Bougainville Conflict (1987 - 1998)

The conflict on Bougainville, an island under the jurisdiction of Papua New Guinea (PNG), began in 1987 as a dispute over compensation for the use of land by Bougainville Copper Ltd, a an Australian subsidiary. The underlying issue of independence soon emerged and the conflict escalated between the government of PNG and the native islanders, in turn spearheaded by the Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA). Until fighting ended in 1998, an estimated 20,000 died in the conflict. Several pre-negotiation agreements culminated in an agreement to a ‘permanent and irrevocable’ ceasefire, and a framework for normalizing the PNG-Bourgainville relationship, which included elections.

The University of Edinburgh