation, to counter the threat posed by the illicit production, trafficking, and consumption of drugs, in accordance with the principle of common and shared responsibility. Cooperation in combating the illicit drug production, trafficking and consumption should be exercised in a comprehensive manner and comprise poppy and cannabis crops eradication, elimination of drug laboratories, interception of drug caravans, detention of drug traffickers, freezing proceeds from illicit drugs, diversion of drug precursors, as well as introduction of alternative agriculture projects and strengthening measures directed at reduction of the level of drugs consumption in regional and international markets

Page 5, 16, Section A
...
Exchange of information regarding forces responsible for counter-terrorism operations and facilitate contacts among them as appropriate; Co-operation and interaction among regional countries in the area of counter narcotics and the trafficking of illegal goods and lethal substance, and their precursors, including enhancing bilateral efforts to prevent illicit movement of personnel and material across international borders

Page 6, 16, Section B
...
Exchange of information regarding suspicious financial transactions, illegal financial operations and assistance in establishing and strengthening contacts between appropriate authorities
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
Page 2, 2
Hence, we will be guided by the following set of common principles and commitments, which shall include, but not be limited to:
...
Elimination of illicit drug production, trade and trafficking; Preventing the cultivation and production of narcotics

Page 2, 5
...
We support the Government of Afghanistan’s priorities on the issues of security, governance, economy, counter-terrorism, counter-narcotics and regional cooperation

Page 2, 6
We re-emphasize our determination to help Afghanistan fight terrorism and illicit drugs
...
Afghanistan also reconfirms its will and determination to
...
addressing corruption, fight radicalism and narcotrafficking

Page 3, 8
We will strengthen cooperation with Afghanistan, as well as regional and international cooperation, to counter the threat posed by the illicit production, trafficking, and consumption of drugs, in accordance with the principle of common and shared responsibility. Cooperation in combating the illicit drug production, trafficking and consumption should be exercised in a comprehensive manner and comprise poppy and cannabis crops eradication, elimination of drug laboratories, interception of drug caravans, detention of drug traffickers, freezing proceeds from illicit drugs, diversion of drug precursors, as well as introduction of alternative agriculture projects and strengthening measures directed at reduction of the level of drugs consumption in regional and international markets

Page 5, 16, Section A
...
Exchange of information regarding forces responsible for counter-terrorism operations and facilitate contacts among them as appropriate; Co-operation and interaction among regional countries in the area of counter narcotics and the trafficking of illegal goods and lethal substance, and their precursors, including enhancing bilateral efforts to prevent illicit movement of personnel and material across international borders

Page 6, 16, Section B
...
Exchange of information regarding suspicious financial transactions, illegal financial operations and assistance in establishing and strengthening contacts between appropriate authorities
Terrorism
Page 1, 2
Hence, we will be guided by the following set of common principles and commitments, which shall include, but not be limited to:
...
Resolutely combating and eliminating terrorism in all its forms and manifestations and violent extremism, and preventing safe havens for terrorists and terrorism in the region; Dismantling terrorist sanctuaries and safe havens, disrupting all financial and tactical support for terrorism; Acknowledging that terrorism poses a threat to international peace and security as well as a common challenge to our societies, to the region, and that it can only be addressed through the concerted efforts of all countries

Page 2, 5
...
We support the Government of Afghanistan’s priorities on the issues of security, governance, economy, counter-terrorism, counter-narcotics and regional cooperation

Page 2, 6
We re-emphasize our determination to help Afghanistan fight terrorism and illicit drugs
...
Afghanistan also reconfirms its will and determination to combat terrorism in all its forms and manifestations

Page 3, 6
...
Afghanistan also reconfirms its will and determination to combat terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, strengthen its economy, especially by ensuring good governance, promotion of investments, and addressing corruption, fight radicalism and narcotrafficking, respect human rights, in particular the rights of women, and to work together with its friends and partners for enhanced regional co-operation.

Page 3, 7
We reiterate our resolve to combat terrorism, extremism and separatism in all its forms and manifestations, the financing, harbouring, training and equipping of such activities, and acknowledge that terrorism, extremism and separatism pose a common challenge that can only be addressed through concerted efforts by countries of the region and the broader international community.

Page 3, 9
In assisting Afghanistan, we endorse its efforts at promoting an inclusive reconciliation process and welcome and support the efforts of the High Peace Council, and the implementation of the Afghan Peace and Reintegration Program. We strongly condemn the heinous terrorist attack which took the life of the former President and Head of the High Peace Council, Professor Burhanuddin Rabbani. We will continue to support Afghan-led efforts to reconcile and re-integrate those Afghan militant elements who renounce violence, cut links with terrorist groups, and accept the Afghan Constitution. We remain convinced that a peaceful Afghanistan, with functioning institutions and strengthened security forces, is key to a successful regional cooperation. We remind that the international community and the region are not separated and emphasize that we all have a stake in the security and stability of the region.

Page 5, 16, Section A
Enhanced cooperation for fighting terrorism, including through exchange of information; Participation in Civil Emergency Planning to assess risks and reduce vulnerability of the civil population to terrorism

Page 5, 16, Section A
... Exchange of information regarding forces responsible for counter-terrorism operations and facilitate contacts among them as appropriate; Co-operation and interaction among regional countries in the area of counter narcotics and the trafficking of illegal goods and lethal substance, and their precursors, including enhancing bilateral efforts to prevent illicit movement of personnel and material across international borders

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
Page 2, 2
Hence, we will be guided by the following set of common principles and commitments, which shall include, but not be limited to:
...
Support for an inclusive Afghan national process of reconciliation, in accordance with the Constitution of Afghanistan and in ways which is Afghan-led, Afghan-owned and Afghan-driven

Page 3, 9
In assisting Afghanistan, we endorse its efforts at promoting an inclusive reconciliation process and welcome and support the efforts of the High Peace Council, and the implementation of the Afghan Peace and Reintegration Program.

Page 8, 16, Section D
...
Promotion of inter-faith and intra-cultural dialogue

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
No specific mention.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh