The agreements relate to three different conflict contexts. Israel-Syria and Syria-Lebanon. The Syrian-Israeli conflict was a key factor for the Syrian intervention during the Lebanese Civil War, with Syrian-backed Palestinian Liberation Army units intervened in 1976 against the Palestinian/Leftist militias. Following a massacre at Tel al-Zaatar that year, Syria was forced to accept a ceasefire at a meeting of the Arab League. However, the Arab League also mandated an Arab Deterrence Force, consisting of mostly Syrian soldiers with token contributions from other Arab League states, thus further legitimizing the Syrian presence in Lebanon. During a second bout of fighting that began in 1989, caused by the formation of rival Lebanese regimes in East and West Beirut, the Syrian-backed regime won and in 1991 the ‘Treaty of Brotherhood, Cooperation and Coordination’ was signed to legalize the Syrian occupation as a means to ensure the security of Syria. Syrian forces were forced to withdraw in 2005 following possible involvement in the assassination of Lebanon’s President Hariri.
Syria-internal. In 2011, domestic upheaval following a wave of protests across the Arab World soon led to violent repression of protestors by Syrian government troops. The violence progressed steadily and by July 2011 the Free Syrian Army (FSA) was formed consisting of defected military units and new recruits. The FSA and rebel umbrella group known as the Syrian National Council represented the first attempt at coordinating rebel factions in late 2011. However, a steady influx of foreign fighters and increased sectarianism radicalised opposition groups, which relied on foreign funding. The nature of the conflict changed drastically in late 2013 as infighting among the opposition groups increased. One of the more significant developments was the split between the al-Qaeda outfits the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, ISIS), and Jabhat al-Nusra in early 2014 in addition to the intensified targeting of other rebel factions by ISIS fighters in particular, including the Kurdish Peshmerga, the FSA and other jihadist outfits. Since the summer of 2014, the conflict was further internationalized when ISIS announced the formation of an Islamic state eroding the state line between Iraq and Syria and also in mid-2015 when Russian forces intervened on behalf of the Bashar al-Assad government in Damascus.
Syrian Armed Forces/Hezbollah and Syrian rebel factions fighting under the banner of Jaysh al-Fatah
Short truce 'hudna' agreement between the Syrian Armed Forces/Hezbollah and Syrian rebel factions fighting under the banner of Jaysh al-Fatah allowing for the civilian evacuation Kefriyya and al-Fu’aa near Idlib. In return rebel fighters would leave Al-Zabadani and surrender medium and heavy arms to the regime. The regime would also release 500 rebel fighters.
... 6. Those desiring to evacuate among women and children under the age of 18 and men over the age of 50 from al-Fuʿaa and Kifrayā cannot number more than 10,000 Syrian citizens.
... 8. Pledge and commit to release 500 detainees from state prisons after the completion of the first phase. In the second phase, discussions [will] begin to break this number down to 325 women, 25 juveniles, and 150 men arrested before the 1 July 2015 [to undertaken] without adherence to specific names or areas.
... 20. After withdrawal of the total number who will leave al-Fuʿaa and Kifrayā (women, children, elderly and the wounded), and al-Zabadānī (wounded, weapons bearers and families), the batch of people from the two areas will determined in proportion to the specified numbers. Mūrak point will be the exchange point in both directions.
Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
Page 1, 6. Those desiring to evacuate among women, children under the age of 18 and men over the age of 50 from al-Fu’aa and Kafriyya cannot number more than 100,000 Syrian citizens.
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