National Action Charter of Bahrain

Country/entity
Bahrain
Region
Middle East and North Africa
Agreement name
National Action Charter of Bahrain
Date
15/02/2001
Agreement status
Unilateral document
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Bahraini Uprising (2011 - )
Following uprisings across the MENA region in early 2011, protests ensued on February 14, 2011, aimed at generating social reforms and greater social equality for Bahrain's Shi'a majority. Following the deaths of two protesters in the first two days, a sit-in was held at the Pearl Roundabout in Manama on February. The next morning, security forces stormed the camp, killing 4 protesters, marking a turning point in the conflict. Protests picked up momentum and by April 2012, over 80 protesters and security forces had been killed in violence from both sides. In December 2013, there were impromptu 183 protests alone. Sectarian tensions are further heightened by the recruitment of Sunni Muslims into the National Army from abroad, and the deployment of soldiers from the predominantly Sunni GCC Joint Shield Force. There is also an indication of state-sponsored systematic destruction of Shi'a mosques across Bahrain following the protests.

On July 2, 2011, King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa instigated the Bahrain National Dialogue as a means to promote reconciliation between the government and Bahrainis. 300 participants were involved with 37% representation dedicated for political organisations, 36% for CSOs, 21% for opinion leaders and 6% for media representation. Opposition parties were only granted 5 seats, and there was much criticism of the un-balanced nature of the National Dialogue. The National Dialogues were suspended by January 2014.
Bahraini Uprising (2011 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
11: Bahrain: Reform-based peace process
Parties
Al Kahlifa Family of Bahrain, as well as "50 national figures"
Third parties
Description
the National Action Charter was created in a unilateral response by the ruling Al Khalifa family of Bahrain to quell growing dissent among segments of Bahraini society, particularly the Shi'a majority. The Charter emphasizes the role of the Al Khalifa family in Bahrain's history, national unity and democratic principles. It contains a bill of rights.

Agreement document
BH_010215_National Action Charter.pdf

Main category
Page 2, We shall remain hand in hand and united over the course of this process and I hereby stretch my hand to every single Bahraini, men and women, as it showed the pledge of allegiance and it will show a new formula of allegiance. The new formula and the national modernization shall be the features of our best days to come.

Page 7, Sixth - Family as the basis of society
Based on the firm belief that family is the nucleus of the society and that good family is key to a cohesive society as well as key to upholding religious and ethical values and national sense of belonging, the state protects the legal form of family as well as maternity and childhood, provides care to children, protects them from exploitation and moral, physical and spiritual negligence. In particular, the state pays special attention to physical, moral and mental development of youth. In this respect, the state ensures necessary social security for citizens in cases of aging, invalidity, orphanage, widowing and unemployment. The state also secures social insurance services for citizens in such cases. The state secures health care and puts in place health policies that are conducive to achieving the objective of health for all. The state ensures the solidarity of the society in sharing burdens arising from natural calamities and disasters, compensation of those who may be injured due to war or on account of military duty. The state endeavors to support women's rights and the enactment of laws on protection of family and family members.

Page 9, Chapter II: Government System
Seventh - People's right to participation in Public Affairs
Citizens, men and women alike, have the right to participate in public affairs and political rights including suffrage and the right to contest as prescribed by law.

Page 13-14, Chapter VII: Foreign Relations
... It is noted that since it joined the United Nations, Bahrain has contributed to all UN activities, resolutions, events, agreements and conventions, particularly those related to human rights, civil, political and socioeconomic rights, women's rights as well as the work of UN specialized agencies. In the realm of international economic and trade relations, the considered policy of the state of Bahrain stands for free international trade, movement of investment, capital and labour while taking into account national interests of individual countries. In so believing, the state of Bahrain maintains that each country enjoys the better title over its own natural resources that cannot be disposed of under any external pressure or dictation.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 9, Chapter II: Government System
Seventh - People's right to participation in Public Affairs
Citizens, men and women alike, have the right to participate in public affairs and political rights including suffrage and the right to contest as prescribed by law.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
Pregnancy/maternity
Page 7, Sixth - Family as the basis of society
Based on the firm belief that family is the nucleus of the society and that good family is key to a cohesive society as well as key to upholding religious and ethical values and national sense of belonging, the state protects the legal form of family as well as maternity and childhood, provides care to children, protects them from exploitation and moral, physical and spiritual negligence. In particular, the state pays special attention to physical, moral and mental development of youth. In this respect, the state ensures necessary social security for citizens in cases of aging, invalidity, orphanage, widowing and unemployment. The state also secures social insurance services for citizens in such cases. The state secures health care and puts in place health policies that are conducive to achieving the objective of health for all. The state ensures the solidarity of the society in sharing burdens arising from natural calamities and disasters, compensation of those who may be injured due to war or on account of military duty. The state endeavors to support women's rights and the enactment of laws on protection of family and family members.
Other
Page 7, Sixth - Family as the basis of society
Based on the firm belief that family is the nucleus of the society and that good family is key to a cohesive society as well as key to upholding religious and ethical values and national sense of belonging, the state protects the legal form of family as well as maternity and childhood, provides care to children, protects them from exploitation and moral, physical and spiritual negligence. In particular, the state pays special attention to physical, moral and mental development of youth. In this respect, the state ensures necessary social security for citizens in cases of aging, invalidity, orphanage, widowing and unemployment. The state also secures social insurance services for citizens in such cases. The state secures health care and puts in place health policies that are conducive to achieving the objective of health for all. The state ensures the solidarity of the society in sharing burdens arising from natural calamities and disasters, compensation of those who may be injured due to war or on account of military duty. The state endeavors to support women's rights and the enactment of laws on protection of family and family members.
International law
Other
Page 7, Sixth - Family as the basis of society
Based on the firm belief that family is the nucleus of the society and that good family is key to a cohesive society as well as key to upholding religious and ethical values and national sense of belonging, the state protects the legal form of family as well as maternity and childhood, provides care to children, protects them from exploitation and moral, physical and spiritual negligence. In particular, the state pays special attention to physical, moral and mental development of youth. In this respect, the state ensures necessary social security for citizens in cases of aging, invalidity, orphanage, widowing and unemployment. The state also secures social insurance services for citizens in such cases. The state secures health care and puts in place health policies that are conducive to achieving the objective of health for all. The state ensures the solidarity of the society in sharing burdens arising from natural calamities and disasters, compensation of those who may be injured due to war or on account of military duty. The state endeavors to support women's rights and the enactment of laws on protection of family and family members.

Page 13-14, Chapter VII: Foreign Relations
... It is noted that since it joined the United Nations, Bahrain has contributed to all UN activities, resolutions, events, agreements and conventions, particularly those related to human rights, civil, political and socioeconomic rights, women's rights as well as the work of UN specialized agencies. In the realm of international economic and trade relations, the considered policy of the state of Bahrain stands for free international trade, movement of investment, capital and labour while taking into account national interests of individual countries. In so believing, the state of Bahrain maintains that each country enjoys the better title over its own natural resources that cannot be disposed of under any external pressure or dictation.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
Page 2, We shall remain hand in hand and united over the course of this process and I hereby stretch my hand to every single Bahraini, men and women, as it showed the pledge of allegiance and it will show a new formula of allegiance. The new formula and the national modernization shall be the features of our best days to come.

The University of Edinburgh