The Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on Power-Sharing within the Framework of a Broad-based Transitional Government (Continuation of the Protocol of Agreement Signed on the 30th October, 1992)

Country/entity
Rwanda
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
The Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on Power-Sharing within the Framework of a Broad-based Transitional Government (Continuation of the Protocol of Agreement Signed on the 30th October, 1992)
Date
09/01/1993
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Rwandan Civil War (1990 - 1994)
The origins between the ethnic tensions between the Tutsi and Hutus in Rwanda are found in the original waves of migration and later into the domination of the Kingdom of Rwanda formed by the Tutsi clans. The Kingdom of Rwanda became the framework used by the German colonials to exercise power. Although the economy was reformed following the transfer to Belgian rule after World War I, the Hutu majority remained disenfranchised. Socio-economic differences were further cemented in 1935, when the Belgians introduced identity cards with Hutu or Tutsi distinctions.

Relations deteriorated after World War Two when a Hutu elite formed, and in 1959, what began as attacks on Tutsi targets evolved into the Rwandan revolution. The Belgian colonials began a programme of promotion for Hutus and following elections in the mid-1960s, the Hutus took control of most constituencies. More than 336,000 Tutsis fled Rwanda during the revolution and a failed insurgency was launched in the late 1960s.

By the late 1980s, many former Tutsi refugees in Uganda had gained integral roles in the Ugandan National Army following the overthrow of Milton Obete by Yoweri Museveni. In 1990, a Tutsi faction within the Ugandan Army, the Rwandan Patriotic Front, led by Fred Rwigyema invaded Uganda. However, the RPF came in disarray following Rwigyema’s death on the second day of the attack. This led another Tutsi officer from the Ugandan Army, Paul Kagama, to step in. The troops were reassembled and another campaign was lauched in 1991. By 1992, the Arusha Accords were signed in Tanzania, providing for a power-sharing government. The war took a turn for the worst when on April 6, 1994, the plane of then-President Juvénal Habyarimana, a Hutu, was shot over Kigali killing everyone on board. The next day, the Rwandan Army, alongside civilians began killing Tutsi and moderate Hutu leaders, which marked the beginning of the 3-month long genocide of Tutsis in Rwanda, until the killing was ended in July 1994 when the RNF forced the interim government into exile. Approximately 2,000,000 Hutus also fled to the Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Tanzania and Uganda.

Rwandan Civil War (1990 - 1994) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
53: Rwanda-RPF process
Parties
The Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front.
Third parties
In the presence of the Facilitator (The Republic of Tanzania): Hon. Ahmed Hassan Diria Minister for Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation.
In the presence of the Representative of the Current Chairman of the OAU: Papa Louis Fall, Ambassador of Senegal to Ethiopia and Representative to OAU
For the Secretary General of the OAU, Dr M. T. Mapuranga, Assistant Secretary General of the OAU, in charge of Political Affairs

Description
This is a short central agreement centered around the power-sharing, providing for principles for (VII) New Areas of Agreement (Provisions relating to the Executive Power, Transitional National Assembly, Relationship between the Transitional National Assembly and the Broad- Based Transitional Government, Political Code of Ethics binding the political forces called upon to participate in the Transitional Institutions, Miscellaneous Provisions).

Agreement document
RW_930109_ProtocolOnPowerSharing.pdf

Main category
Page 4, Chapter VII: New Areas of Agreement, Section 1 Provisions relating to the Executive Power, Sub-section 4 Distribution of Ministerial Portfolios within the Broad-Based Transitional Government, Article 56:
The nominative distribution oi portfolios shall be as follows:
...
MRND:
...
5. Ministry of Family Affairs and Promotion of the Status of Women

Page 10-11, Chapter VII: New Areas of Agreement, Section 4 Political Code of Ethics binding the political forces called upon to participate in the Transitional Institutions, Sub-section 1: Fundamental Principles, Article 80:
In a declaration signed by their authorised representatives, the political forces called upon to participate in the Transitional Institutions shall undertake to:
[…]
4. Reject and undertake to fight any political ideology or any act aimed at fostering discrimination based mainly on ethnic, regional, sexual or religious differences;

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
Equality (general)
Page 10, Chapter VII: New Areas of Agreement, Section 4 Political Code of Ethics binding the political forces called upon to participate in the Transitional Institutions, Sub-section 1: Fundamental Principles, Article 80:
In a declaration signed by their authorised representatives, the political forces called upon to participate in the Transitional Institutions shall undertake to:
... 4. Reject and undertake to fight any political ideology or any act aimed at fostering discrimination based mainly on ethnic, regional, sexual or religious differences;
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
Institutions for women
Page 4, Chapter VII: New Areas of Agreement, Section 1 Provisions relating to the Executive Power, Sub-section 4 Distribution of Ministerial Portfolios within the Broad-Based Transitional Government, Article 56:
The nominative distribution oi portfolios shall be as follows:
...
MRND:
...
5. Ministry of Family Affairs and Promotion of the Status of Women
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh