Cenepa War (1995)

This brief conflict was fought between Peru and Ecuador in 1995, over the control of the Canepa valley on Peruvian territory. There had been earlier military confrontations over this area between the two nations, one in 1941 (the Ecuadorian-Peruvian War), resulting in a border treaty later disagreed with by Ecuador, and another brief confrontation in 1981. The war was initiated by Ecuadorian outposts at the Cenepa River that were discovered by a Peruvian patrol. Peru claimed that the existence of these outposts constituted a violation of Peruvian territory and gave Ecuador an ultimatum to withdraw its patrols or they would be dislodged by force. The deadline passed and Peruvian troops were deployed to the area to remove the Ecuadorian posts, followed by a general mobilization by both sides. Heavy air and ground attack were carried out from the end of January until 28 February when a bilateral ceasefire agreement was signed.
In March 1995, the Military Observer Mission to Ecuador and Peru came to Canepa, which was later turned into a demilitarized zone, to supervise the separation of forces. Furthermore, both governments negotiated the final demarcation of the border, resulting in the Rio Protocol, signed 26 October 1998.

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