Peace Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Chad and the Movement for Democracy and justice in Chad (MDJT) (Tripoli Agreement)

Country/entity
Chad
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Peace Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Chad and the Movement for Democracy and justice in Chad (MDJT) (Tripoli Agreement)
Date
07/01/2002
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Chadian Conflicts (1966 - )
The political history of Chad has been defined by ethno-religious conflict following independence from France in 1960, particularly between the Islamic north and the Christian and animist south. Although prevalent during the colonial era, this became particularly apparent under Tombalbaye during his 15-year rule (1960-1975), which saw mass discrimination against the Muslim northern and central regions. In 1966, the Islamist National Liberation Front on Chad (FROLINAT) was formed, but the movement was defined by factionalism and in-fighting, often encouraged by Libyan government policies, until the civil war ended in 1993. In 1975 Tombalbaye was killed during a coup, and the country reverted to military rule. Constant pressure from the various FROLINAT factions, however, caused then-ruler General Felix Malloum to align himself with Hissene Habre, a rebel leader formerly-aligned with FROLINAT, but then-commander of the Forces Armées du Nord (FAN). In 1978, Libyan troops also occupied the Aouzou Strip (See Libyan-Chadian Conflict). Meanwhile, Habre’s FROLINAT competitor, Goukouni Oueddei, gathered the majority of the northern insurgent factions, and the ensuing civil war between 11 factions eroded the capabilities of the state. In 1979, the Lagos Accords created a unity government (GUNT) that briefly convened the factions, but infighting between Habre and Goukouni’s forces broke out soon after.

Habre finally gained control of N’Djamena in 1982, but faced continuing insurgent pressure from GUNT. This changed in the mid-1980s when all forces in Chad aligned themselves against the Libyan occupation and expelled them from Chad. Infighting in Habre’s regime, meanwhile, saw the defection of General Idriss Deby to Sudan, where he launched a Zaghawa campaign against the President and took the capital in December 1990 with Libyan-backing. Deby was announced President in early 1991, and to ease fighting he announced elections, which he won, in 1996. A number of short-lived peace deals were signed with several rebel factions in 1997, but fighting continued. In 2003, an influx of over 200,000 refugees from Darfur complicated the matter further, and in 2005 Chad declared war on Sudan, which was backing the Chadian rebel group, Rally for Democracy and Liberty. A series of battles ensued across Chad culminating in the Battle of N’Djamena in 2008. The latest war ended in 2010 with a peace accord signed between Sudan and Chad.

In 2021, the FACT (Front pour l’Alternance et la Concorde au Tchad: Front for Change and Concord in Chad) attacked the Chadian military on the eve of presidential elections. President Idriss Déby was killed in the attack, and the army formed a Transitional Military Council (TMC).
Chadian Conflicts (1966 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
22: Chad: 'third war' process
Parties
Government of the Republic of Chad and the Movement for Democracy and Justice in Chad

Signatures:
For the Government of the Republic of Chad
(Signed) Abderahman Moussa Minister of the Interior and Security

For the Movement for Democracy and Justice in Chad
(Signed) General Adoum Togoi
Chairman of the National Reconciliation Committee
Third parties
For the Government of the Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
(Signed) Ali Abdessalam Treiki
Secretary of the People’s General Committee for African Unity
Description
This short agreements provides for an immediate ceasefire, amnesty, prisoners release, participation of MDJT in the Government and other State institutions, tripartite military committee, the integration of MDJT forces into the national army of Chad, as well as a tripartite follow-up committee.

Agreement document
TD_020107_PeaceAgreementChadandMDJT.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
State level
Page 1, Article 4:
To ensure the participation of MDJT in the Government and other State institutions, the modalities for such MDJT involvement being determined by the political and legal committee.
...
Article 8
Three technical subcommittees on political and legal, military and security, and social and economic matters, respectively, shall be established to work out the details of this Agreement not later than two months after its signature.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
Merger of forces
Page 2, Article 6:
The MDJT forces shall be integrated into the national army of Chad in accordance with the modalities decided upon by the military and security subcommittee.
Proportionality
Page 1, Article 5:
A tripartite military committee comprising representatives of the Government of Chad, the Government of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and MDJT shall be
established and charged with determining where forces shall be concentrated and stationed.

Page 2, Article 8:
Three technical subcommittees on political and legal, military and security, and social and economic matters, respectively, shall be established to work out the details of this Agreement not later than two months after its signature.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Article 1, Page 1:
To declare an immediate ceasefire between the two parties, to refrain from any direct or indirect military action, to stop all media campaigns against each other and to guarantee the free movement of persons and goods.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
Media roles
Article 1, Page 1:
To declare an immediate ceasefire between the two parties, to refrain from any direct or indirect military action, to stop all media campaigns against each other and to guarantee the free movement of persons and goods.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Socio-economic development
Page 1, Article 3:
To work towards the achievement of peace, security, stability and economic and social development in the region.

Page 2, Article 8:
Three technical subcommittees on political and legal, military and security, and social and economic matters, respectively, shall be established to work out the details of this Agreement not later than two months after its signature.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
Page 1, Article 3:
To work towards the achievement of peace, security, stability and economic and social development in the region.

Page 2, Article 8:
Three technical subcommittees on political and legal, military and security, and social and economic matters, respectively, shall be established to work out the details of this Agreement not later than two months after its signature.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
Article 1, Page 1:
To declare an immediate ceasefire between the two parties, to refrain from any direct or indirect military action, to stop all media campaigns against each other and to guarantee the free movement of persons and goods.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 1, Article 4:
To ensure the participation of MDJT in the Government and other State institutions, the modalities for such MDJT involvement being determined by the political and legal committee.

Page 1, Article 5:
A tripartite military committee comprising representatives of the Government of Chad, the Government of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and MDJT shall be established and charged with determining where forces shall be concentrated and stationed.

Page 2, Article 6:
The MDJT forces shall be integrated into the national army of Chad in accordance with the modalities decided upon by the military and security subcommittee.

Page 2, Article 7:
A tripartite follow-up committee comprising representatives of the Government of Chad, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and MDJT shall be created and shall be responsible for the implementation of this Agreement.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
Amnesty/pardon proper
Page 1, Article 2:
To declare a general amnesty and to release the prisoners and detainees of both sides.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
Page 1, Article 2:
To declare a general amnesty and to release the prisoners and detainees of both sides.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
For the Government of the Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
(Signed) Ali Abdessalam Treiki
Secretary of the People’s General Committee for African Unity
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 1, Article 5:
A tripartite military committee comprising representatives of the Government of Chad, the Government of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and MDJT shall be established and charged with determining where forces shall be concentrated and stationed.

Page 2, Article 7:
A tripartite follow-up committee comprising representatives of the Government of Chad, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and MDJT shall be created and shall be responsible for the implementation of this Agreement.

Page 2, Article 10:
The Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya shall ensure the implementation of the provisions of this Agreement.
Enforcement mechanism
Page 2, Article 7:
A tripartite follow-up committee comprising representatives of the Government of Chad, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and MDJT shall be created and shall be responsible for the implementation of this Agreement.

Page 2, Article 8:
Three technical subcommittees on political and legal, military and security, and social and economic matters, respectively, shall be established to work out the details of this Agreement not later than two months after its signature.

The University of Edinburgh