Agreement between the Government of Sudan and the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) (Cairo Agreement)

Country/entity
Sudan
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Agreement between the Government of Sudan and the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) (Cairo Agreement)
Date
18/06/2005
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan- internal. Post independence, conflict broke out between groups in South Sudan and agreements were reached addressing this conflict.

Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - comprehensive (Agreement)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
118: Sudanese peace process
Parties
[Uploaded document does not include signatures] The Government of Sudan (GoS) and the National Democratic Alliance (NDA).
Third parties
[Uploaded document does not include signatures, but the below provision indicates the Government of Egypt mediated]

Page 1, Untitled Preamble,
Whereas the GoS and the NDA (the Parties to the Agreement) have held a series of rounds of negotiation in Jeddah and Cairo culminating in the Cairo Meeting held from 14-16th June 2005 under the auspices of the Government of Egypt;
Description
A short agreement revolving around calls for transitioning Sudan towards an inclusive democratic state. In doing so the agreement focuses on the issues of democratic and decentralized governance, preparations for elections, the unity of Sudan, and the need for non-partisan institutions. The agreement also contains provisions dealing with the human and economic costs of conflict and bringing the NDA into the political arena.

Agreement document
SD_050616_Cairo Agreement.pdf

Main category
Page 1, 1. General Principles,
1.2 That citizenship shall be the basis for fundamental rights and public obligations, establishment of the right to citizenship that guarantees equality between citizens and respect for their beliefs and traditions and non-discrimination between citizens on the basis of religion, belief, race, gender, culture or any other reason.

Page 2, 1. General Principles,
1.4. The Two Parties acknowledge that the woman in Sudan play a basic role in the realization of peace, democracy and development in the country and confirm her participation at all levels of decision-making.

Page 4, 4. Constitutional Issues:,
4.3.3. The law shall guarantee total equality between citizens in establishment of the rights of the citizen, respect for belief and traditions and non-discrimination on the basis of religion, belief, race, gender, culture or any other reason.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 2, 1. General Principles,
1.4. The Two Parties acknowledge that the woman in Sudan play a basic role in the realization of peace, democracy and development in the country and confirm her participation at all levels of decision-making.
Citizenship
Page 1, 1. General Principles,
1.2 That citizenship shall be the basis for fundamental rights and public obligations, establishment of the right to citizenship that guarantees equality between citizens and respect for their beliefs and traditions and non-discrimination between citizens on the basis of religion, belief, race, gender, culture or any other reason.

Page 4, 4. Constitutional Issues:,
4.3.3. The law shall guarantee total equality between citizens in establishment of the rights of the citizen, respect for belief and traditions and non-discrimination on the basis of religion, belief, race, gender, culture or any other reason.
Equality
Equality (general)
Page 1, 1. General Principles,
1.2 That citizenship shall be the basis for fundamental rights and public obligations, establishment of the right to citizenship that guarantees equality between citizens and respect for their beliefs and traditions and non-discrimination between citizens on the basis of religion, belief, race, gender, culture or any other reason.

Page 4, 4. Constitutional Issues:,
4.3.3. The law shall guarantee total equality between citizens in establishment of the rights of the citizen, respect for belief and traditions and non-discrimination on the basis of religion, belief, race, gender, culture or any other reason.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
Reconciliation and peace
Page 2, 1. General Principles,
1.4. The Two Parties acknowledge that the woman in Sudan play a basic role in the realization of peace, democracy and development in the country and confirm her participation at all levels of decision-making.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
General
Page 2, 1. General Principles,
1.4. The Two Parties acknowledge that the woman in Sudan play a basic role in the realization of peace, democracy and development in the country and confirm her participation at all levels of decision-making.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh