Homs Hudna Agreement

Country/entity
Syria
Region
Middle East and North Africa
Agreement name
Homs Hudna Agreement
Date
07/02/2014
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/local conflict (Syrian Conflicts (1948 - ) (1976 - 2005) (2011 - )
The agreements relate to three different conflict contexts. Israel-Syria and Syria-Lebanon. The Syrian-Israeli conflict was a key factor for the Syrian intervention during the Lebanese Civil War, with Syrian-backed Palestinian Liberation Army units intervened in 1976 against the Palestinian/Leftist militias. Following a massacre at Tel al-Zaatar that year, Syria was forced to accept a ceasefire at a meeting of the Arab League. However, the Arab League also mandated an Arab Deterrence Force, consisting of mostly Syrian soldiers with token contributions from other Arab League states, thus further legitimizing the Syrian presence in Lebanon. During a second bout of fighting that began in 1989, caused by the formation of rival Lebanese regimes in East and West Beirut, the Syrian-backed regime won and in 1991 the ‘Treaty of Brotherhood, Cooperation and Coordination’ was signed to legalize the Syrian occupation as a means to ensure the security of Syria. Syrian forces were forced to withdraw in 2005 following possible involvement in the assassination of Lebanon’s President Hariri.

Syria-internal. In 2011, domestic upheaval following a wave of protests across the Arab World soon led to violent repression of protestors by Syrian government troops. The violence progressed steadily and by July 2011 the Free Syrian Army (FSA) was formed consisting of defected military units and new recruits. The FSA and rebel umbrella group known as the Syrian National Council represented the first attempt at coordinating rebel factions in late 2011. However, a steady influx of foreign fighters and increased sectarianism radicalised opposition groups, which relied on foreign funding. The nature of the conflict changed drastically in late 2013 as infighting among the opposition groups increased. One of the more significant developments was the split between the al-Qaeda outfits the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, ISIS), and Jabhat al-Nusra in early 2014 in addition to the intensified targeting of other rebel factions by ISIS fighters in particular, including the Kurdish Peshmerga, the FSA and other jihadist outfits. Since the summer of 2014, the conflict was further internationalized when ISIS announced the formation of an Islamic state eroding the state line between Iraq and Syria and also in mid-2015 when Russian forces intervened on behalf of the Bashar al-Assad government in Damascus.

Syrian Conflicts (1948 - ) (1976 - 2005) (2011 - ) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Related)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
174: Intra-Syrian Process (state/non-state)
Parties
Syrian Government;
Local representatives;
Third parties
UN, Syrian Red Crescent, International Committee of the Red Cross.
Description
Humanitarian agreement allowing for the evacuation of civilians from the old neighbourhoods of Homs brokered by the UN and with implementation support from the Syrian Red Crescent. Men between the ages of 15-55 are vetted by Syrian government before release. Wounded are transported to hospitals by the Syrian Government in conjuction with the Red Crescent.

Agreement document
SY_140207_Homs agreement mediated by the UN.pdf

Agreement document (original language)
SY_140207_Homs Agreement Mediated by the UN_AR.pdf

Main category
Page 1, 1. Our readiness to provide you with the required support to contribute with us in vacating the civilians (children, women, elderly people) as soon as possible. In this regard, we define women as female in general; as for children, they are all whom do not exceed 15 years in age; the elderly are those who are 60 or above.

Page 1, ... 2. The first step should be evacuating the first batch of the civilians to the closest convenient place in the Old City with the participation and attendance of the United Nation representatives and the International Committee of the Red Cross, preferably. In addition to that, teamwork from our side consists of social and medical commission, representatives of the Syrian Red Crescent and civil police, with female police agents in attendance.
The evacuated civilians will then be medically assisted and checked, accordingly with your collaboration. After that they will be given the choice to move into the refugee centre that was already equipped in a suitable place close to the Old City in the presence and knowledge of your representatives. This way their situation will be similar to other Syrians in the displaced centres where they can be supervised by the Ministry of Social Affairs, the organizations and the Red Crescent.
Alternatively they can go to any place of their own choice, including the Waar neighbourhood in the city of Homs.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
Refugee/displaced women
r
Page 1, 1. Our readiness to provide you with the required support to contribute with us in vacating the civilians (children, women, elderly people) as soon as possible. In this regard, we define women as female in general; as for children, they are all whom do not exceed 15 years in age; the elderly are those who are 60 or above.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Other
r
Page 1, 1. Our readiness to provide you with the required support to contribute with us in vacating the civilians (children, women, elderly people) as soon as possible. In this regard, we define women as female in general; as for children, they are all whom do not exceed 15 years in age; the elderly are those who are 60 or above.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
Women's role and consideration in implementation of the agreement
Page 1, ... 2. The first step should be evacuating the first batch of the civilians to the closest convenient place in the Old City with the participation and attendance of the United Nation representatives and the International Committee of the Red Cross, preferably. In addition to that, teamwork from our side consists of social and medical commission, representatives of the Syrian Red Crescent and civil police, with female police agents in attendance.
The evacuated civilians will then be medically assisted and checked, accordingly with your collaboration. After that they will be given the choice to move into the refugee centre that was already equipped in a suitable place close to the Old City in the presence and knowledge of your representatives. This way their situation will be similar to other Syrians in the displaced centres where they can be supervised by the Ministry of Social Affairs, the organizations and the Red Crescent.
Alternatively they can go to any place of their own choice, including the Waar neighbourhood in the city of Homs.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh