Comprehensive Ceasefire Agreement, Pleso

Country/entity
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Yugoslavia (former)
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Comprehensive Ceasefire Agreement, Pleso
Date
23/12/1994
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001)
Former Yugoslavia

The disintegration of former Yugoslavia post cold war saw conflicts which became mediated and produced peace agreements in Slovenia (where the brief independence conflict was mediated by the EC Troika in 1991), Croatia (between Croatian and Serb populations 1991-1995), in Bosnia (between Croatian, Serb and Bosniak populations 1992-1995), in Macedonia (where mediation played a key pre-emptive role in preventing large scale conflict in 2001), in Kosovo (between Kosovar Albanians and Serbian population and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), but also between FRY and NATO, 1998-1999), and a conflict in the Presevo Valley (between Albanians in South Serbia and FRY, 2000-2001). The continued fall-out of the disintegration of former Yugoslavia also saw mediated agreement and ultimate dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

In 1991, after nationalist parties won the first multi-party elections in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a violent process of disintegration commenced. With its mixed population, Bosnia-Herzegovina became the centre of the following civil war that began in 1992 between the newly formed army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Muslim Bosniacs), and the parastatal forces of self-declared Bosnian Croat (Herzeg-Bosnia) and Bosnian Serb (Republika Srpska) entities within Bosnia-Herzegovina, supported by Croatia and Serbia, with various, often short-lived, coalitions. The General Framework Agreement (Dayton Peace Agreement), signed in 1995, split the country into two ethno-federal entities, the Bosniak-Croat Federation and the Republika Srpska, and included continued peacekeeping and institutional administration by international actors.

Kosovo

The conflict between Serbs and Kosovar Albanians has a long history and always involved territorial disputes as well as ethno-political, cultural and linguistic factors. The most recent phase of the conflict began in November 1997 when the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UCK) began their campaign for the independence of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY – then Serbia and Montenegro). The subsequent war lasted until the NATO intervention, which undertook bombing campaigns of Belgrade and other places in Serbia during spring 1999. The main agreements solving the conflict were internationally driven and, finally, a UNSC resolution imposed a post-conflict arrangement in the wake of what was essentially a NATO military victory. In February 2008, Kosovo’s parliament declared independence, but independence is still internationally disputed.

Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Ceasefire)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
125: Bosnia peace process
Parties
Alija Izetbegovic; Rasim Delic; Radovan Karadzic; Ratko Mladic
Third parties
Witnessed by: Yasushi Akashi; Bertrand De La Presle
Description
This short agreement provides for a general ceasefire at 1200 hours on 24 December 1994, to last for four months and seven days. The parties agree to enable mobility of humanitarian convoys, release all detainees, and begin negotiations for a comprehensive cessation of hostilities.

Agreement document
BA_941223_ComprehensiveCeasefireAgreement, Pleso.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
Anti-discrimination
Page 1, Article 4
...
All people, regardless of age, sex or ethnic origin, shall have the right to live in a location of their choice.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
Anti-discrimination
Page 1, Article 4
...
All people, regardless of age, sex or ethnic origin, shall have the right to live in a location of their choice.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
Page 1, Article 4
The parties agree to protect the human rights of those persons residing within territory under their control in accordance with international standards, to include international humanitarian law. All peoples, regardless of age, sex or ethnic origin, shall have the right to live in a location of their choice.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
Page 1, Article 3
The parties shall enable the passage of UNPROFOR and humanitarian convoys as well as teams deployed for the purpose of monitoring the cease-fire in accordance with the terms of this agreement and existing procedures. The parties commit themselves to full respect for the safety and security of UNPROFOR, humanitarian and related personnel.

Page 1, Article 5
The parties agree to the prompt and unconditional release of all detainees, to include prisoners of war, and the release of all available information on missing persons, each to be carried out in its own right. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) will elaborate, in conjunction with the parties, a plan of action to implement this portion of the agreement.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 1, Article 4
The parties agree to protect the human rights of those persons residing within territory under their control in accordance with international standards, to include international humanitarian law.
...
The human rights situation in all areas shall be subject to international monitoring and observation.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
Isolated rights
Page 1, Article 4
...
All people, regardless of age, sex or ethnic origin, shall have the right to live in a location of their choice.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
Other
Page 1, Article 4
...
All people, regardless of age, sex or ethnic origin, shall have the right to live in a location of their choice.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 1, Article 3
The parties shall enable the passage of UNPROFOR and humanitarian convoys as well as teams deployed for the purpose of monitoring the cease-fire in accordance with the terms of this agreement and existing procedures. The parties commit themselves to full respect for the safety and security of UNPROFOR, humanitarian and related personnel.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Humanitarian assistance
Page 1, Article 3
The parties shall enable the passage of UNPROFOR and humanitarian convoys as well as teams deployed for the purpose of monitoring the cease-fire in accordance with the terms of this agreement and existing procedures.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
[Summary: Page 1-2, The agreement in its entirety provides for a general ceasefire.]

Page 1, Article 1
There shall be a general cease-fire along all lines of confrontation, which will take effect at 1200 hours on 24 December 1994. The general cease-fire shall be for an initial period of seven days and four months and shall be subject to renewal by agreement of the parties.

Page 1-2, Article 6
Negotiations aimed at achieving a comprehensive cessation of hostilities agreement for a period of no less than four months shall commence immediately after this agreement takes effect, with the intention of concluding the cessation of hostilities agreement by 1 January 1995. During the negotiations the Commanders of the parties in conflict will meet under the chairmanship of UNPROFOR to determine the military arrangements for the implementation of a cessation of all combat activities along all lines of confrontation.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
Page 1, Article 5
The parties agree to the prompt and unconditional release of all detainees, to include prisoners of war, and the release of all available information on missing persons, each to be carried out in its own right. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) will elaborate, in conjunction with the parties, a plan of action to implement this portion of the agreement.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
Page 1, Article 5
The parties agree to the prompt and unconditional release of all detainees, to include prisoners of war, and the release of all available information on missing persons, each to be carried out in its own right. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) will elaborate, in conjunction with the parties, a plan of action to implement this portion of the agreement.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
Signed as witnesses by Special Representatives of the Secretary General, Mr Yasushi Akashi, and UNPROFOR Commander Bertrand De La Presle
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 1, Article 2
Should any party breach the terms of this agreement, and if such a breach is verified, the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) shall report such a breach of the terms of the agreement through the Secretary-General to the Security Council immediately. The parties shall be responsible for reporting breaches to each other and to UNPROFOR. UNPROFOR shall assess allegations of breaches, attempt to resolve them where possible, and make public the results of its assessment, as appropriate.

Page 1, Article 3
The parties shall enable the passage of UNPROFOR and humanitarian convoys as well as teams deployed for the purpose of monitoring the cease-fire in accordance with the terms of this agreement and existing procedures. The parties commit themselves to full respect for the safety and security of UNPROFOR, humanitarian and related personnel.

Page 1, Article 4
...
The human rights situation in all areas shall be subject to international monitoring and observation.

Page 1-2, Article 6
Negotiations aimed at achieving a comprehensive cessation of hostilities agreement for a period of no less than four months shall commence immediately after this agreement takes effect, with the intention of concluding the cessation of hostilities agreement by 1 January 1995. During the negotiations the Commanders of the parties in conflict will meet under the chairmanship of UNPROFOR to determine the military arrangements for the implementation of a cessation of all combat activities along all lines of confrontation.
Enforcement mechanism
Page 1, Article 2
Should any party breach the terms of this agreement, and if such a breach is verified, the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) shall report such a breach of the terms of the agreement through the Secretary-General to the Security Council immediately. The parties shall be responsible for reporting breaches to each other and to UNPROFOR. UNPROFOR shall assess allegations of breaches, attempt to resolve them where possible, and make public the results of its assessment, as appropriate.

The University of Edinburgh