Accord Pour la Paix et la Reconciliation au Mali - Issu du Processus d'Alger

Country/entity
Mali
Azawad
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Accord Pour la Paix et la Reconciliation au Mali - Issu du Processus d'Alger
Date
20/06/2015
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Tuareg Wars (1962 - )
Mali-Azawad
The nomadic Tuareg in the north of Mali maintained a long-standing revolt against a government traditionally dominated by southern politicians. The uprisings focused in and around the Azawad region, north of Timbuktu. After several outbreaks of violence during the 1980s, violence peaked with the 1990 outbreak of the Tuareg Rebellion. Following an initial defeat by the Malian Armed Forces, reparations by the government of Alpha Konare and the creation of the self-governing Kidal region. Violence in 1994 died down following peace between moderates on both sides in 1995 and a negotiated peace agreement.

Violence continued due to a lack of integration by combatants, but it was not until 2011 that the situation again escalated in the aftermath of the Arab Spring and the disintegration of Libya, which resulted in a heavy inflow of small arms, and the increased involvement by Algeria. In January 2012, the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) together with several other groups took full control of the region. Disputes on how to handle the situation led to a military coup against President Touré in March 2012 that, in turn, resulted in further turmoil. The MNLA declared the independence of Azawad, but soon lost control of most of the territory to radical Islamist militias including Ansar Dine. A French intervention in January 2013 paved the way for an UN mission, which was established in April of that year.

Air-Niger-Azawad
Fighting between 1990 to 1995 took place largely in the Air Mountains. A short-lived truce was agreed in 1994 between the Niger Government and two umbrella movements the ORA and CRA. Another accord was signed in April 1995 in Ouagadougou with 'all' Tuareg groups and some Toubou, the last signing in 1998. The Second Tuareg Rebellion broke out in 2007 following little follow up by the Nigeriene government.
Tuareg Wars (1962 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - comprehensive (Agreement)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
81: Mali-Azawad Inter-Azawad peace process
Parties
The Government of Mali and le Mouvement national de libération de l'Azawad (MNLA), le Haut Conseil pour l'unité de l'Azawad (HCUA) et le Mouvement arabe de l'Azawad (MAA), le Mouvement arabe de l'Azawad-dissident (MAA-dissident), la Coordination pour le peuple de l'Azawad (CPA) et la coordination des mouvements et fronts patriotiques de résistance (CMFPR).
Third parties
Description
This is a comprehensive agreement covering state principles; governance reform; defence and security issues; development; reconciliation, justice and humanitarian issues; international involvement and transitional arrangements.

Agreement document
ML_150620_Accord pour la paix et la reconciliation au Mali _Issu du Processus d'Alger_EN.pdf

Agreement document (original language)
ML_150620_Accord pour la Paix et la Réconciliation au Mali - Issu du Processus d'Alger_FR.pdf

Main category
Page 3, SECTION I: PRINCIPLES, COMMITMENTS AND FOUNDATIONS FOR A SUSTAINABLE RESOLUTION OF THE CONFLICT, Chapter 1: Principles and Commitments, Article 1:
In the spirit of the roadmap, the Parties reiterate their attachment to the following principles:
[...]
b) recognition and promotion of cultural diversity and appreciation of the contribution made by all the people of Mali, particularly women and young people, in building the nation;
[...]

Page 5, SECTION II: POLITICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL QUESTIONS, Chapter 3: Institutional framework and territorial reorganisation, Article 6:
The Parties shall put in place an institutional architecture enabling the populations of the North to manage their own affairs in a spirit of participative citizenship, based on the principle of free administration and enabling wider representation of these populations within national institutions. To this end, the following provisions shall be made:
[...]
At the national level
[...]
- the representation of the populations in the National Assembly shall be enhanced by increasing the number of electoral constituencies and/or other appropriate measures;
in the short term, measures to open the High Council of Collectivities in particular to representatives of the traditional elites, and of women and young people;
[...]

Page 9-10, SECTION IV: SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT, Chapter 13: Mobilisation to promote development in the Northern Regions, Article 38:
The Development Zone of the Northern Regions shall be prioritised in terms of the provisions for State support in the present Agreement.
To this end, the Parties shall take all short, medium and long-term measures listed in Annex, relating to socio-economic and cultural development.
The Government shall submit a document following the first meetings of the CSA, specifying its commitments in this area, the resources which it plans to mobilise, and the timetable for implementation of the commitments made, in particular in the following areas:
[...]
- employment, particularly for women, young people and former combatants;
[...]

Page 11, SECTION V: RECONCILIATION, JUSTICE AND HUMANITARIAN QUESTIONS, Chapter 14: Reconciliation and justice, Article 47:
The Parties shall promote genuine national reconciliation based on the following elements:
[...]
- creation of an International Committee of Enquiry tasked with investigating all war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide, sexual crimes and other serious violations of International Law, Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law throughout Malian territory;
[...]
- no amnesty for the authors of war crimes, crimes against humanity and serious violations of Human Rights, including violence against women, girls and infants, related to the conflict;
[...]

Page 12, SECTION VI: INTERNATIONAL GUARANTEES AND SUPPORT, Chapter 16: Responsibility of the Parties, Article 51:
The Parties request that the political class, as well as civil society, particularly women and young people, the media, traditional communicators and the traditional and religious authorities, extend their full support to achieving the objectives of the Agreement.

Page 20, Annex 2: Defence and Security:
V. Reform of the defence and security sector
[...]
c. Establishment of Local Consultative Security Committees (Comités Consultatifs de Sécurité, CCLS)
- Within 60 days of signing the Agreement, CCLS shall be established by decree, first at the regional level, and then at the communal level (one CCLS for each region based in the regional capital, and one CCLS in each commune).
- CCLS shall include the stakeholders in justice and security at the local level, including representatives of the new territorial police, of communities and traditional authorities, and members of civil society including associations for women and young people. CCLS shall provide advice and recommendations at the level of the local executive and to security stakeholders, and shall assist with information exchange, awareness-raising and taking greater account of the concerns of the population.
- CCLS shall meet at least once a month to evaluate the security situation and to make recommendations.

Page 21, Annex 3: Economic, social and cultural development projects and actions to undertake in the Northern regions of Mali over the short, medium and long term:
I. Interim measures
[...]
1. Education and training
[...]
- Mobilising the support and engagement of the community to encourage the return of children, particularly girls, to school within the affected areas;
[...]

Page 22, Annex 3: Economic, social and cultural development projects and actions to undertake in the Northern regions of Mali over the short, medium and long term:
I. Interim measures
[...]
4. Reactivation of the local economy
[...]
- Setting up revenue-generating programmes for women and young people within the sectors of agriculture, stock-breeding, small business, fishing and crafts.

Page 22, Annex 3: Economic, social and cultural development projects and actions to undertake in the Northern regions of Mali over the short, medium and long term:
I. Interim measures
[...]
Implementation methods:
[...]
- The Government shall pay special attention to the protection, assistance and promotion of vulnerable social groups, notably, orphans, child or female heads of families, traumatised children, widows, young delinquents, physically and mentally disabled persons, etc.;
[...]

Page 23-24, Annex 3: Economic, social and cultural development projects and actions to undertake in the Northern regions of Mali over the short, medium and long term:
persons, etc.;
[...]
II. Medium and long term measures
Within the framework of the Specific Development Strategy described in Section IV of the Agreement on socio-economic and cultural development of the northern Regions, multi-annual special plans for the Development Zone for the Northern regions of Mali will be set up and comprise principally of the following projects and actions:
[...]
Within the framework of the relaunch of the local economy, the following shall be progressed:
- Reintegration of women and young people and their organisations into private collective initiatives;
- Promotion of income-generating activities for women or young people grouped in social enterprises (economic or cooperative associations or collectives);
[...]
- Improvement in the skills of women and young people aligned to the real requirements of local economies and their active participation;
[...]
- Setting up a business support programme for qualified young people and women, training programmes and support for the inclusion of children withdrawn from school or not educated;
[...]

Page 25, Annex 3: Economic, social and cultural development projects and actions to undertake in the Northern regions of Mali over the short, medium and long term:
persons, etc.;
[...]
II. Medium and long term measures
[...]
Within the framework of improving access to basic social services, the following shall be progressed:
[...]
- Launch of an extended communication programme to encourage children, especially girls, to attend school;
[...]


Original French:
Page 3, TITRE I: PRINCIPES, ENGAGEMENTS ET FONDEMENTS POUR UN REGLEMENT DURABLE DU CONFLIT, Chapitre 1: Principes et Engagements, Article 1: Les Parties, dans l’esprit de la Feuille de route, réitèrent leur attachement aux principes ci-après:
...b) reconnaissance et promotion de la diversité culturelle et linguistique et valorisation de la contribution de toutes les composantes du peuple malien, particulièrement celle des femmes et des jeunes, à l’œuvre de construction nationale;

Page 6, TITRE II: QUESTIONS POLITIQUES ET INSTITUTIONNELLES, Chapitre 3: Cadre institutionnel et réorganisation territoriale, Article 6: ...Au niveau national:
...à court terme, prendre des mesures dans le sens de l’ouverture du Haut Conseil des Collectivités notamment aux représentants des notabilités traditionnelles, aux femmes et aux jeunes;

Page 11, TITRE IV: DEVELOPPEMENT SOCIO-ECONOMIQUE ET CULTUREL, Chapitre 13 Mobilisation en faveur d’un développement des régions du Nord, Article 38 : La Zone de Développement des Régions du Nord bénéficiera, de façon prioritaire, des dispositifs de soutien de l’Etat prévus dans le présent Accord.
A cet égard, les Parties conviennent de mettre en œuvre toutes les mesures à court, moyen et long termes énoncées dans l’annexe relative au développement socio- économique et culturel.
Le Gouvernement soumettra, dès les premières sessions au Comité de Suivi de l’Accord, un document précisant ses engagements en la matière, les moyens propres qu’il envisage de mobiliser ainsi que le calendrier de mise en œuvre des engagements tels que convenus et concernant notamment les domaines suivants :
...emploi, en particulier pour les femmes, les jeunes et les anciens combattants ;

Page 13, TITRE V RECONCILIATION, JUSTICE ET QUESTIONS HUMANITAIRES, Chapitre 14 Réconciliation et Justice, Article 46 : Les Parties conviennent de promouvoir une véritable réconciliation nationale fondée sur les éléments ci-après:

...- création d’une Commission d’enquête internationale chargée de faire la lumière sur tous les crimes de guerre, les crimes contre l’Humanité, les crimes de génocide, les crimes sexuels et les autres violations graves du Droit international, des Droits de l’homme et du Droit international humanitaire sur tout le territoire malien;

...- non amnistie pour les auteurs des crimes de guerre et crimes contre l’Humanité et violations graves des Droits de l’homme, y compris des violences sur les femmes, les filles et les enfants, liés au conflit;

Page 14, TITRE VI: GARANTIES ET ACCOMPAGNEMENT D’ORDRE INTERNATIONAL, Chapitre 16: Responsabilité des Parties, Article 51 : Les Parties demandent à la classe politique ainsi qu’à la société civile, notamment les organisations de femmes et de jeunes, les médias, les communicateurs traditionnels et les autorités traditionnelles et religieuses, d’apporter leur plein concours à la réalisation des objectifs de l’Accord.

Page 24, ANNEXE 2 Défense et Sécurité, V Réforme du Secteur de la Défense et de la Sécurité, c. Mise en place des Comités Consultatifs locaux de Sécurité (CCLS):
...- Les CCLS incluront les acteurs de la sécurité et de la justice au niveau local, y compris les représentants de la nouvelle police territoriale, et des représentants des communautés et des autorités traditionnelles, religieuses et coutumières, des membres de la société civile y compris les associations de femmes et de jeunes. Les CCLS émettront des avis et recommandations à l’endroit de l’exécutif local et des acteurs de la sécurité, et contribueront à l’échange d’informations, à la sensibilisation et à une meilleure prise en compte des préoccupations de ces populations.

Page 27, ANNEXE 3 Actions et projets de développement économique, social et culturel à réaliser dans les régions du Nord du Mali à court, à moyen et à long termes, I. Mesures Intérimaires, 4. Relance de l’économie locale: Fournir des appuis à la reprise de la production agricole et animale à travers:
...- la mise en place des activités génératrices de revenus pour les femmes et les jeunes dans les domaines de l’agriculture, l’élevage, le petit commerce, la pêche et l’artisanat.

Page 29, ANNEXE 3 Actions et projets de développement économique, social et culturel à réaliser dans les régions du Nord du Mali à court, à moyen et à long termes, II. Mesures à moyen et à long termes: Au titre des programmes de relance de l’économie locale, il sera procédé à ce qui suit:
- la réintégration économique des jeunes et de femmes et de leurs organisations dans le cadre d’initiatives privées collectives;
- la promotion des Activités Génératrices de Revenus au profit de jeunes et femmes regroupes en entreprises d’économie sociale et solidaire (associations ou groupements d’intérêt (économique, coopératives);
...- le renforcement des compétences des jeunes et des femmes en harmonie avec les besoins réels des économies locales et leur participation active;
...- la mise en place d’un programme de soutien à l’entreprenariat au profit des jeunes diplômés et des femmes, des programmes de formation et d’insertion des jeunes déscolarisés et non scolarisés;

Page 31, ANNEXE 3 Actions et projets de développement économique, social et culturel à réaliser dans les régions du Nord du Mali à court, à moyen et à long termes, II. Mesures à moyen et à long termes: Au titre de l’amélioration de l’accès aux Services Sociaux de Base, il sera procédé à ce qui suit:
...- Le lancement d’un vaste programme de communication pour soutenir le maintien des enfants, particulièrement celui des filles, à l’école;

Page 3, Title I Principles, Commitments, and Foundations for a Sustainable Settlement of the Conflict, Chapter 1 Principles and Commitments, Article 1: The Parties, in the spirit of the roadmap, reaffirm their attachment to the principles below:
…b) recognition and promotion of linguistic and cultural diversity and promotion of the contribution of all the diverse groups of the Malian People, particularly that of the women and young people, towards the work of nation building.

Page 6, Title II Political and Institutional Issues, Chapter 3 Institutional Framework and Territorial Reorganisation, Article 6: The Parties agree to establish an institutional architecture which will allow the Northern populations, in the spirit of full citizen participation, to manage their own affairs, on the basis of the principle of self-governance. They also agree to guarantee greater representation of these populations in national institutions. This will be enacted in accordance with the provisions below:
…At the national level
…in the short term, to take steps towards expanding the membership of the High Council of the Communities to include representatives from the traditional leaders, women, and youth populations.

Page 11, Title IV Socio-economic and Cultural Development, Chapter 13 Mobilisation in favour of the development of the Northern regions, Article 38: The Development Zone of the Northern Regions will benefit, on a priority basis, from state support packages outlined in the present agreement.
In this regard, the parties agree to implement all the short, medium, and long term measures listed in the annex relating to socio-economic and cultural development.
The Government will submit, in the first meeting of the agreement monitoring committee, a document detailing its commitments in this matter, including the government resources that it plans to mobilise and a suitable implementation timetable which will focus primarily on the following areas:
…employment, in particular for women, young people, and ex-combatants.

Page 13, Title V Reconciliation, Justice and Humanitarian Issues, Chapter 14 Reconciliation and Justice, Article 46: The Parties agree to promote a true national reconciliation founded on the factors below:
…creation of an international commission of enquiry charged with shedding light on all the war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide, sex crimes and other serious violations of international law, human rights, and international humanitarian law committed across the Malian territory.
…Amnesty will not be given to the perpetrators of war crimes, crimes against humanity, and serious violations of human rights linked to the conflict, including violence against women, girls, and children.
Page 14, Title VI Guarantees and International Support, Chapter 16 Parties’ responsibilities, Article 51: The parties request that the political class as well as civil society, particularly women’s and youth organisations, the media, traditional communicators and traditional and religious leaders, lend their full support to the achievement of the agreement’s objectives.

Page 22, Annex 3: Economic, social and cultural development projects and actions to undertake in the Northern regions of Mali over the short, medium and long term:
I.Interim measures
[...]
Implementation methods:
[...]
- The Government shall pay special attention to the protection, assistance and promotion of vulnerable social groups, notably, orphans, child or female heads of families, traumatised children, widows, young delinquents, physically and mentally disabled persons, etc.;
[...]

Page 24, Annex 2 Defence and Security, V Security and Defence Sector Reform, c. Organisation of Local Consultation Committees on Security (LCCS):
…The LCCS will include local level security and justice actors, including representatives from the new local police force, and representatives from the communities and the traditional, religious, and customary authorities; members of civil society including women’s and youth association. The LCCS will give advice and recommendations to the local executive and security actors. They will also contribute to information exchange, sensitisation, and the development of a better understanding of their populations’ concerns.

Page 27, Annex 3 Short, medium and long term social, economic and cultural development actions and projects to be undertaken in the Northern Mali Regions, I Interim Measures, 4. Revival of the local economy: To provide support for the resumption of agricultural production and animal husbandry:
…the establishment of income generation activities for women and young people in the fields of agriculture, livestock farming, petty trading, fishing, and arts and crafts.
…Implementation modalities:…The Government commit to ensure the protection, rehabilitation, and the promotion of vulnerable social groups, particularly child heads of household, orphans, traumatised children, widows, women heads of household, juvenile delinquents, the physically and mentally handicapped, etc.

Page 29, Annex 3 Short, medium and long term social, economic and cultural development actions and projects to be undertaken in the Northern Mali Regions, II Medium and Long term Measures:
The following activities will be carried out under the programmes for the revival of the local economy:
- The economic reintegration of young people and women and their organisations within the framework of private collective initiatives.
- The promotion of income generation activities for the benefit of young people and women grouped together in social solidarity economy enterprises (associations or interest groups (e.g. economic groups, cooperatives)).

- Skills training for young people and women which is consistent with the real needs of the local economies and their active participation.

- The establishment of a programme of support for entrepreneurship for young graduates and women, and training and induction programmes for young school leavers and young people out of school.
Page 31, Annex 3 Short, medium and long term social, economic and cultural development actions and projects to be undertaken in the Northern Mali Regions, II Medium and Long term Measures: In order to improve access to basic social services, the following activities will be undertaken:
…The launch of a vast communication programme to encourage the retention of children, particularly girls, in school.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 6, Title II Political and Institutional Issues, Chapter 3 Institutional Framework and Territorial Reorganisation, Article 6: The Parties agree to establish an institutional architecture which will allow the Northern populations, in the spirit of full citizen participation, to manage their own affairs, on the basis of the principle of self-governance. They also agree to guarantee greater representation of these populations in national institutions. This will be enacted in accordance with the provisions below:
…At the national level
…in the short term, to take steps towards expanding the membership of the High Council of the Communities to include representatives from the traditional leaders, women, and youth populations.

Page 24, Annex 2 Defence and Security, V Security and Defence Sector Reform, c. Organisation of Local Consultation Committees on Security (LCCS):
…The LCCS will include local level security and justice actors, including representatives from the new local police force, and representatives from the communities and the traditional, religious, and customary authorities; members of civil society including women’s and youth association. The LCCS will give advice and recommendations to the local executive and security actors. They will also contribute to information exchange, sensitisation, and the development of a better understanding of their populations’ concerns.
Other
Page 3, Title I Principles, Commitments, and Foundations for a Sustainable Settlement of the Conflict, Chapter 1 Principles and Commitments, Article 1: The Parties, in the spirit of the roadmap, reaffirm their attachment to the principles below:
…b) recognition and promotion of linguistic and cultural diversity and promotion of the contribution of all the diverse groups of the Malian People, particularly that of the women and young people, towards the work of nation building.
Equality
Social equality
Page 11, Title IV Socio-economic and Cultural Development, Chapter 13 Mobilisation in favour of the development of the Northern regions, Article 38: ... The Government will submit, in the first meeting of the agreement monitoring committee, a document detailing its commitments in this matter, including the government resources that it plans to mobilise and a suitable implementation timetable which will focus primarily on the following areas:
…employment, in particular for women, young people, and ex-combatants.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Sexual violence
Page 13, Title V Reconciliation, Justice and Humanitarian Issues, Chapter 14 Reconciliation and Justice, Article 46: The Parties agree to promote a true national reconciliation founded on the factors below:
…creation of an international commission of enquiry charged with shedding light on all the war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide, sex crimes and other serious violations of international law, human rights, and international humanitarian law committed across the Malian territory.
Gender-based violence/VAW (general)
Page 13, Title V Reconciliation, Justice and Humanitarian Issues, Chapter 14 Reconciliation and Justice, Article 46: The Parties agree to promote a true national reconciliation founded on the factors below:
…Amnesty will not be given to the perpetrators of war crimes, crimes against humanity, and serious violations of human rights linked to the conflict, including violence against women, girls, and children.
Protection (general)
Page 27, Annex 3 Short, medium and long term social, economic and cultural development actions and projects to be undertaken in the Northern Mali Regions, I Interim Measures, 4. Revival of the local economy: To provide support for the resumption of agricultural production and animal husbandry:
…Implementation modalities:…The Government commit to ensure the protection, rehabilitation, and the promotion of vulnerable social groups, particularly child heads of household, orphans, traumatised children, widows, women heads of household, juvenile delinquents, the physically and mentally handicapped, etc.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
General
Page 11, Title IV Socio-economic and Cultural Development, Chapter 13 Mobilisation in favour of the development of the Northern regions, Article 38: The Development Zone of the Northern Regions will benefit, on a priority basis, from state support packages outlined in the present agreement.
In this regard, the parties agree to implement all the short, medium, and long term measures listed in the annex relating to socio-economic and cultural development.

Page 27, Annex 3 Short, medium and long term social, economic and cultural development actions and projects to be undertaken in the Northern Mali Regions, I Interim Measures, 4. Revival of the local economy: To provide support for the resumption of agricultural production and animal husbandry:
…the establishment of income generation activities for women and young people in the fields of agriculture, livestock farming, petty trading, fishing, and arts and crafts.

Page 29, Annex 3 Short, medium and long term social, economic and cultural development actions and projects to be undertaken in the Northern Mali Regions, II Medium and Long term Measures:
The following activities will be carried out under the programmes for the revival of the local economy:
- The promotion of income generation activities for the benefit of young people and women grouped together in social solidarity economy enterprises (associations or interest groups (e.g. economic groups, cooperatives).
Rehabilitation and reconstruction
Page 27, Annex 3 Short, medium and long term social, economic and cultural development actions and projects to be undertaken in the Northern Mali Regions, I Interim Measures, 4. Revival of the local economy: To provide support for the resumption of agricultural production and animal husbandry:
…Implementation modalities:…The Government commit to ensure the protection, rehabilitation, and the promotion of vulnerable social groups, particularly child heads of household, orphans, traumatised children, widows, women heads of household, juvenile delinquents, the physically and mentally handicapped, etc.

Page 29, Annex 3 Short, medium and long term social, economic and cultural development actions and projects to be undertaken in the Northern Mali Regions, II Medium and Long term Measures:
The following activities will be carried out under the programmes for the revival of the local economy:
- The economic reintegration of young people and women and their organisations within the framework of private collective initiatives.
- The promotion of income generation activities for the benefit of young people and women grouped together in social solidarity economy enterprises (associations or interest groups (e.g. economic groups, cooperatives).

- Skills training for young people and women which is consistent with the real needs of the local economies and their active participation.

- The establishment of a programme of support for entrepreneurship for young graduates and women, and training and induction programmes for young school leavers and young people out of school.
Education
Page 29, Annex 3 Short, medium and long term social, economic and cultural development actions and projects to be undertaken in the Northern Mali Regions, II Medium and Long term Measures:
The following activities will be carried out under the programmes for the revival of the local economy:
- The establishment of a programme of support for entrepreneurship for young graduates and women, and training and induction programmes for young school leavers and young people out of school.
...
- Skills training for young people and women which is consistent with the real needs of the local economies and their active participation.

Page 31, Annex 3 Short, medium and long term social, economic and cultural development actions and projects to be undertaken in the Northern Mali Regions, II Medium and Long term Measures: In order to improve access to basic social services, the following activities will be undertaken:
…The launch of a vast communication programme to encourage the retention of children, particularly girls, in school.
Implementation
Women's role and consideration in implementation of the agreement
Page 14, Title VI Guarantees and International Support, Chapter 16 Parties’ responsibilities, Article 51: The parties request that the political class as well as civil society, particularly women’s and youth organisations, the media, traditional communicators and traditional and religious leaders, lend their full support to the achievement of the agreement’s objectives.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh