Final Communque of the All-Liberia National Conference, Virginia, Liberia

Country/entity
Liberia
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Final Communque of the All-Liberia National Conference, Virginia, Liberia
Date
18/04/1991
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/intrastate conflict(s) (Liberian Civil Wars (1989 - 1997) (1999 - 2005)
In 1989, the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) attacked border posts as part of a campaign to oust the dictatorship of Samuel Doe. This triggered a violent civil war that by 1995 had killed around 150,000 and displaced an estimated 850,000 people. The outbreak of war is attributed to the domestic socio-economic and political environment in the country of the 1980s, such as poverty, discrimination and repression. However, its sustenance is also related to past discrimination against indigenous Liberians by ‘Americo-Liberians’, and deep ethnic divisions that resulted.

Peace negotiations began in 1992 and completed by 1997. However, the peace lasted only a short period and in 1999 there was renewed fighting against the elected president, Charles Taylor. The Guinea-backed organisation, Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD), together with the armed Movement for Democracy in Liberia (MODEL) controlled two thirds of the country by 2003 and besieged the capital Monrovia, forcing Charles Taylor into exile in Nigeria. In August that same year, the conflict parties signed the Accra Comprehensive Peace Agreement and in 2005 new general elections were held.

Liberian Civil Wars (1989 - 1997) (1999 - 2005) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
75: Liberia peace process
Parties
Not signed. Agreement mentions the following parties as having produced it:

Conference Chairs:
Ambassador Herbert R.W. Brewer
Archibishop Michael Kpakala Francis
Shiekh Kafumba Konneh

Delegates
1. Political Parties :
Liberia Action Party (LAP)
Liberia People's Party (LPP)
Liberia Unification Party (LUP)
Unity Party (UP)
United People's Party (UPP)
National Democratic Party of Liberia (NC;'IL)

2. Warring Factions
National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL)
Independent National Patriotic Front of Liberia (INPFL)

3. Interest Groups
Press Union of Liberia (PUL)
National Bar Association of Liberia (NBA)
National Medical and Dental Association of Liberia (NMDAL)
National Teachers' Association of Liberia
Liberian National Students of Liberia (LINSU)
Liberian Federation of Labour Union (LFLU)
Liberian Marketing Association (LMA)
Movement for Justice in Africa (MOJA)
Federation of Liberia Youth (FLY)
Liberian Council of Churches (LCC)
Muslim Council of Liberia (MCL)
Liberian Association of Writers (LAW)
Women Development Association of Liberia (WODAL)
Rubber Planters Association of Liberia (RPAL)

4. County Representatives
While all of the twenty-six (26) county representatives were accredited, only the thirteen representatives from the Monrovia Assembly were actually in attendance at the Conference.

The ECOWAS Standing Mediation Committee was represented as follows:
Honourable Major-General (rtd) Ike Nwachukw, Minister of External Affairs, Nigeria.
Honourable Mr. Yaoui Adodo, Minister of External Affairs, Togo
Honourable Dr. Mohammed lbn Chambas, Deputy Secretary for Foreign Affairs, Ghana
Honourable Mr. O. Yaga Bagayogo, Deputizing for the Honourable Minister of External Affairs, Mali
Honourable Alhaji Abdul Karim Koroma, Minister of Foregin Affairs, Sierra Leone
Third parties
Other dignitaries present at the Conference included:
The Special Representatives of the Secretary-General of the United Nations
The Special Representatives of the Secretary-General of the Organisation of African Unity
Members of the Diplomatic Corps residing in Monrovia.

Also in attendance were a large number of Liberians, many of whom had returned from abroad, and members of the international press.
Description
This agreement establishes an interim government and an interim elections commission in Liberia.

Agreement document
LR_910420_Virginia All-Liberia National Conference.pdf

Main category
Page 1, Untitled Preamble: The All-Liberia National Conference was held in Virginia, Liberia from March 15 to April 20, 1991 under the Triumvirate Chair of Ambassador Herbert R.W. Brewer, Archbishop Michael Kpakala Francis and Shiekh Kafumba Konneh. The Conference was attended by one hundred and fifty-one (151) delegates of thirty-six (36) delegations from the following Political Parties, warring factions, interest groups and county representatives:
...3. Interest Groups:
...Women Development Association of Liberia (WODAL)


Page 3, THE INTERIM ELECTIONS COMMISSION, Composition: An Independent Interim Elections Commission was established by the Conference and composed of Representatives from the following Interest Groups:
...The Women Development Association of Liberia

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Other
Page 3, THE INTERIM ELECTIONS COMMISSION, Composition: An Independent Interim Elections Commission was established by the Conference and composed of Representatives from the following Interest Groups:
...The Women Development Association of Liberia
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
Other
Page 1, Untitled Preamble: The All-Liberia National Conference was held in Virginia, Liberia from March 15 to April 20, 1991 under the Triumvirate Chair of Ambassador Herbert R.W. Brewer, Archbishop Michael Kpakala Francis and Shiekh Kafumba Konneh. The Conference was attended by one hundred and fifty-one (151) delegates of thirty-six (36) delegations from the following Political Parties, warring factions, interest groups and county representatives:
...3. Interest Groups:
...Women Development Association of Liberia (WODAL)
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh