Tokyo Declaration on Reconstruction and Development of Sri Lanka

Country/entity
Sri Lanka
Region
Asia and Pacific
Agreement name
Tokyo Declaration on Reconstruction and Development of Sri Lanka
Date
10/06/2003
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/intrastate conflict(s) (Sri Lankan Civil War (1983 - 2009)
The roots of the Sri Lanka conflict lay in British colonial policy which controlled the island from 1802 until 1948. During the early 1800s, the British brought Tamils from mainland India to work on the various plantations for tea, coffee and rubber, changing Sri Lanka's the demographic make-up. Upon independence, Sinhalese nationalism dominated the political sphere and introduced discriminatory policies against the Tamil minority straining relations and sparking protests. Armed Tamil resistance first came in the form of assassinations of moderate Tamils and opposition politicians in the mid-1970s. However, it was the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam's (LTTE) attack on checkpoint Four Four Bravo, which marked the turning point, sparking pogroms against Tamils in Sinhalese majority areas. This incident, known as Black July, is widely considered to the beginning of the civil war.

The first round of peace talks were backed by India, which had deployed the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) in 1987, and led to the 1987 Indo-Sri Lanka Accord. The Accord was successful in persuading the majority of insurgency groups to lay down arms. However, the strongest Tamil insurgency group, the LTTE, was not party to the talks and refused to disarm, sparking direct conflict between the IPKF and the LTTE until IPKF withdrawal 1990. Following the withdrawal, the LTTE consolidated their power in the North and East sparking another intense and bloody war with the central government that lasted until 2002 when another peace process was launched under the auspices of Norwegian negotiators. The second round of peace talks, however, only continued until April 2003 and in March 2004, a large faction of LTTE cadres split from the main organization damaging LTTE unity. The LTTE were defeated militarily by a large-scale government assault in 2009, however, the conditions for peace remain uncertain.

Sri Lankan Civil War (1983 - 2009) )
Stage
Implementation/renegotiation (Other: Commitement of donor commmunity to peace process and development and reconstruction)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
124: Sri Lanka LTTE 2000s process
Parties
Government of Sri Lanka.
Third parties
Opening statements by:
Prime Minister of Japan, Mr. Junichiro Koizumi;
Prime Minister of Sri Lanka, Mr. Ranil Wickremesinghe

Conference co-chairs:
Minister for Foreign Affairs of Japan, Ms. Yoriko Kawaguchi;
State Secretary, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Norway, Mr. Olav Kjoerven;
Deputy Secretary of State of the United States, Mr. Richard L. Armitage;
Mr. Ioannis Theophanopoulos, representing the Presidency of the European Union;
Mr. Bernhard Zepter, representing the European Commission

Other representatives:
Governor of the Central Bank of Sri Lanka, Mr. A.S. Jayawardena;


List of representatives from 51 countries and 22 international organizations:
Commonwealth of Australia
Republic of Austria
People's Republic of Bangladesh
Kingdom of Belgium
Federative Republic of Brazil
Brunei Darussalam
Kingdom of Cambodia
Canada
People's Republic of China
Kingdom of Denmark
Arab Republic of Egypt
Republic of Finland
French Republic
Federal Republic of Germany
Hellenic Greece
State of the City of Vatican
Republic of Iceland
India
Republic of Indonesia
Islamic Republic of Iran
Ireland
State of Israel
Republic of Italy
Japan
Republic of Korea
State of Kuwait
Lao People's Democratic Republic
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Malaysia
Kingdom of Nepal
Kingdom of the Netherlands
New Zealand
Kingdom of Norway
Sultanate of Oman
Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Republic of the Philippines
Portuguese Republic
Russian Federation
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Republic of Singapore
Republic of South Africa
Spain
Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
Kingdom of Sweden
Swiss Confederation
Kingdom of Thailand
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
United States of America
Socialist Republic of Viet Nam






European Commission
Asian Development Bank
Asian Productivity Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
International Committee of the Red Cross
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
International Fund for Agricultural Development
International Labor Organization
International Monetary Fund
International Organization for Migration
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
United Nations Secretariat
United Nations Human Settlement Programme
United Nations Development Programme
United Nations Population Fund
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
United Nations Children's Fund
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
United Nations World Food Programme
World Health Organization
World Bank
Description
Summary of the Hakone Conference in Japan, which was attended by the GOSL, but not the LTTE. The objective of the conference was to take note of the economic challenges of Sri Lanka; provide the international community with an opportunity to demonstrate its strong and unified commitment to the reconstruction and development of Sri Lanka; to promote the peace process; note the importance of humanitarian assistance; fund-raise to accomplish the aforementioned tasks; and emphasize the importance of developing the north east region and praise the "regain Sri Lanka" economic plan.

Agreement document
LK_030610_Tokyo Declaration on Reconstruction and Development of Sri Lanka.pdf

Main category
Page 4-5, Linkage between Donor Support and Progress in the Peace Process
18. Assistance by the donor community must be closely linked to substantial and parallel progress in the peace process towards fulfilment of the objectives agreed upon by the parties in Oslo. The Conference encourages the Government of Sri Lanka and the LTTE to enter into discussions as early as possible on a provisional administrative structure to manage the reconstruction and development aspects of the transition process. The process would need the expeditious development of a roadmap with clear milestones indicating the path towards a mutually acceptable final political solution. With this in view, the international community intends to review and monitor the progress of the peace process closely, with particular reference to objectives and milestones including:
... g. Effective inclusion of gender equity and equality in the peace building, the conflict transformation and the reconstruction process, emphasizing an equitable representation of women in political fora and at other decision-making levels.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 4-5, Linkage between Donor Support and Progress in the Peace Process
18. Assistance by the donor community must be closely linked to substantial and parallel progress in the peace process towards fulfilment of the objectives agreed upon by the parties in Oslo. The Conference encourages the Government of Sri Lanka and the LTTE to enter into discussions as early as possible on a provisional administrative structure to manage the reconstruction and development aspects of the transition process. The process would need the expeditious development of a roadmap with clear milestones indicating the path towards a mutually acceptable final political solution. With this in view, the international community intends to review and monitor the progress of the peace process closely, with particular reference to objectives and milestones including:
... g. Effective inclusion of gender equity and equality in the peace building, the conflict transformation and the reconstruction process, emphasizing an equitable representation of women in political fora and at other decision-making levels.
Equality
Equality (general)
Page 4-5, Linkage between Donor Support and Progress in the Peace Process
18. Assistance by the donor community must be closely linked to substantial and parallel progress in the peace process towards fulfilment of the objectives agreed upon by the parties in Oslo. The Conference encourages the Government of Sri Lanka and the LTTE to enter into discussions as early as possible on a provisional administrative structure to manage the reconstruction and development aspects of the transition process. The process would need the expeditious development of a roadmap with clear milestones indicating the path towards a mutually acceptable final political solution. With this in view, the international community intends to review and monitor the progress of the peace process closely, with particular reference to objectives and milestones including:
... g. Effective inclusion of gender equity and equality in the peace building, the conflict transformation and the reconstruction process, emphasizing an equitable representation of women in political fora and at other decision-making levels.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh