Plate-forme pour une solution politique et pacifique de la crise algérienne (Plate-forme de Rome)

Country/entity
Algeria
Region
Middle East and North Africa
Agreement name
Plate-forme pour une solution politique et pacifique de la crise algérienne (Plate-forme de Rome)
Date
13/01/1995
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Algerian Civil War (1990 - 1998)
The conflict has involved secularist and Islamic political forces. After the Front Islamique du Salut (FIS) won local councils and the first round of national elections in 1990 and 1991 respectively, the ruling state party, Front Libération National (FLN) dissolved Algeria’s parliament and suspended the constitution and the army council took over the reins of government. After protests by FIS, the military regime imposed a state of emergency, effectively triggering off a bloody civil war as Islamist militias rose in opposition. The FIS split, and the breakaway Groupe Islamique Armé (GIA) became known for some of the most violent anti-government actors. Violence peaked in 1995 after the military candidate won in presidential elections. Heavily pressured by the military, FIS-loyalists declared a ceasefire in 1997 and after presidential elections in 1999, President Abdelaziz Bouteflika enacted a new amnesty law, which saw the number of insurgents shrink dramatically. By 2002, the GIA was effectively beaten militarily, however, various small Islamist groups continue to operate in the region.
Algerian Civil War (1990 - 1998) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Principles)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
3: Algeria: Bouteflika Process
Parties
Pour la LADDH : Abdennour Ali Yahyia
Pour le FLN : Abdelhamid Mehri
Pour le FFS : Hocine Aït Ahmed ; Ahmed Djeddai
Pour le FIS : Rabah Kebir ; Anwar Haddam
Pour le PT : Louisa Hanoune
Pour le MDA : Ahmed Ben Bella ; Khaled Bensmain
Pour Ennahda : Abdallah Jaballah
Pour le JMC : Ahmed Ben Mouhammed
Third parties
Description
This agreement sets out the conditions for future talks among the parties. Issues covered include principles and values to be held as the foundation of the talks, measures which must precede the talks, reestablishment of peace, constitutional law, and popular sovereignty; and guarantees for the parties entering the talks.

Agreement document
DZ_950113_PlateformedeRome_tr.pdf

Agreement document (original language)
DZ_950113_PlatformedeRome-fr.pdf

Main category
Page 1, Untitled Preamble:
Today the people of Algeria live in a climate of terror without equal, exacerbated by intolerable social and economic conditions. In this faceless war, kidnappings, disappearances, assassinations, systematic torture, mutilations and reprisals, are the daily fare of the men and women of Algeria.

Page 2, A - Framework: values and principles:
[...]
• Guarantee of fundamental individual and collective liberties for all people, of any race, sex, religion or language;



C – The reestablishment of peace
[...]
- and on the other hand, an urgent call without ambiguity to stop the fighting. Algerians [both women and men] aspire to a return of peace. The modalities of implementation of this engagement will be determined by the two conflict parties with the active involvement of other representative parties.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
Equality (general)
Page 2, A Framework: values and principles: The parties commit themselves to a national contract with the following principles. Negotiations will not be viable should these principles not be accepted:
...the guarantee of individual and collective fundamental liberties regardless of race, sex, religious denomination and language...
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
General IHRL, IHL and IL
Page 2, A Framework: values and principles: The parties commit themselves to a national contract with the following principles. Negotiations will not be viable should these principles not be accepted:
...the guarantee of individual and collective fundamental liberties regardless of race, sex, religious denomination and language...
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Other
Page 1, 1. The Algerian opposition parties, gathered in Rome near the Community of Sant'Egidio on 13 January 1995 hereby declare:
...In this invisible war: kidnappings, disappearances, murder, systematic torture, mutilation and reprisals have become an everyday reality for the men and women of Algeria.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh