Accord politique en vue du renforcement du processus démocratique

Country/entity
Chad
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Accord politique en vue du renforcement du processus démocratique
Date
13/08/2007
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Chadian Conflicts (1966 - 2010)
The political history of Chad has been defined by ethno-religious conflict following independence from France in 1960, particularly between the Islamic north and the Christian and animist south. Although prevalent during the colonial era, this became particularly apparent under Tombalbaye during his 15-year rule (1960-1975), which saw mass discrimination against the Muslim northern and central regions. In 1966, the Islamist National Liberation Front on Chad (FROLINAT) was formed, but the movement was defined by factionalism and in-fighting, often encouraged by Libyan government policies, until the civil war ended in 1993. In 1975 Tombalbaye was killed during a coup, and the country reverted to military rule. Constant pressure from the various FROLINAT factions, however, caused then-ruler General Felix Malloum to align himself with Hissene Habre, a rebel leader formerly-aligned with FROLINAT, but then-commander of the Forces Armées du Nord (FAN). In 1978, Libyan troops also occupied the Aouzou Strip (See Libyan-Chadian Conflict). Meanwhile, Habre’s FROLINAT competitor, Goukouni Oueddei, gathered the majority of the northern insurgent factions, and the ensuing civil war between 11 factions eroded the capabilities of the state. In 1979, the Lagos Accords created a unity government (GUNT) that briefly convened the factions, but infighting between Habre and Goukouni’s forces broke out soon after.

Habre finally gained control of N’Djamena in 1982, but faced continuing insurgent pressure from GUNT. This changed in the mid-1980s when all forces in Chad aligned themselves against the Libyan occupation and expelled them from Chad. Infighting in Habre’s regime, meanwhile, saw the defection of General Idriss Deby to Sudan, where he launched a Zaghawa campaign against the President and took the capital in December 1990 with Libyan-backing. Deby was announced President in early 1991, and to ease fighting he announced elections, which he won, in 1996. A number of short-lived peace deals were signed with several rebel factions in 1997, but fighting continued. In 2003, an influx of over 200,000 refugees from Darfur complicated the matter further, and in 2005 Chad declared war on Sudan, which was backing the Chadian rebel group, Rally for Democracy and Liberty. A series of battles ensued across Chad culminating in the Battle of N’Djamena in 2008. The latest war ended in 2010 with a peace accord signed between Sudan and Chad.

Chadian Conflicts (1966 - 2010) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
29: Chad: Fourth War Process
Parties
Unsigned but listed as the parties of the presidential majority and the political parties of the opposition
Third parties
As Observers:
The Local Presidency of the European Union
The Delegation of the European Commission
Description
This is an agreement to reinforce the democratic processes in Chad, with a particular focus on an electoral reform. It define in details the composition and functioning of the Independent National Electoral Commission (CENI - (commission électorale nationale indépendante) whose members are 15 members of the presidential majority and 15 of the democratic opposition, and the electoral office. It covers electoral census, changes to and details of the electoral law, the general climate (democratic and neutral) and on the establishment of a support and follow up committee.

Agreement document
TD_070813_accord politiques en vue du renforcement du processus democratique_tr.pdf

Main category
Page 12, 6. DES DISPOSITIONS FINALES
Les Partis politiques signataires appellent le peuple Tchadien et en particulier : les associations de défense des droits de l’homme, les syndicats, les organisations féminines et des jeunes, à adhérer à ce processus de paix véritable et de développement durable que sous-tend le présent Accord Politique.

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Translation:

Page 12, Article 6. FINAL PROVISIONS:
The signatory political parties call upon the people of Chad and in particular: associations for the defence of human rights, unions, women and youth organisations, to support this genuine peace and sustainable development process which underlies the present Political Agreement.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
Infrastructure (general)
Page 12, Article 6. FINAL PROVISIONS:
The signatory political parties call upon the people of Chad and in particular: associations for the defence of human rights, unions, women and youth organisations, to support this genuine peace and sustainable development process which underlies the present Political Agreement.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
General
Page 12, Article 6. FINAL PROVISIONS:
The signatory political parties call upon the people of Chad and in particular: associations for the defence of human rights, unions, women and youth organisations, to support this genuine peace and sustainable development process which underlies the present Political Agreement.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh