Code of Conduct for political parties and candidates

Country/entity
Myanmar
Region
Asia and Pacific
Agreement name
Code of Conduct for political parties and candidates
Date
26/06/2015
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Myanmar Conflict (1948 - )
Internal conflict, mostly along ethno-political fault lines, has been a constant feature of Myanmar since its independence in 1948. The conflict has two distinct dynamics. First a struggle between an authoritarian government and a pro-democracy opposition which has the characteristics of authoritarian conflicts; and second a stuggle between the government and ethnic armed groups which has the characteristics of an identity conflict. The two oldest and strongest militias fighting the government are the Karen National Union (KNU), which has remained active since the late 1940s, and the Kachin Independence Organisation, which was formed in the early 1960s. In total, here are more than a dozen mostly ethnic-based guerrilla groups active throughout the country. Especially in the period of junta dictatorship that lasted until 2011 the government attempted to crush the rebellions, which led to numerous human rights violations. With the start of democratic reforms in the aftermath of the 2010 elections, peace negotiations have taken place and resulted in the signing of various agreements, although conflicts remain active.

Myanmar Conflict (1948 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
87: Myanmar ceasefires process with ethnic armed groups
Parties
Drafted by the ad hoc Working Committee (FDA, NBF, NLD, NUP, UNA, USDP). Consulted and accepted by all political parties.
Third parties
Description
Agreement between political parties designed to maintain a level of ethnical behaviour and prevent the stoking of further conflict. Includes disavowing the use of media for libel or targeting of personalities and parties on personal grounds; a greater participation of women; equality and neutrality of religious groups, and cooperation with electoral bodies.

Agreement document
MM_141021_Code of Conduct for Political Parties and Candidates_EnMM g.pdf

Main category
Page 13, 4. To Campaign on party policies and promote diversity
4.1. To not slander other Parties during the campaign.
the Parties shall refrain from incorrectly criticizing leaders, candidates and supporters of other Parties on the basis of aspects of their private lives. They will also refrain from making criticism based on unverified allegation or facts that have been distorted, and from insulting or making tendentious innuendos about the candidates or their family member based on race, religion, creed, gender, social or regional origin, education or any other similar reason. Polite and respectful language should be used in speeches and announcements.

Page 17, Page 9, 4.3. ... 3. An election campaign should not be implemented in a manner that encourages hatred between any religion, tribe, group, gender, language or community.

Page 29, 7. Gender and differently abled people
1. the parties shall strive, during all stages of the electoral process, to provide equal opportunities and criteria for the greater participation of women, youth and the elderly, and to make as much effort as possible to encourage and facilitate participation of marginalised, poor and low-income sectors of society. The time of campaigning should be arranged so as to enable women working in households to be easily able to participate.
2. The Parties shall not incite or encourage any person to commit gender-based violence. Campaigning for the election should be gender friendly and sensitive towards differently abled peopled.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 15, 7. Gender and differently abled people
1. ... The time of campaigning should be arranged so as to enable women working in households to be easily able to participate.
Equality
Equality (general)
Page 7, 4. To Campaign on party policies and promote diversity
4.1. To not slander other Parties during the campaign.
the Parties shall refrain from incorrectly criticizing leaders, candidates and supporters of other Parties on the basis of aspects of their private lives. They will also refrain from making criticism based on unverified allegation or facts that have been distorted, and from insulting or making tendentious innuendos about the candidates or their family member based on race, religion, creed, gender, social or regional origin, education or any other similar reason. Polite and respectful language should be used in speeches and announcements.
Other
Page 15, 7. Gender and differently abled people
1. the parties shall strive, during all stages of the electoral process, to provide equal opportunities and criteria for the greater participation of women, youth and the elderly, and to make as much effort as possible to encourage and facilitate participation of marginalised, poor and low-income sectors of society.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Gender-based violence/VAW (general)
Page 15, 7. Gender and differently abled people
... 2. The Parties shall not incite or encourage any person to commit gender-based violence. Campaigning for the election should be gender friendly and sensitive towards differently abled peopled.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh