The Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement (NCA) between The Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and the Ethnic Armed Organizations (EAO)

Country/entity
Myanmar
Region
Asia and Pacific
Agreement name
The Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement (NCA) between The Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and the Ethnic Armed Organizations (EAO)
Date
15/10/2015
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Myanmar Conflict (1948 - )
Internal conflict, mostly along ethno-political fault lines, has been a constant feature of Myanmar since its independence in 1948. The conflict has two distinct dynamics. First a struggle between an authoritarian government and a pro-democracy opposition which has the characteristics of authoritarian conflicts; and second a stuggle between the government and ethnic armed groups which has the characteristics of an identity conflict. The two oldest and strongest militias fighting the government are the Karen National Union (KNU), which has remained active since the late 1940s, and the Kachin Independence Organisation, which was formed in the early 1960s. In total, here are more than a dozen mostly ethnic-based guerrilla groups active throughout the country. Especially in the period of junta dictatorship that lasted until 2011 the government attempted to crush the rebellions, which led to numerous human rights violations. With the start of democratic reforms in the aftermath of the 2010 elections, peace negotiations have taken place and resulted in the signing of various agreements, although conflicts remain active.

Myanmar Conflict (1948 - ) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Ceasefire)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
87: Myanmar ceasefires process with ethnic armed groups
Parties
For the Government of the Republic For the Ethnic Armed Organizations of the Union of Myanmar
(Leaders of Executive, Hluttaw and Tatmadaw)
(Leaders of the Ethnic Armed Organizations)

Note: two additional groups signed on the 13 February 2018: The New Mon State Party and Lahu Democratic Union inked the NCA in Nay Pyi Taw, joining eight other groups who had signed before State Counsellor Daw Aung San Suu Kyi took office (https://frontiermyanmar.net/en/nmsp-ldu-formally-sign-nationwide-ceasefire-agreement).

Third parties
Witnesses
1) National
2) International

Page 15, Annex; Decisions and minutes made during NCA
31. Article 33 UPWC agrees to invite international witnesses as proposed by the EAOs: UN, China, India and Thailand

32. Article 33 In addition, the NCA will be signed in the presence of the following country representatives: EU, USA, UK, Norway and Japan.
Description
This agreement was largely agreed by March 2015, but signature was only reached in the run-up to the Myanmar elections in October 2015. At that point, only seven of the wider group of Ethnic Armed Organisations involved in the drafting of the text signed. We have included as an appendix, decisions referred to in Article 30 of the Agreement, which were formally agreed but which were not made public with the agreement by the Myanmar goverment, but have been made public by the Ethnic armed organisations.

Agreement document
MN_151015 Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement.pdf

Agreement document (original language)
MM_151015_Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement_BUR.pdf

Main category
Page 1, Chapter 1, Basic Principles
1. In order to achieve lasting and sustainable peace, we agree to implement this Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement in accordance with the following basic principles:
... d. Guarantee equal rights to all citizens who live within the Republic of the Union of Myanmar; no citizen shall be discriminated against on the basis of ethnicity, religion, culture, or gender.

Page 6, Chapter 3 Protection of Civilians
9. The Tatmadaw and the Ethnic Armed Organizations shall abide by the following provisions regarding the protection of civilians:
... m. Avoid any form of sexual attack on women, including sexual molestation, sexual assault or violence, rape and sex slavery.
n. Avoid killing or maiming, forced conscription, rape or other forms of sexual assault or violence, or abduction of children.

Page 10, Chapter 5 Holding of inclusive political dialogue
23. We shall include a reasonable number/ratio of women representatives in the political dialogue process.

Page 15, Annex; Decisions and minutes made during NCA
22. Article 23 “A reasonable number/ratio” means all parties will strive for inclusion of 30% of women representatives in the political dialogue

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Other
Chapter 5
Guarantees for Political Dialogue
Pg 10 Holding of Inclusive Dialogue
. . .
26. We shall include a reasonable number/ration of women representatives in the political dialogue process.
Equality
Equality (general)
Pg 1 Chapter 1
Basic Principals

pg 1 1. In order to acheive lasting and sustainable pace, we agree to implement this Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement in accordance with the following basic principles: . . .

d. Guarantee equal rights to all citizens who live within the Republic of the Union of Myanmar; no citizen shall be discriminated against on the basis of ethnicity, religion, culture, or gender.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Sexual violence
Pg 5 Protection of Civilians

9. The Tatmadaw and the Ethnic Armed Organizations shall abide by the following provisions regarding the protection of civilians:

...

m. Avoid any form of sexual attack on women, including sexual molestation, sexual assault or violence, rape and sex slavery.

n. Avoid killing or maiming, forced conscription, rape or other forms of sexual assault or violence, or abduction of children.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh