Sino-Indian Border Dispute (1962 - )

There are two main areas that are disputed by China and India. These areas are largely unpopulated and are sparse with resources, but strategically important for both powers. Tensions mounted during the 1962 border war and 1986 skirmish. In the North-West there is the Aksai Chin plateau that is administered by China, but is claimed by India. Bordered by Tibet and Xinjiang, this border is approximately 685 miles long. The dispute in the Eastern sector on the tri-border area between India, China and Myanmar is largely due to a disagreement over the McMahon Line named after Sir Henry McMahon, the representative of the Indian Government to the Simla Conference of 1914. The line itself follows the watersheds of the Himalayas from Bhutan to Myanmar. China does not recognise the McMahon line, due to its original imperial context, and their claim runs along the foothills in Indian Territory. The area under dispute covers an area of 36,000 square miles. The Middle sector between Bhutan and Nepal is demarcated by the Himalayan watersheds. The border was confirmed in the British-Chinese Convention of 1890 and was undisputed until a brief standoff emerged in this sector in June 2017 on the Doklam plateau.
Since 2003 intensified efforts by the two powers have resulted in talks on the border issues handled by special representatives. However, the two sides continue to have differing opinions on the location of the 'Line of Actual Control' (LAC), which has led to incursions and military build-ups in 2009, 2013 and 2017.

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