Since 1960 when Nigeria became independent, it has seen a number of coup d’etats and instability. In 1967, after confederation plans for the Nigerian regions to gain more independence failed, the Eastern region seceded as the Republic of Biafra and this caused the Nigerian Civil War. The conflict resulted from political, economic, ethnic and religious tensions which had existed since before Britain drew new borders when colonising the area. The discovery of oil in the Niger Delta heightened the intensity of the conflict. With the aid of British forces, the Nigerian military managed to take back the territory in 1970. Since then, ethnic violence has persisted.
Nigerian Delta Unrest (1990 - )
Conflict in the Niger Delta arose in the 1990s between foreign oil companies and ethnic groups which felt exploited after being forced to abandon their land. The Nigerian military caused international consternation in 1995 when members of the Ogoni tribe of the Niger Delta were found hanged without due process. The proliferation of arms in the region has encouraged the rise of armed groups which have targeted oil companies and pipelines. This came to a head in 2004 when Shell withdrew personnel from two oil fields in response to attacks on wells and pipelines by rebels. The military have attempted to clamp down on militant groups in the Niger Delta but it was not until the establishment of the Presidential amnesty program in 2009 which required the surrender of weapons by militants in exchange for amnesty. In 2016 a new militant group called the Niger Delta Avengers has announced its existence in the Niger Delta illustrating the continued instability in that region.
Boko Haram Insurgency (2009 - )
Sectarian violence has also been rife in Nigeria and since 2002, the radical Islamist group Boko Haram have been violently seeking to establish sharia law throughout Nigeria and an Islamic caliphate in the Northern part of the country. In 2009 they began an official insurgency which spread to Cameroon, Chad and Niger. In 2014 the group kidnapped 276 girls from a college in Chibok and bombed the town of Jos. The insurgency is the result of Muslim – Christian tensions in the country which is a constant source of instability and violence. In 2015 the military led a regional coalition of forces on a counter-offensive against Boko Haram and they were successful in taking ground. There are also conflicts between Fulani herdsmen and Christian peasants in the Middle belt. Widespread corruption and lack of state authority exacerbate these many complex tensions.
Central Nigerian communal conflicts (1978 - )
Unrest in Nigeria is a product of socio-economic pressures between migrating herdsmen and settled agriculturists, exacerbated by firearms proliferation, ethnic conflict, sectarianism and banditry. Since 2001, attacks have adopted a more sectarian character involving suicide bombings and shooting at churches by the jihadist group, Boko Haram. Peaks of violence occurred in 2004 and 2011, patoral/farmer conflict has resulted in the deaths of thousands since the Fourth Nigerian Republic was founded in 1999. The Land Use Act of 1978, exacerbated conflict by allowing longtime occupants 'indigeneship' and the ability to apply for a certificate of occupancy, putting migrating communities at a disadvantage.
Nigerian Civil War (1967), Delta Unrest (1990 - ), Communal Conflicts (1978 - ), and Boko Haram Insurgency (2009 - )
Framework/substantive - comprehensive (Agreement)
136: Nigeria - Plateau State Process
Signatories, Chairpersons of the Steering Committees, Signing on Behalf of their Communities:
Afizere: Agwom Nyam Isha [Signed]
Anaguta: Aminu Agwom Zang, signed on his behalf by Shina Musa Agada [Signed]
Berom: Da (Dr.) Jonah Maduga, signed on his behalf by Mr. Sam Godongs [Signed]
Fulani: Salihu Musa Umar [Signed]
Hausa: Alhaji Umaru Sani [Signed]
Igbo: Barr. Zacch O. Nwankpa [Signed]
South-South: Barr. Smart Irabor [Signed]
Yoruba: Chief Barr. Bankole Falade [Signed]
Women: Dr. Sumaye Hamza [Signed]
Representative of the Federal Government, Ambassador Layiwola Laseinde [Signed]
Representative of the State Government, Hon. Isa Chungwom Song, Special Advisor Legislative Liason [signed]
Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue
HD Senior Advisor: David Lambo, [Signed]
HD Gender Advisor, Alice Nderitu, [Signed]
HD Senior Consultant, Dr. Phil Ostien, [Signed]
HD Local Advisor, Prof. John Dung-Gwom, [Signed]
HD Local Advisor, Khadijah Hawaja, [Signed]
HD Local Advisor, Baba Bala Muhammad, [Signed]
HD Local Advisor, Yakuba Sankey, [Signed]
Communal peace agreement between the communities in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria attempting to decrease incidents of violence between Hausa and Fulani and other groups. Agreement mediated by HD Centre and contains a list of eight recommendations that are expanded in the Annexes (but these are not attatched). Recommendations touch on; Trust Building and Religious Tolerance; places of worship, burial grounds and youth; governance issues, access to public spaces; traditional rulership; land reform, IDPs and cattle rustling; settlers and migration issues in Jos City; Impunity and transitional justice as well as security of life and property.
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