Agreement on Political Process

Country/entity
Iraq
Region
Middle East and North Africa
Agreement name
Agreement on Political Process
Date
15/11/2003
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Iraq Wars and the Iraqi Insurgency (1989-1990) (2004 - )
In the aftermath of the Iraq-UN conflict following President Saddam Hussein’s invasion of Kuwait in 1989, the UN enforced no-fly zones and set up a monitoring commission of the arms capacity of the Iraqi government. By the late 1990s, Iraqi officials had increased their resistance against the implementation of these programmes. In the aftermath of the 2001 terrorist attacks on New York, the U.S. accused the Iraqi government of having weapons of mass destruction. In 2003, a U.S.-led coalition overthrew the government of Saddam Hussein, but failed to maintain security in the country as ex-Bathist and Islamist groups launched a counter-campaign. Violence reached a peak in 2006 as the conflict took on sectarian traits leading to mass human rights violations by domestic Sunni and Shi’a groups, as well as occupying forces. Despite the failure to stabilize the country, the U.S.-led forces withdrew in December 2011. Since then Iraq has effectively been split into three territories based on ethno-religious identity including the Shi’a in the south, the Kurds in the north, and a Sunni band in the middle, which is currently occupied by the organisation known as the Islamic State (formerly of Iraq and the Levant).

Iraq Wars and the Iraqi Insurgency (1989-1990) (2004 - ) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Process)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
65: Iraq peace process - second Iraq war
Parties
Jalal Talabani, For the Governing Council; L. Paul Bremer and David Richmond, For the Coalition Provisional Authority.
Third parties
Description
Short agreement between Coalition Provisional Authority and the Governing Council of Iraq for the establishment of a Fundamental Law, the selection Transitional National Assembly, and the eventual restoration of sovereignty to Iraqi governing bodies.

Agreement document
IQ_031115_Agreement_on_Political_Process.pdf

Main category
Page 1, 1. The "Fundamental Law"
... - Elements of the "Fundamental Law":
o Bill of rights, to include freedom of speech, legislature, religion; statement of equal rights of all Iraqis, regardless of gender, sect, and ethnicity; and guarantees of due process.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
Equality (general)
Page 1, 1. The "Fundamental Law"
... - Elements of the "Fundamental Law":
o Bill of rights, to include freedom of speech, legislature, religion; statement of equal rights of all Iraqis, regardless of gender, sect, and ethnicity; and guarantees of due process.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
General IHRL, IHL and IL
Page 1, 1. The "Fundamental Law"
... - Elements of the "Fundamental Law":
o Bill of rights, to include freedom of speech, legislature, religion; statement of equal rights of all Iraqis, regardless of gender, sect, and ethnicity; and guarantees of due process.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh