Acuerdo de la Puerta del Cielo

Country/entity
Colombia
Region
Americas
Agreement name
Acuerdo de la Puerta del Cielo
Date
15/07/1998
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Colombian Conflict (1964 - )
The Colombian conflict is really a set of conflicts and the peace agreements reflect both different processes relating to different conflict groups and dyads, and processes taking place at different times in a complex peace process history. The Colombian civil war has its roots in the late 1940s and the violent infighting between liberal and the conservative factions. Emerging from the liberal tradition with a thorough grounding in nationalist communist ideology, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People's Army (FARC) began its armed insurrection against the Colombian government in 1964. Other left-wing guerrillas emerged as well, most notably the socialist/populist M-19, which would later be integrated into the formal political system in the peace process of 1990s; the National Liberation Army (ELN), which has strong roots in liberation theology, and the Maoist Ejército Popular de Liberación (EPL) (also part of the 1990 process, less successfully). Several stages of peace processes were undertaken by the various sides, which were further complicated by the emergence of right-wing paramilitary ‘self-defence’ forces. The peace agreement between the Colombian government under President Uribe and the main alliance of the paramilitary groups, the United Self-Defence Forces of Colombia (AUC), concluded in 2005 and is still heavily disputed as several remnants are still active, but now subsumed under the heading ‘Bacrim’ (Bandas criminales). In addition, FARC and ELN maintain a military presence, but both demonstrate a strong interest in completing successful peace negotiations with the government, with the most recent agreements being between FARC and the Government.

Colombian Conflict (1964 - ) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Mixed)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
107: Colombia II - Samper
Parties
Presented in the preamble as an agremement of:
civil society that is represented here, the National Liberation Army (Ejército de Liberación Nacional, ELN) and the National Peace Committee,

This agreement is signed by the following people on 15 July in Würzburg, Germany.

Aída Abello, Gustavo Alvarez Gardeazábal, Hernando Angarita Figueredo, Pablo Beltrán, Ana Teresa Bernal, Jaime Bernal Cuéllar, Nélson Berrio, Jaime Alberto Cabal, Jaime Caicedo, César Carrillo, Monsignor Luis Augusto Castro, José Fernando Castro, Luis Eduardo Garzón, Carlos Gaviria, Ana
Mercedes Gómez, Mario Gómez, Camilo González Posso, Milton Hernández, Hernando Hernández, Gabriel Izquierdo, Father Jorge Martínez, Eugnio Marulanda, Alfredo Molano, Víctor Moncayo, Samuel Moreno, Antonio Picón, Sabas Pretelt de la Vega, Javier Darío Restrepo, José Noé Rios, Maria Isabel Rueda, Carlos Alberto Ruiz, Fransisco Santos, Juan Manuel Santos, Eduardo Umaña Luna, León Valencia, Alejo Vargas, Juán Vásquez, Luis Carlos Villegas, Jorge Visbal
Third parties
Presented in preamble as an agreement 'facilitated' by: Episcopalian Conference of Germany and Colombia'
Description
This agreement establishes an inclusive process for national dialogue and calls on the parties to respect humanitarian law and protect human rights. It also calls for human rights investigation of past crimes.

They agree to start the peace process with the ELN. The document is about the participation of civil society and the potential inclusion of the FARC in the peace process; it is reaffirming the rights and duties towards civilians and prisoners of war within the context of the war, it addresses the need to talk about access to natural resources; it calls for, defines and sets principles and rules of a national convention and its objectives with the ultimate goal of peace and social justice, greater democracy and consolidated sovereignty.

Source: En ausencia de un proceso de paz: Acuerdos Parciales y Mandato Ciudadano por la Paz, Biblioteca de la Paz – 1994-1998, Fundación Cultura Democrática, Ed. Álvaro Villarraga Sarmiento, Bogotá D.C., 2009 (book IV) p. 275

Agreement document
CO_980715_Acuerdo De La Puerta Del Cielo - tr.pdf

Agreement document (original language)
CO_980715_Acuerdo De La Puerta Del Cielo.pdf

Main category
Page 2, Article 10,
ELN undertakes to stop detaining people or depriving them of liberty for financial gain insofar as the sufficient availability of resources for ELN is resolved by other means, provided that, until conclusion of the peace process with the organisation, it does not result in its strategical weakening. Furthermore, from today, it will cease to detain minors and elderly people over 65, and under no circumstances will pregnant women be deprived of liberty.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
Pregnancy/maternity
Page 2, Article 10,
ELN undertakes to stop detaining people or depriving them of liberty for financial gain insofar as the sufficient availability of resources for ELN is resolved by other means, provided that, until conclusion of the peace process with the organisation, it does not result in its strategical weakening. Furthermore, from today, it will cease to detain minors and elderly people over 65, and under no circumstances will pregnant women be deprived of liberty.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh