Montelimar Declaration

Country/entity
Costa Rica
El Salvador
Guatemala
Honduras
Nicaragua
Region
Americas
Agreement name
Montelimar Declaration
Date
03/04/1990
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/intrastate conflict(s) (El Salvador Civil War (1979 - 1992)
The civil war in El Salvador lasted from 1979 to 1992 between an authoritarian government and non-state opponents. Following a failed coup d’état, five leftist guerrilla movements merged to form the umbrella organisation Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN). U.S. support for the central Salvatorean government after 1979 lasted until its collapsed in late 1980s, after which the right-wing Republican National Alliance (Arena) filled the power vacuum. In March 1990, the rebels announced a suspension of attacks on non-military entered into talks backed by the UN and Catholic Church with the government. Despite the talks violence peaked over the next two years until the Chapultepec Peace Accords were signed in Mexico City in February 1992. Another ceasefire was signed a month later, which lasted nine months and was never broken during that time. Arena won the 1994 presidential elections and maintained a significant portion of the legislature until 2009, when the FMLN attained the presidency.

El Salvador Civil War (1979 - 1992) and Guatemalan Civil War (1960 - 1996)
Civil war broke out in Guatemala when numerous leftist and agrarian groups took up arms in 1960 in face of the repression from the conservative regime of Carlos Castillo Armas. The Armas regime came to power in 1954 following a CIA-backed coup against the leftist government of Jacobo Arbenz. The main rebel umbrella was the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity (URNG). During the civil war numerous counts of genocide and mass disappearances occurred. In the late 1980s, when a civilian government came to power, the URNG changed tactics when releasing that they wouldn’t come to power through armed conflict. The war came to an end on December 29, 1996, and since then URNG converted to an official political party.

Guatemalan Civil War (1960 - 1996) and Nicaraguan Revolution (1978 - 1979) and Sandinista/Contra War (1981 – 1990)
The Nicaraguan Revolution was launched in 1978 by the left-leaning Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) and aimed at overthrowing the dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza. Although initially successful at overthrowing the regime in 1979, the Sandinistas faced growing a back-lash from the U.S.-backed right-wing Contras. Resistance also came from ethnic minorities along the Mosquito Coast. The following civil war was marked by mass human rights atrocities on both sides, with mass disappearances of those placed in state-custody, and mass rape and murder by rebels to ensure local complacency. The war eventually came to an end in 1990 when the FSLN peacefully transferred power after losing the 1990 election.

Nicaraguan Revolution (1978 - 1979) and Sandinista/Contra War (1981 – 1990) )
Stage
Implementation/renegotiation (Addresses new or outstanding issues)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
29: Nicaragua contra process
Parties
Oscar ARIAS SANCHEZ President of the Republic of Costa Rica
Alfredo CRISTIANI BURKARD President of the Republic of El Salvador
Vinicio CEREZO AREVALO President of the Republic of Guatemala
Rafael Leonardo CALLEJAS President of the Republic of Honduras
Daniel ORTEGA SAAVEDRA President of the Republic of Nicaragua
Third parties
Description
An agreement between the countries in Latin America, as part of the Esquipulas process to support democratisation in the region. It deals win particular with the end of the conflict in Nicaragua, but is aimed at wider regional support mechanisms for democratisation.

Agreement document
CR HN GT NI SV_900403_MontelimarDeclaration [756636].pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
Rhetorical
Page 4, Article 14,
To support the implementation of development programmes for displaced, refugee and repatriate populations in Central America, while requesting the international community to maintain and increase support for the commitments they have undertaken up to now so as not to delay their fulfilment, and to express their support for the first international meeting of the Follow-up Committee of the International Conference on Central American Refugees (CIREFCA), shortly to be held at United Nations Headquarters.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
Page 1, Article 4,
To confirm their pledge to continue promoting respect for human rights, which includes strengthening and improving their democratic systems for the purpose of fully ensuring: participation of all citizens in the political life of the country; independence and impartiality of the judiciary; and respect for civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 1, Article 4,
To confirm their pledge to continue promoting respect for human rights, which includes strengthening and improving their democratic systems for the purpose of fully ensuring: participation of all citizens in the political life of the country; independence and impartiality of the judiciary; and respect for civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
Page 1, Article 2,
To express their satisfaction with the progress achieved for consolidating democracy in the region through fair and honest electoral processes that bear witness to the effectiveness and fulfillment of the political commitments assumed in the context of Esquipulas

Page 1, Article 3,
To express their pleasure at the successful outcome, on 25 February 1990, of the electoral process in the Republic of Nicaragua, because these elections were held in a completely free and honest environment, as witnessed by the numerous international observers.
To commend the guarantees extended by the Government of Nicaragua in fulfilment of the political commitments entered into at the various stages of the Esguipulas process, and to express their satisfaction with the agreements reached by the Transition Teams of the current Government and the Government-elect, to which they gave their moral support out of respect for the paramount decisions adopted by the Nicaraguan people.
Accordingly, the Presidents of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras convey their thanks to the President of Nicaragua, Daniel Ortega Saavedra, for promoting and reinforcing the process towards consolidating representative and pluralistic democracy in his country.

Page 1, Article 4,
To confirm their pledge to continue promoting respect for human rights, which includes strengthening and improving their democratic systems for the purpose of fully ensuring: participation of all citizens in the political life of the country; independence and impartiality of the judiciary; and respect for civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights.

Page 2, Article 7,
To reaffirm the importance, for the consolidation of democracy, of integrating the irregular forces into political life, within the framework of the Esquipulas Agreements. In this regard, they expressed their satisfaction at the forthcoming resumption of talks between the Government of El Salvador and the Frente Farabundo Marti para la Liberacion Nacional (FMLN) and at the agreements reached at Oslo between the National Reconciliation Commission of Guatemala and the Union Fevolucionaria Nacionalista de Guatemala (URNG). The Central American countries also offered to serve as hosts for the meetings to be conducted in the context of these processes.

Page 3, Article 9,
In accordance with point 7 of the Esguipulas II Agreement and in the light of the progress made in national reconciliation processes and in the consolidation and improvement of democracy, they decide that now is the time to promote and prepare a timetable for the pending negotiations in the matter of security, verification, control and limitation of arms. They therefore summon the Security Commission to meet in Costa Rica on 15 May 1990 for the purpose of continuing such negotiations.

Pages 3-4,
Once the obstacles to peace have been overcome, it is necessary, in order to consolidate democracy, to face the economic challenge with determination; consequently, they decide that the next summit meeting should address the following issues in depth ...
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Socio-economic development
Pages 3-4,
Once the obstacles to peace have been overcome, it is necessary, in order to consolidate democracy, to face the economic challenge with determination; consequently, they decide that the next summit meeting should address the following issues in depth:
(a) The restructuring, strengthen and reactivation of regional economic integration;
(b) Movement towards an integrated system of production at the regional level;
(c) A restatement of the issues deriving from the external debt; and
(d) Better distribution of the social costs of the necessary adjustment of the economies.

To support the national economic adjustment programmes required for dealing with the serious economic and social problems of the area, the solution of which is vital for stabilizing the countries of the region. In this regard, they appeal to the international community to strengthen, consolidate and increase economic support for the region, for example, through the Luxembourg Agreement, direct co-operation and the Special Plan of Economic Co-operation for Central America. In this context, they reiterate the urgent need to provide Central America with additional financial resources on favourable terms.

To recognize the need to strengthen the activities of the public and private, national and international organizations which are helping to overcome political obstacles, solve social problems and promote economic development in the region, In this connection, they have expressed their satisfaction at the offers to contribute towards this end that have been made, on this occasion, by the Governments or Canada and Japan.

To express their conviction that, at this new stage, it is essential that the people and Government of Panama should ' e included in the efforts being made in the region to strengthen and improve the countries' democratic and pluralistic regimes which are committed to the economic and social development of their peoples. Being determined to make this concept a reality, and to support their efforts to restore to normal the political life of that country, while maintaining the respect for the international legal order and, in particular, for the rules governing the co-existence of sovereign States, they decide to extend a fraternal invitation to the Government of Panama to participate actively in the processes of dialogue, negotiation and harmonization being carried out in these areas by the Governments of Central America.

To express their satisfaction at the progress achieved in implementing the Special Plan for Economic Co-operation for Central America (PEC) as a valuable instrument of the Peace Plan, and to urge the parties concerned to enter into project-financing commitments within the context of the sectoral meetings sponsored by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). They also stress that this arrangement should continue to receive budgetary support within the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
To welcome the proposal, put forward by the Governments of Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela, designed to extend their co-operation to the development and strengthening of national centres in the Central American countries, which would enable these centres to acquire a regional scope and significance in the sectors of education, health, agriculture and energy, and to acknowledge the contribution they are making to the achievement of peace in Central America.

Page 4, Article 15,
To reaffirm that the health of the Central American peoples is a political priority which involves maintaining and studying in depth joint actions in the health sector, as a bridge for peace and understanding between the peoples of the area. To this end, they have decided to direct their ministers of health, to evaluate immediately the achievements, over the last five years, of the Plan for Priority Health Needs in Central America and Panama (PPSCAP) and formulate a new health initiative for Central America. To this end, they request the co-operation of the Pan-American Health Organization and the World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), among others.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
Pages 3-4,
Once the obstacles to peace have been overcome, it is necessary, in order to consolidate democracy, to face the economic challenge with determination; consequently, they decide that the next summit meeting should address the following issues in depth.
...
To support the national economic adjustment programmes required for dealing with the serious economic and social problems of the area, the solution of which is vital for stabilizing the countries of the region. In this regard, they appeal to the international community to strengthen, consolidate and increase economic support for the region, for example, through the Luxembourg Agreement, direct co-operation and the Special Plan of Economic Co-operation for Central America. In this context, they reiterate the urgent need to provide Central America with additional financial resources on favourable terms.
...
To express their satisfaction at the progress achieved in implementing the Special Plan for Economic Co-operation for Central America (PEC) as a valuable instrument of the Peace Plan, and to urge the parties concerned to enter into project-financing commitments within the context of the sectoral meetings sponsored by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). They also stress that this arrangement should continue to receive budgetary support within the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). ...
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
Page 4, 13,
To express their satisfaction with the work done by the Central American Commission on Environment and Development, and to reaffirm their support, encouraging it to continue its activities and evaluate the need for, and the advisability of, mustering sources of financing and llexible and innovative financial mechanisms for carrying out their programmes and projects. To this end, they agree to discuss the issue of "debt-for-environment" swaps at the next summit.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
Page 3, Article 9,
In accordance with point 7 of the Esguipulas II Agreement and in the light of the progress made in national reconciliation processes and in the consolidation and improvement of democracy, they decide that now is the time to promote and prepare a timetable for the pending negotiations in the matter of security, verification, control and limitation of arms. They therefore summon the Security Commission to meet in Costa Rica on 15 May 1990 for the purpose of continuing such negotiations.
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
Demilitarisation provisions
Pages 1-2, Article 5,
To emphasize the urgent need for immediate demobilization of the Nicaraguan Resistance, pursuant to the Joint Plan for demobilization, signed at the Tela Summit on 7 August 1989, and the Toncontin Agreement, signed in Honduras on 23 March 1990, and to express their satisfaction at the willingness shown by the parties involved to achieve that objective.
The Presidents of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras applaud the immediate support given by the Government of Nicaragua to the aforesaid Agreement which they also fully support, so that peace may be restored in the country and the transfer of power carried out in absolutely normal conditions.
To support the Protocol of Procedure for the Transfer of Presidential Authority of the Republic of Nicaragua, and to reguest the United Nations Observer Group in Central America (ONUCA) and the International Support and Verification Commission (CIAV) to take the necessary steps to ensure timely support for the demobilization and disarmament of the members of the Resistance who are inside or outside Nicaragua, a process which is to be initiated immediately and to be concluded no later than 25 April 1990.
The weapons to be received by ONUCA are to be destroyed in situ in the presence of representatives of other Central American Governments invited for this purpose by the relevant Government.
To urge the Government of the United States of America to continue supporting and contributing to the demobilization of the Nicaraguan Resistance and to channel the funds approved for these forces to CIAV, so that the said funds are used for reintegrating both the ex-members of the Nicaraguan Resistance who have handed over their weapons to ONUCA, and their families, into the normal life of the country.
To express their thanks and recognition for the valuable co-operation of the Government of Honduras in demobilizing the Nicaraguan Resistance.

Page 2, Article 7,
To reaffirm the importance, for the consolidation of democracy, of integrating the irregular forces into political life, within the framework of the Esquipulas Agreements. In this regard, they expressed their satisfaction at the forthcoming resumption of talks between the Government of El Salvador and the Frente Farabundo Marti para la Liberacion Nacional (FMLN) and at the agreements reached at Oslo between the National Reconciliation Commission of Guatemala and the Union Fevolucionaria Nacionalista de Guatemala (URNG). The Central American countries also offered to serve as hosts for the meetings to be conducted in the context of these processes.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
Page 4, Article 12,
To sign the Regional Co-operation Agreement to Eradicate Illegal Drug Trafficking, as an expression of their firm political will to co-operate closely in the joint endeavour to prevent and stand up to the risks deriving from illicit drug trafficking. In particular, they have stressed the importance of regional and international co-operation and of adopting laws that will make it possible to eradicate drug trafficking.
Terrorism
Page 2, Article 8,
To condemn terrorist actions in the region and to reiterate their appeal for the cessation of violent action of all kinds that directly or indirectly harms the civilian population and to the production infrastructure, and to demand the immediate release of all persons being held by irregular forces or terrorist groups.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
Page 3, Article 9,
In accordance with point 7 of the Esguipulas II Agreement and in the light of the progress made in national reconciliation processes and in the consolidation and improvement of democracy, they decide that now is the time to promote and prepare a timetable for the pending negotiations in the matter of security, verification, control and limitation of arms. They therefore summon the Security Commission to meet in Costa Rica on 15 May 1990 for the purpose of continuing such negotiations.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Pages 1-2, Article 5,
To emphasize the urgent need for immediate demobilization of the Nicaraguan Resistance, pursuant to the Joint Plan for demobilization, signed at the Tela Summit on 7 August 1989, and the Toncontin Agreement, signed in Honduras on 23 March 1990, and to express their satisfaction at the willingness shown by the parties involved to achieve that objective.
The Presidents of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras applaud the immediate support given by the Government of Nicaragua to the aforesaid Agreement which they also fully support, so that peace may be restored in the country and the transfer of power carried out in absolutely normal conditions.
To support the Protocol of Procedure for the Transfer of Presidential Authority of the Republic of Nicaragua, and to reguest the United Nations Observer Group in Central America (ONUCA) and the International Support and Verification Commission (CIAV) to take the necessary steps to ensure timely support for the demobilization and disarmament of the members of the Resistance who are inside or outside Nicaragua, a process which is to be initiated immediately and to be concluded no later than 25 April 1990.
The weapons to be received by ONUCA are to be destroyed in situ in the presence of representatives of other Central American Governments invited for this purpose by the relevant Government.
To urge the Government of the United States of America to continue supporting and contributing to the demobilization of the Nicaraguan Resistance and to channel the funds approved for these forces to CIAV, so that the said funds are used for reintegrating both the ex-members of the Nicaraguan Resistance who have handed over their weapons to ONUCA, and their families, into the normal life of the country.
To express their thanks and recognition for the valuable co-operation of the Government of Honduras in demobilizing the Nicaraguan Resistance.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh