The Framework for Political Dialogue

Country/entity
Myanmar
Region
Asia and Pacific
Agreement name
The Framework for Political Dialogue
Date
15/10/2015
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Myanmar Conflict (1948 - )
Internal conflict, mostly along ethno-political fault lines, has been a constant feature of Myanmar since its independence in 1948. The conflict has two distinct dynamics. First a struggle between an authoritarian government and a pro-democracy opposition which has the characteristics of authoritarian conflicts; and second a stuggle between the government and ethnic armed groups which has the characteristics of an identity conflict. The two oldest and strongest militias fighting the government are the Karen National Union (KNU), which has remained active since the late 1940s, and the Kachin Independence Organisation, which was formed in the early 1960s. In total, here are more than a dozen mostly ethnic-based guerrilla groups active throughout the country. Especially in the period of junta dictatorship that lasted until 2011 the government attempted to crush the rebellions, which led to numerous human rights violations. With the start of democratic reforms in the aftermath of the 2010 elections, peace negotiations have taken place and resulted in the signing of various agreements, although conflicts remain active.

Myanmar Conflict (1948 - ) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Process)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
87: Myanmar ceasefires process with ethnic armed groups
Parties
Tatmadaw, Government, Armed Ethnic Organizations, Civil Society and stakeholders.
Third parties
Description
This Agreement - which remains subject to amendment, lays out the provisions for a national dialogue which will create the clauses that will eventually become the Pyidaungsu Accord.

Agreement document
MM-151015_The Framework for Political Dialogue - ENG (draft).pdf

Main category
Page 2, Chapter 2, Basic Principles
2. The basic principles for all stages of political dialogue based on this Framework for Political Dialogue are:
... d. Guarantee equal rights to all citizens who live within the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, and ensure that no citizen shall be discriminated against on the basis of ethnicity, religion, culture, or gender.
... j. Strive to achieve 30 percent women’s participation in political dialogue.

Page 4, Chapter 4, 4.2. Union Peace Conference
Based on the aims and objectives, and basic principles of the Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement and the Framework for Political Dialogue, the Union Peace Conference shall held as follows:
... 4.2.2. The selection process of the representatives shall strive to achieve 30 percent women’s participation.

Page 6, Chapter 5
Topics To Be Discussed In Political Dialogue
5. ... The topics are:
... b. Social
... 4. Matters relating to human rights, gender equality, and humanitarian issues.


Page 8, Chapter 7 Organization of Political Dialogue
... 10. Topics-based Working Committees
... 10.2. Efforts shall be made to achieve 30 percent women’s participation in the Working Committees.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Gender quotas
Page 2, Chapter 2 Basic Principles
2. The basic principles for all stages of political dialogue based on this Framework for Political Dialogue are:
... j. Strive to achieve 30 percent women’s participation in political dialogue.

Page 4, Chapter 4, Holding Of National Political Dialogue and Union Peace Conference, 2. Union Peace Conference
Based on the aims and objectives, and basic principles of the Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement and the Framework for Political Dialogue, the Union Peace Conference shall be held as follows:
... 4.2.2 The selection process of the representatives shall strive to achieve 30 percent women’s participation.

Page 7-8, Chapter 7, Organization of Political Dialogue
... 10. Topics-based Working Committees,
... 2. Efforts shall be made to achieve 30 percent women’s participation in the Working Committees.
Effective participation
Page 7-8, Chapter 7, Organization of Political Dialogue
... 10. Topics-based Working Committees,
1. Working Committees shall be formed with equal numbers of representatives of the groups that are participating in the Union Peace Conference. ...
Equality
Equality (general)
Page 2, Chapter 2 Basic Principles

2. The basic principles for all stages of political dialogue based on this Framework for Political Dialogue are:
... d. Guarantee equal rights to all citizens who live within the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, and ensure that no citizen shall be discriminated against on the basis of ethnicity, religion, culture, or gender.

Page 5, Chapter 5, Topics To Be Discussed In Political Dialogue,

5. ... The topics are:
... 4. Matters relating to human rights, gender equality, and humanitarian issues.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
General IHRL, IHL and IL
Page 2, Chapter 2, Basic Principles
2. The basic principles for all stages of political dialogue based on this Framework for Political Dialogue are:
... d. Guarantee equal rights to all citizens who live within the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, and ensure that no citizen shall be discriminated against on the basis of ethnicity, religion, culture, or gender.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh