Humanitarian Appeal for Benghazi

Middle East and North Africa
Agreement name
Humanitarian Appeal for Benghazi
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/local conflict (Libyan Conflicts (1969 - 1994) (2011 - )
Agreements relate to two distinct conflict dyads.
Libya-Chad. Since the 1970s, Libya under Colonel Muammar Gaddafi had a tense relationship with its neighbour Chad, predominantly focused on the resource-rich Aouzou Strip in northern Chad. Libyan claims of the Aouzou Strip were held in an un-ratified treaty between France and Italy in 1935, similarly Chadian claims of the Strip were argued with support of a 1955 treaty between Libya and France. In 1973, Libya effectively annexed the Strip to gain access to natural resources. This spurred cross-border clashes between 1979 until 1987 until escalated to a brief war known as the Toyota War, wherein Chadian government troops succeeded in repelling Libyan forces. A brief and repeatedly violated ceasefire was held from 1987-88, followed by a series of unsuccessful negotiations, until an International Court of Justice ruling in 1994, which granted sovereignty of the Strip to Chad.

Libya post-Gaddafi. Gaddafi’s downfall following the Libyan Civil War in 2011-2012, led to several factions fighting for the country’s leadership. Since 2013, the country effectively split into three entities, with the National Army controlling the east including the city of Benghazi, and the New General National Congress and their militias such as the Golden Dawn controlling the northwest including the capital of Tripoli. Significant portions of the country in the south-west are currently held by Tuareg forces. The civil war and chaos continued into 2014 as the General National Congress refused to disband after the expiry of its mandate, resulting in eruption of mass protests. The UN efforts continue to broker peace between the Libyan Army and the Libya Dawn factions, and a partial ceasefire was declared in January 2015. A new interim-government (Tunisia-based) called ‘Government of National Accord’ is formed with the backing of UN despite the refusal of the other forces to recognise its authority and arrived to Tripoli with the UN in 2016. A state of emergency was declared by the UN backed government amid clashed between rival militia in Tripoli’s southern suburbs. Since April 2019 there has been sustained fighting between the Libyan National Army and the UN-backed government in Tripoli as the Libyan National Army aims to seize Tripoli.

Libyan Conflicts (1969 - 1994) (2011 - ) )
Pre-negotiation/process (Other: Agreement on humanitarian principles)
Conflict nature
Peace process
72: Libyan local processes
Halimah Abdelmatloub; Sherif Abuzakouk; Aisha Agouryl Abdalla Aguilah; Naeima Aissa; Nuri Al Abbar; Khaled Al Agily; Soliman Mahmud Al Bassi; Awad Ibrahim Al Brassi; Morad Al Honi; Abdeljalil Al Rhamouk; Ziad Ballam; Jamal Belnour; Abdulmenem Ben Dardf; Abubakr Buera; Amel Bugaguis; Eman Bugaguis; Fawzi Bukatef; Mohamed Bukheyt; Lamia Busedra; Ahmed Busneinah; Muhammed Faraj Doghaim; Aminah Drsy; Attiyah Edreinah; Mansour El Ammary; Fathallah El Barani; Salem El Barani; Abdulsalam Mohammed El Basyouni; Nisreenn El Bishari; Nouh Isbak El Fakhry; Issam El Fallah; Omelez El Farsi; Abdelsalam El Farsi; Anwar El Feitori; Mohamed El Ferjani; Ahmed El Gasir; Aminah El Gehani; Munem Mohammad El Gumati; Abdel Hamid El Khodar; Wanis El Mabrook; Emhamed El Magherby; Sheib El Majbari; Hussam El Majri; Abdulmenem Hassan El Manfi; Fadelallah El Mehdi; Khalil El Mismary; Moeimen El Obeidi; Giumma El Omami; Muftah Issa El Qatrani; Labib El Ramli; Mohamed El Senoussi; Jalah El Shweihdi; Marwan El Tashani; Mohamed El Taynaz; Ammani El Zwei; Mona Esswed; Abdelgader Gadoura; Allam Hassan; Abir Imneinah; Jamila Issaoui; Naeima Jebril; Mehdi Kashbur; Tarek Khalil Lamloum; Salem Lengui; Halima Magharby; Idriss Mismary; Esam Omeish; Mohamed Omeish; Tarek Awad Orfi; Abdulhafid Muftah Rajab; Nassralah Saadi; Merei Salem; Ali Sallabi; Issam Tajoury; Muhammad Ammari Zaid; Fawzi Zairi.
Third parties
A Pre-pre-negotiation document establishing a common position among Civil Society Organisations in Benghazi, highlighting the importance of adhering to International Law, acquiring humanitarian aid for those in need, urging the importance of the right of return for Internally Displaced Persons; and working within the confines of Islam, among other matters.

Agreement document
LY_160316_Humanitarian Appeal for Benghazi.pdf []

Main category
Page 1, 1. We, the sons and daughters of Benghazi, protectors of the nation and its unity, coming from diverse backgrounds and sharing the common goal of saving our city and its population, unite behind this Humanitarian Appeal. We solemnly adopt this Appeal and:

Page 1, 2) record that:
• over half the population of Benghazi are in urgent need of humanitarian assistance, especially women, children, and people with special needs;

Women, girls and gender

No specific mention.
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Page 1, 2) record that:
• over half the population of Benghazi are in urgent need of humanitarian assistance, especially women, children, and people with special needs;
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
No specific mention.
No specific mention.
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh