Iraqi Kurdish Civil War (1994 - 1997)

A political rivalry between the two political parties, the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) and the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP), led to fighting with estimated casualties from 5,000 to 8,000.Fighting embroiled surrounding countries bringing in Iranian, Iraqi and Turkish forces. Elections in 1992 led to a split parliament between the PUK and KDP. Fighting began in 1994 and rivalries increased as the two sides fought over smuggling routes of Iraqi petroleum into Turkey. Regional politics, including the Kurdistan Worker's Party (PKK) support for the PUK, allowed the KDP to ally itself with Turkey. Another weak alliance between the KDP and Saddam Hussein, allowed the two forces to re-take Erbil and Sulimaniyah from PUK forces in 1996. Turkey also intervened against the PUK. A ceasefire line was established in early 1997 although fighting broke out again. Another ceasefire was then unilaterally declared by the KDP on November 24, 1997, that was accepted by the PUK. The conflict ended with a power-sharing agreement brokered by the U.S. between the two sides in 1998.

The University of Edinburgh