The Colombian conflict is really a set of conflicts and the peace agreements reflect both different processes relating to different conflict groups and dyads, and processes taking place at different times in a complex peace process history. The Colombian civil war has its roots in the late 1940s and the violent infighting between liberal and the conservative factions. Emerging from the liberal tradition with a thorough grounding in nationalist communist ideology, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People's Army (FARC) began its armed insurrection against the Colombian government in 1964. Other left-wing guerrillas emerged as well, most notably the socialist/populist M-19, which would later be integrated into the formal political system in the peace process of 1990s; the National Liberation Army (ELN), which has strong roots in liberation theology, and the Maoist Ejército Popular de Liberación (EPL) (also part of the 1990 process, less successfully). Several stages of peace processes were undertaken by the various sides, which were further complicated by the emergence of right-wing paramilitary ‘self-defence’ forces. The peace agreement between the Colombian government under President Uribe and the main alliance of the paramilitary groups, the United Self-Defence Forces of Colombia (AUC), concluded in 2005 and is still heavily disputed as several remnants are still active, but now subsumed under the heading ‘Bacrim’ (Bandas criminales). In addition, FARC and ELN maintain a military presence, but both demonstrate a strong interest in completing successful peace negotiations with the government, with the most recent agreements being between FARC and the Government.
Colombian Conflict (1964 - )
99: Colombia III - Arango
This is an agreement on the regulations governing the encounter zone established by the government to advance the negotiations. It details the objective of the zone; its limits and duration with provisions on how to extend or end the existence of this zone; its general rules and workings; the dispositions for the participation of the population within the zone; human rights; arrangements for civil police (incl. recruitment, arms they carry, their movements, there is more in annex 2); judiciary; individual liberties; the cultivation of illicit products; the environment; and finally the air space.
Page 4, Article 29,
Special care and consideration will be given to staff carrying out educational, cultural, sanitary, humanitarian and religious functions, in addition to the material and facilities required by them. Similarly, special protection will be provided to pregnant women, the elderly and children.
Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
Page 303, HUMAN RIGHTS
... 29. ... Special protection to pregnant women, the elderly and the children will also be provided.
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